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1 2 3 










'^e Qlnnals of tf)e Boi^ages o! 
tlie iStotlier? 

Ditolo ant) Sntonio !Z^eno 

m t{)e Jtortf) Atlantic atiout tbe enti 

of ttjt fomttmtl^ Century 


ti)e Claim fountieti tfjereon to a 

Benettan Bt0cot)er|) of 


^ QL Crttittsm anu an 3lnl)titment ^ 

Bp jTrett. m. apneas 

9ut|)OC of " apptnlif tulae ^faroctiBc " anb part 

(E&lioc of "^t)c J^eto lotod oC 

t|ir 3lntiitd " 

^HusttateD b^ Sacnimilts 


Henry Ste\'ens Son and Stiles 39 Great Russell Street 

Md Ccc Lxxxx Vui 


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IHE Zeno story has been the siibjcd of so much 
discussion and speculation, embodied in the 
writings of so many authors, that some expla- 
nation of the reasons for adding yet another 
criticism upon it may reasonably be looked 
for. It is hardly too much to say that no 
other story of travel ever published has given 
rise to such an amount of doubt, perplexity, 
and misunderstanding extending over so long 
a period. Published anonymously in Venice, 
in 1558, the story purported to have been compiled from ancient 
papers belonging to the distinguished Venetian family of Zeno, and to 
describe the voyages in the North Atlantic of two members of that 
family, the brothers Nicolo Zeno and Antonio Zeno, at the end of 
the fourteenth century. From internal evidence, it appears that the 
compiler was also a member of the same family, and it is now 
generally admitted that he was one Nicolo Zeno, a man of some mark, 
who was born in 15 15, and died in 1565. Both the narrative and 
the map of the North Atlantic which purports to illustrate and explain 
it, were at first accepted as genuine j but doubts as to their truthful 
charadler quickly arose ; and, from that day to this, discussion and 
speculation have been rife among the historians of geography as to 
their proper interpre ition. 

The following work is the outcome of a friendly difference of opinion 
discussed between Mr. C. H. Coote, of the British Museum, and 
myself, some six years ago, as to the oft-debated identity of the Island 
of " Frisland " of the Zeno story. The result was the discovery of a 
common ground of agreement between us upon one point: — viz., that 



this question, and others prising out of the genesis of the younger Zeno's 
book and map, had never been satisfadlorily answered, and that further 
investigation and reconsideration of the whole subjedl, froio the point 
of view of the student of the geographical discoveries and or the 
cartography of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, was desirable. 
Mr. Coote then suggested that we should examine the subjedl afresh 
and write upon it in collaboration. It soon became apparent, however, 
that the pressure of exceptionally urgent public duties and other un- 
avoidable circumstances would render it impossible for Mr. Coote to 
give the time necessary for doing his share ot the work. It has there- 
fore fallen to me to collect and arrange the materials for and to wi te 
th^: book ; but I have had the inestimable advantage of Mr. Coote's 
sympathy and of the valuable advice and assistance which his com- 
manding knowledge of cartography has enabled him to give me during 
the progress of the work. 

The late Mr. R. H. Major edited, for the Hakluyt Society, in 
1873, a well-known book which, until recently, has been regarded 
as the greatest authority in the English language upon the subjeft of the 
reputed travels of the brothers Zeni. Since that date, several important 
ancient maps of the Northern Regions (said to have been visited by the 
Zeni) have come to light : — for example, the long-lost Olaus Magnus 
Carta Marina of 1539, discovered at Munich in 1886, which proves 
Major's scepticism as to its adual existence, in any form differing from 
that of the well-known map of 1567, to have been utterly mistaken; 
and the Zamoiski map of 1467, the appearance of which confirms 
Admiral Zarhtmann's statement that he had seen a manuscript map 
evidently, from his description, of a similar character, and renders 
Major's opinions upon these cartographical questions no longer of value. 
Many other writers, English, Danish, Swedish, German, French, 
Italian, and American, have also written since 1873 upon the alleged 
travels of the Zeni. Most of these writers have taken Major's view, 
and have contended for the authenticity of the younger Zeno's work 
of 1558. A notable exception is Professor Gustav Storm, who, in a 
paper to be referred to later on, has made a most able and most 
destructive criticism on the Zeno story and map. 

There can be no doubt, too, that, if only on account of the immense 
advantages which photography and its ancillary processes offer for the 
produdlion of accurate and reliable copies of rare or unique maps, the 
modern student possesses facilities for the study of comparative carto- 

Preface, \x 

graphy which were beyond the reach of students of twenty or thirty 
years ago. 

Neither presumption on my part, nor disrespect for the opinions 
of former writers, can be inferred from the faft that the conclusions in 
this book are sometimes directly at variance with those of Major and 
others ; for, though the old ground has been gone over again, and 
new tracks found, this has been done by the aid of new lights. 

The investigation was entered upon with an open mind, and I 
have been led to the definite conclusions arrived at as to the fraudulent 
charafter of the younger Zeno's work, by the impartial consideration of 
the evidence afforded by many books and maps, the titles and dates of 
which have been given fully in every instance, so that readers may 
themselves easily refer to the authorities if disposed to do so. 

I trust that the fadts and arguments have been so presented that 
the conclusions may be generally accepted ; that it may even be hoped 
that the last word has been written on this great and mischievous 
imposture ; and that the Zeno narrative and map may henceforth 
cease to be regarded as relable sources of history and geography. 

The literature and ca-.tography relating, more or less diredlly, to the 
alleged voyages of the brothers Zeni and to the remarkable " Carta da 
Navegar " which illustrated the work of the younger Zeno, are very 
voluminous. Though I have given at the end of this book a list of 
nearly four hundred maps and books bearing upon the subjeA, I am 
aware that that list is by no means exhaustive. 

The supposed pre-Columbian discovery of America by Antonio 
Zeno at the end or the fourteenth century, has long been one of the 
stock stories of nearly all histories of America and of histories of 
Venice and of Venetian literature and commerce. It is, however, to 
be noticed that, of late years, the story has been quietly dropped out 
of Mr. Henry Harrisse's The Discovery of North America and Sir 
Clements R. Markham's Columbus. It survives., however, in the works 
of those who, without investigating the matter for themselves, adopt 
Major's opinion as final and conclusive. Examples of the latter class 
of works are Mr, Charles I. Elton's Cior^^r of Columbus and Mr. John 
Fiske's Discovery of America. Other authors, as, for instance, the 
late Mr. Justin Winsor in his Christopher Columbus^ admit the story, 
but upon a doubtful footing. 

It has been thought well not to be sparing in the matter of the 
reprodudion of maps. It was originally intended to give only the 

X Preface. 

eighteen facsimiles contained in the plates at the end of this volume 
and the numbered figures in the chapter on the "Carta da Navegarj" 
but, as the proofs came in, I was tempted to utilize the blan' spaces 
at the backs of half-titles, it the ends of chapters, etc., to repi oduce in 
facsimile some of the other maps mentioned in the work. 

My sincere thanks are due to many friends for advice and assistance 
of various kinds : amongst others, to Mr. Coote, for perusing my 
manuscripts and for reading and approving the proofs of the whole of 
the text and of Appendices III., IV., and V. j to Cavaliere Caputo, the 
learned Librarian of the Biblioteca Estense, Modena, for his courtesy in 
procuring for me a photograph of a portion of the Cantino map j to 
Mr. Joseph Lucas, for the translation made for me of Professor Storm's 
paper on the travels of the Zeni ; and, last but not least, to Mr. Miller 
Christy, for his permission to reproduce the projedion made for him of 
a portion of the Molineux globe, for his care and patience in reading 
and criticising the proofs of this book, and for his many valuable 
suggestions, of which I have freely availed myself. 

In spite of all care, it can scarcely be hoped that errors have been 
altogether avoided. If such be found, I beg the readers' indulgence. 

Fred. W. Lucas. 


May^ 1898. 





Preface . 

Table of Contents 












The Zeno Book and its Contents (with Translation) 
The Compiler and the Publisher of the Book . 
The Influence of the Zeno Book and Map 
Doubts and Controversy ..... 

The present Status of the Book .... 









The Zeno Family History ' . .59 

The Voyage of Nicolo Zeno, // Cavaliere ; Frislanda, Porlanda, Sorant, Ledovo, 

Ilofe, Sudero, Sanestol, Bondendon 64 

The Voyage of Nicolo Zeno to Shetland, Iceland, and Greenland 

The Story of the Fris'and Fisherman ....... 

Antonio Zeno's Western Voyage to Icaria and the Second Visit to Greenland 

Antonio's third letter, and the Compiler's remarks 

Zichmni ••••........ 

Zeno's " Carta da Navegar "......... 

The Island of Buss and other phantom Islands of the Atlantic . 






Table of Contents [continued). 



Photographic facsimile of the Title, Dedication, Pedigree, Sub-title, Folios 45-58 of the 
original edition of the Commentarii or Annals by Nicolo Zeno, the younger, published by 
Francesco Marcolini in Venice, in '558. Page 161 


Photographic facsimile of the first English version of the voyages of Nicolo and Antonio 
Zeno, from Hakluyt's Divers Voyages, etc., signatures D4 to E. Page 179 

(Being a translation from Ramusio's Version, in Navigationi et fiaggi, vol. ii., second edit., Venice, 1574.) 


Extended version of the Pedigree of the Zeno Family given on the verso of folio 44 of 
the Commentarii of 1558. Page 191 


Table comparing the 1 50 names upon Zeno's " Carta da Navegar " with corresponding 
names on earlier or contemporary maps. Page 195 

Table showing identifications of Zenian localities, by various authors. 

Page 20 I 


Chronological list of the Principal Authorities, Literary and Cartographical, with Index 
thereto. Page 209 


General Index. 

Page 227 

Table of Contents {continued). 


















North- Western portion of the Mappamundo of Fra Mauro, 1457— 14C9. 
(From a tracing by Stanford from Baron Heath's full-sized photograph.) 

Tabula Regiomm Septentrionalium (c. 1467), in a manuscript Ptolemy in the Zamoiski 
Library, Warsaw, 
(From Nordenskjold's Faaimile Atlas.) 
Engronelant Norbegia Suetiaque et Gottia Occidentalis. 

(From a tracing by Hyatt from the Donis Plokmy, Ulm, 1482, in the British Museum [569. i. i.]) 
North- Western portion of Olaus Magnus' Carta Marina et Descriptio Septemtrionalium 
Terrarum ac Mirahilium rerum in eis contentarum, Venice, icjo. 
(Reduced from Klemming's full-sized facsimile.) 

Part of Britannia Insula, qua nunc Anglia et Scotia Regna continet cum Hibernia 
adjacente Nova Descriptio, 1546. (Lafreri Atlas.) 

(From a copy in the British Museum [K. 5. i.]) 
Schonladia Nova. 

(From Gastaldi's Ptolemy, Venice, 1548.) 

North- Western portion of Gerard Kaufman's (Mercator's) Map of Europe, Duisburg, 

(From the photographic facsimile published by the Berlin Geographical Society.) 
Septentrionalium Regionum, Suetia, Gottia, Norvegia, Dania, et Terrarum adjacentium 
recens exaElaque Descriptio, 1558, b)r Michael Tramezini, Venice, 1 558 ; engraved 
by Jacobus Bussius. 

(From a copy in the British Museum [S. 10. I. 41.]) 
Fr island (f. 1561). 

(From a copy in the British Museum [S. 10, z. 7oa.J) 
Estland (c. 1561). 

(From a copy in the British MuscuTi [S. 10. 2. 70b.]) 
Zeno's Carta da Navegar in the Commentarii, 1558. 

(From a copy in the British Museum [1048. b. 9/2.]) 
Septentrionalium Partium Nova Tabula. 

(From Ruscclli's P/5/m> Venice, 1561. The same map is reproduced in Moletius' Ptoltmy, 
Venice, 1562.) ' 

Part of Gerard Kaufman's (Mercator's) Map of the World, Duisburg, 1 569. 

(From the photographic facsimile published by the Berlin Geographical Society.) 
Septentrionalium Regionum Descriptio, .n Ortelius' Theatrum Or bis, 1570, Map ic. 

(From a copy in the British Museum [S. 221. 30.]) 
Michael Lok's Map of the North. 

(From Hakluyt's Divers t'oyages, etc., 1582. [British Museum, C. 21. b. 35.]) 
A Chart of the Northern Sea. 

(From Seller's Englhh Pilot, c. 1673. [British Museum, 1804. b. 7.]) 
A Draught of the Island Buss, by J. Oliver. 

(From Seller's English Pilot.) 

Map of Saint Kilda. 

(From Macaulay's History of St. Kilda, 1764, [British Museum, 981. b. 28.)] 


Table of Contents [continued). 

Map of the North ......... 

(From Bordonc's Istliirio, 1528.) 

Map of Islanda ......... 

(From Bordonc's liokrio, 15*8.) 

Map of Greenla nd ........ ■ 

(From Bordonc's Isolario, 1528.) 

The Monk Rock {Monaco) y Farces 

(From Olaus Magnus' Historia de gentibus Septentrionalibus, 155?.) 

The "Claudius Clavus" Map of the North, 1427 

(From Nordcnskjold's Facsimile Jtliis.) 

" De Bahieis et Ventosis, ac phlebotomia " . 

(From Olaus Magnus' J/ist. de gent. Sept., 1555.) 

Part of the Mollineux Globe, 1592 

(From a projcftion by Mr. J. W. Addison.) 

(Fig. I.) " Stilanda " from Andrea Bianco's Map, 1436 

(From Ongania's photograph.) 

(Fig. 2.) "Stiiianda" from La Cosa's Map, 1500 
(From Vallcjo and Traynor's full-sized facsimile.) 

(Fig. 3.) "Stiiianda" from the "Atlas Catalan de Charles V., Roi de France 

(From Dclislc's Documiiils Geogr.:f'Hiiues.) 

(Fig. 4.) "Istillanda" from the Fredrici d'Ancone Map, 1497 
(From Santarcm's rcproduttion.) 

(Fig. 5.) Map from Italian Portolano, 1508 .... 
(From the original in the British Museum. [MS. Epcrton 2803].) 

(Fig. 6.) Manuscript showing date of the above Portolano . 

(From the same original.) 

(Fig. 7.) Fifteenth century Map showing " Fixlanda" . 

(From Nordcnskjold's BiJrag till Ncrd'-m Atdsta Kartogriifi.) 

(Fig. 8.) Part of a Chart by Mattheus Prunes, 1553 . 

(From Kretschmcr's Entdcckiing Amerika's Atlas.) 

North-East Quarter-Sedlion of Map of America .... 

(From d'Anania's Universale Fabriea del Mondo, 1582.) 

Regnorum Aquilonarum Descriptio 

(From Olaus Magnus' Hiit. de gent. Sept., 1555.) 

Map of the North, by Sigurdus Stephanius, 1 570 
(From Torfajus' Gronlandia Antiqua, 1715.) 









1 10 

1 1 1 
to face p. 1 1 1 

. 1 12 

• 139 
. 140 
. 142 



Part I. 


TtlMX CXftUKl 


MAP OF THE NORTH. From Bordones /so/aria, Venice, inH. 

hrc^i^'kv" ■-y:^M&¥ '^-'^rm© 




N the month of December, 1558, or shortly 
afterwards, there was published in Venice a 
small oftavo book with the following title : 

De i Commentarii del/ Viaggio in Persia di M. 
Cater ino Zeno il K./ G? delle guerre fatte nell' Imperio 
Persiano,/ dal tempo di Vssuncassano in qua./ Libridue./ Et 
dello Scoprimento/ dell' hole Frislanda, Eslanda, Engroue- 
landa, Esto/ tilanda, & Icaria, fatto sotto il Polo Artico, 
da/ due fratelli Zeni, M. Nicolb il K. et M. Antonio./ 
Libro vno./ Con vn disegno particolare di/ tutte ie dette parte 

di Tramontana da lor scoperte./ Con gratia, et privilegio./ [Device'] In Venetia/ Per Francesco 

Marcolini MDLVIII./' 

The book contains fifty-eight printed folios and a woodcut map. 
On the redo of the first folio is the above title, and the printer's device 
with the motto Veritas jili a Temporis on a scroll interwoven therewith. 
The verso is blank. The second folio is occupied on both sides by the 
Dedication, which, translated, is as follows : — 

" To the most Reverend/ my Lord Messire/ Daniel Barbaro,/ the chosen 
Patriarch of/ Aquilegia./ Francesco Marcolini, his humble servant./ 
My most Reverend Lord, in publishing the Annals of all the Persian 
Wars made during the time of Vssuncassano, with the Travels of the 
Magnificent Messire Caterino Zeno, the Knight, made by his Lordship 
as Ambassador from this most illustrious State to the aforesaid King of 
Persia, and who was the first to have the courage to go on an Embassy 

' " Annals of the Journey in Persia of Messire Caterino Zeno, the Knight, and of the 
•vars carried on in the Persian Empire in the time of Ussuicassano. Two books. And of the 
Discovery of the Islands Frislanda, Eslanda, Engrouelanda, Estotilanda, and Icaria, made under 
the North Pole, by the two brothers Zeni, Messire Nicolo, the Knight, and Messire Antonio. 
One book. With a detailed map of all the said parts of the North discovered by them. With 
permission and privilege. Venice : by Francesco Marcolini. 1558." 

M^faMt— -<'4k* '■■ 

f i am ^ 'm -afliivay yij 

4 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, 

so important and so difficult; and of the Discovery of the Islands 
Frislanda, Engrouelanda, Estotilanda and Icaria, made by the Magni- 
Hcent Messire Nicol6, the Knight, and the Magnificent Messire 
Antonio Zeni, — I have wished to adorn the beginning of the work with 
the celebrated name of your most Reverend Lordship, more especially 
on account of the brotherhood in love which your most Reverend 
Lordship has with the Magnificent Messire Nicolo Zeno. Those who 
read the book will find marvellous accounts of wars, of the customs, 
costumes and food of the nations, and of the situations of the 
countries, of the different animals and of the fisheries. And, amongst 
other marvels, the Magnificent Messire Nicolo, the Knight, relates 
that he saw in Grolandia, situate beneath the North Pole (where are 
extreme cold and snow and great masses of Ice), a Monastery of Friars, 
called Saint Thomas, rather miraculous than marvellous, because these 
fathers protect themselves from the very j,Teat cold without any fire, 
and, by watering the soil with the boiling water whicli issues from a 
mountain near their Monastery, they make it produce herbs, flowers 
and fruits necessary for food ; and, what seems to me even more 
marvellous is, they cook their bread without fire with the afore- 
said boiling water, so that by their skill they cook it better than if it 
was done in a well-heated oven. And they heat their dwellings and 
the Church, as with a stove, in the same manner, so that the rough 
people of those countries consider these Friars as Gods, and honour 
and obey them as their Lords. In Venice, in December, 1558." 

Folios 3 to 5 contain the author's preface, without signature. On 
the redto of folio 6 is a table of errata. Folio 7, the first which has a 
number, is wrongly marked " 6," but the numeration of the rest of the 
folios (8-58) is correft. The account of the travels of Caterino Zeno in 
Persia, towards the end of the fifteenth century, begins on the verso of 
folio 6 and ends on the verso of folio 43. With this portion of the 
book it is not proposed to deal in the present volume.^ The redo of 

* The travels of Caterino Zeno in Persia, whilst Ambassador from Venice to that country 
(147 1- 1 473), entirely differ in charafler from the alleged Northern Voyages of Nicolo and 
Antonio Zeni in the fourteenth century, and the two accounts, though bound between the same 
covers, form totally distinft works. The account of the Northern Voyages has its own peculiar 
history, told by the author himself: there is no corroborative evidence. On the other hand, 
there can be no doubt as to the main fads of Caterino Zeno's Embassy. His travels were of 
much later date, and his statements are corroborated, to some extent, by several independent 
accounts of events in Persia contemporary with, or immediately following, those described by the 
compiler of the Annals: for instance, by the stories of Josafa Barbaro (1436-1487), of Contarini 
(Caterino Zeno's successor as Ambassador, i473-i477),and of Angiole'lo (1462-1524). Trans- 





by the 

The Zeno Book and its Contents. - — — ' 5 

folio 44 is blank ; the verso contains a skeleton pedigree of the Zeno 

family, intended to illustrate the connexion between the author or 

compiler, Nicolo Zeno, and the earlier Nicolo Zeno and Antonio Zeno, 

the two brothers whose adventures are narrated in the subsequent part 

of the book. On the redo of folio 45 is the following sub-title : 

Delb scuprimento del/ I'lsole Frislanda, Eslanda, Engroueland Eito-/ tilanda, Gf 
Icaria, fatto per due fratel-/ It Zeni M. Nicolb il Caua/iere, &/ M. Antonio Libra Vno 
col di-l segno di dette Isole.j ' 

This narrative is finished on the re«fto of folio 58, and on the verso the 
printer's device and motto again appear, but from a different 
woodblock, and with ^n'inter's register below." 

The map referred to in the title and sub-title is a woodcut measur- 
ing 378 by 283 millimetres within the border rules. It bears the 
superscription : " carta da navegar de nicolo et antonio zeni fvrono 
IN TRAMONTANA LANo.M.ccc.Lxxx." " The dcgrccs of latitude from 60" 
to 76" North are marked and numbered ; the degrees of longitude are 
marked but not numbered.* A facsimile of the map, from a copy in 
the British Museum, will be found on Plate XI. in the Appendix. 

The narrative contained in the latter part of the book, under the 
sub-title quoted above, the map, and the veracity of their author, 
have been the subjeds of much discussion and speculation among 
geographers down to the present day. Their importance from a 

lations of all these, with some later accounts of Persian travel, are given in travels of Venetians 
in Persia (Hakluyt Society, 1873), in which the two first-named narratives are edited by Lord 
Stanley of Alderley, and those of Caterino Zeno and Angiolello a^e translated and edited by 
Mr. Charles Grey. Mr. Grey erroneously attributes (p. i, n.) the authorship both of the 
preface to, and the account *of, Caterino Zeno's travels to Ramusio, totally ignoring the fad 
that the whole of Ramusio's text is reprinted from the Annals oi 1558. The accounts of 
Caterino Zeno's travels and those of Nicolo and Antonio Zeni have only one feature in 
common, viz., that the compiler, in both cases, unfortunately lost, or inadvertently destroyed, 
the original documents from which his histories should have been drawn, and was, tlierefore, 
driven to make the best stories he could from imperfeA and inferior materials. An editor of, 
or commentator upon, the Northern Travels may properly regard the Persian Travels as an 
entirely distinA work from that with which he is dealing, and is fully justified in leaving them 
out of his consideration. 

' For translation of this sub-title, see next page. 

' Facsimiles of all the parts of the book dealt with in the present work, will be found in 
Appendix I., and of the map on Plate XI. 

' Translation : " Chart of the Navigation of Nicolo and Antonio Zeni who were in the 
North in the year 1380." 

• In the copper-plate, reproducing the map as edited by Nicolo Zeno the younger 
for Ruscelli's Italian edition of Ptolemy, published in Venice in 1561, the degrees of longitude 
are numbered from 3 1 5° on the West to 50° on the East, the prime meridian being apparently 
that of Ferro, and outside those limits they are marked, but without numbers, from 270° on the 
West to 90° on the East (See Plate XII. in the Appendix). 

6 The Voyagei of the Brothers Zeni. 

pradical point of view has long ceased to exist, but they still possess 
an historical and literary interest, because upon the story contained in 
the text is founded a claim, on behalf of the Venetians, to a pre- 
Columbian discovery of America, and also because the acceptance of 
the '* Carta da Navegar" as genuine, by Gerard Kaufmann (Mercator) 
and Abraham Ortelius, the two leading cartographers of the latter half 
of the sixteenth century, was the cause of great confusion in the maps 
drawn durmg the latter part of that century and for nearly two 
hundred years afterwards. 

It is the objed of the present work to throw light upon, and 
to sum up, the question which has been so long discussed. 

The narrative itself consists of letters from Nicolo Zeno to his 
brother Antonio, and from Antonio to another brother Carlo, together 
with connecting passages supplied by the editor or compiler, the later 
Nicolo Zeno their descendant. Translated it reads as follows : — 


[Heading or Sub-title.] 

\^Folio 45.] "Concerning the Discovery of the Islands Frislanda, 
Eslanda, Engroueland Estotilanda, and Icaria made by the two 
brothers Zeni Messire Nicolo, the Knight, and, Messire Antonio. 
One book, with a map of the said Islands." 

[Family History of the Zeni. By Nicolo Zeno the younger, 
the Compiler of the Wc-k.] 

" In the year cf our Salvation 1200, Mesjire Marin Zeno, a man 
very famous in Venice, was eleded, on account of his great abilities 
and the force of his charader, Governor in some of the Republics of 
Italy, in the administration of which he always bore himself so well, 
that he was beloved, and his name greatly reverenced, even by those 
who had never known him personally. Amongst other good works 
of his, it is particularly recorded that he quelled certain grave civil 
discords that arose amongst the Veronese, which might have been 
cxpedted to give rise to war, if his extreme adivity and good counsel 
had not been interposed. To this man was born a son, Messire Pietro, 
who was the father of the Doge Rinieri, which Doge, dying without 
leaving any children of his own, made Messire Andrea, the son of his 
brother Messire Marco, his heir. This Messire Andrea was Captain- 
General and Procurator, and had a very high reputation on account 

; two 


The Zeno Book and its Contents. 7 

of the many rare qualities which he possessed. His son, Messirc 
Rinieri, was an ilhistrious Senator, and many times a Councillor. 
From him descended Messire Pietro, Captain-General of the League 
of Christians against the Turks, who was called Dragone^ because he 
bore upon his shield a Dragon, instead of a Man/rone^ which he had 
first. He was the father of the great Messire Carlo, the most illustrious 
Procurator and Captain-General against the Genoese, in those perilous 
wars which were carried on whilst almost all the greater Princes of 
Europe were fighting against our liberty and Empire, in which, by his 
own valour, as Furius Camillus did for Rome, he delivered his country 
from the imminent risk which it ran of becoming the prey of its 
enemies ; for which reason he acquired the cognomen The Lion^ 
bearing the figure of a lion, in perpetual memory of his prowess, 
depicted upon his shield. The brothers of Messire Carlo were {^/olio 46] 
Messire Nicolo, the Knight, and Messire Antonio, the father of Messire 
Dragone, to whom was born a son, Messire Caterino, who begat 
Messire Pietro, from whom descended another Messire Caterino, who 
died last year, the father of Messire Nicol6, who is still living." 

[The Voyage of Nicolo Zeno. From his letter to his brother Antonio.] 

" Now Messire Nicolo, the Knight, being a man of high spirit, after 
the termination of the aforesaid Genoese war in Chioggia, which gave 
our ancestors so much to do, conceived a very great desire to see the 
world, and to travel, and to make himself acquainted with the various 
customs and languages of men, in order that, when occasion arose, he 
might be better able to do service to his country, and to acquire for 
himself fame and honour. Therefore, having built and fitted out a 
ship from his own private means, of which he possessed an abundance, 
he left our seas, and, having passed the Straits of Gibraltar, sailed for 
some days across the Ocean, always holding his course towards the 
North, with the intention of seeing England and Flanders. While in 
these seas, he was assailed by a great tempest. For many days he was 
carried by the waves and the winds without knowing where he might 
be, until, at last, discovering land, and not being able to steer against 
such an exceedingly fierce storm, he was wrecked upon the Island 
Frislanda. The crew and a great part of the goods which were in 
the ship were saved ; and this was in the year one thousand three 
hundred and eighty. The Islanders, running together in great 
numbers, all ready-armed, attacked Messire Nicolo and his men, who, 

V: ••'' 


The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, 

all wearied by the storm they had passed through, and not knowing 
in what country they might be, were not able to make the least 
counter attack, or even to defend themselves against the enemy so 
vigorously as the danger demanded. Under these circumstances, thny 
would probably have been badly treated if good fortune had not so 
ordered that, by chance, a Prince with an armed following happened 
to be in the neighbourhood. He, understanding that a large ship had 
just been wrecked upon the Island, hastened up, on hearing the uproar 
and cries which were made against our poor sailors ; and, after chasing 
away the people of the country, he spoke in Latin, and demanded of what 
nation rhey were, and whence they came ; and, when he discovered 
that they came from Italy, and were men of the same country,' he 
was filled with the greatest joy. Then, assuring them all that they 
should receive no injury, and that they were come into a place in 
which they should be most kindly treated, and well looked after, he 
took them under his protedion on his good faith." 

" This man was a great Lord, and possessed some Islands called 
Porlanda, near to Frislanda on the south side, the richest and rr.^st 
populous in all those parts. He was named Zichmni, and, besides 
the aforesaid little Islands, he ruled over the dominion of the Duchy of 
Sorant,** situate on the side towards Scotland." 

[By the Compiler.] 
" Of these parts of the North it occurred to me to draw out a copy 
of a navigating chart which I once found [^/olio 47] that I possessed 
among the ancient things in our house, which, although it is all rotten 
and many years old, I have succeeded in doing tolerably well, and 
which, placed before the eyes of those who delight themselves with 
such things, will serve as a light to make intelligible that which, without 
it, they would not be so well able to understand." 

[From Nicolo Zeno's Letter to his Brother Antonio.] 
" Besides being a man of such position as I have stated, Zichmni 
was warlike and valiant, and, above all, most famous in maritime affairs. 
Having gained a vidlory the year before over the King of Norway, 

' The meaning of this passage is obscure. It Is commented upon hereafter in the and 
Seftion of Part II. 

' In the text it is printed Sorano, but in the table of errata on folio 6 it is correfted to Sorant. 
It is called " Sorand " on the map. 


Tht Ztno Book and its Contents. 9 

who ruled over the Island, Zichmni, being a man who desired by 
deeds of arms to make himself yet more iUustrious than he was already, 
had come down with his people to attack and acquire for himself the 
country of Frislanda, which is an Island much larger than Ireland. 
Therefore, perceiving that Messire Nicol6 was a prudent person, and 
greatly skilled in maritime and military matters, he commissioned him 
to go on board the fleet with all his men, diredUng the Captain to pay 
him rcspedt, and to avail himself of his counsel in all things, as that of 
one who knew and understood much from his long experience in 
navigation and arms. This fleet of Zichmni's consisted of thirteen 
ships (two only propelled by oars, the rest small vessels, and one ship), 
with which they sailed towards the West, and with little trouble made 
themselves masters of Ledovo and Ilofe, and of some other small 
Islands. Turning into a bay called Sudero, they took, in a port of the 
country called Sanestol, some boats laden with salt flsh. At this place 
finding Zichmni, who, with his army, had come by land, having taken 
possession of all the country behind him, they stayed there a little. 
Then making sail towards the West, they came at last to the other 
headland of the Bay ; thence turning round again, they found some 
Islands and lands which were all reduced into the possession of 
Zichmni. The sea in which they were sailing was, so to speak, full 
of Shoals and Rocks, so that, if Messire Nicol6 had not been their 
Pilot, with his Venetian mariners, all that fleet, in the judgment of all 
that were in it, would have been lost, because of the little experience 
which Zichmni's men had in comparison with that of ours, who were, 
so to say, born, bred and grown old in the art [of navigation]. The 
fleet having thus done those things which have been mentioned, the 
Captain, by the advice of Messire Nicol6, decided to put into port at 
a place called Bondendon, to enquire as to the success of Zichmni's 
campaign. There they learnt, to their great pleasure, that he had 
fought a great battle and routed the enemy's army. In consequence 
of that vidtory, the whole island sent Ambassadors to make submission 
to him, raising his standards throughout the whole country and in the 
villages. Therefore, they decided to wait in that place for his coming, 
assuring themselves conhdendy that he must «oon be there." 

" Upon his arrival they made great \^folio 48] demonstrations of joy, 
as well on account of the vidory by land as of that by sea ; for which 
latter all the Venetians were so much honoured and extolled that no 
one could speak of anything else than of them, and of the valour of 



The Voyages of the Brothers Zen\ 

Messire Nicolo. Then the Prince, who was very fond of valiant men, 
and especially of those who bore themselves well in naval affairs, sent 
for Messire Nicolo, and, after having commended him with many 
honouring words, and having praised his great adivity and genius in 
the two matters (namely, the preservation of his fleet and the acquisition 
of so many jriaces without any trouble to himself [Zichmni]), in which, 
as he said, he acknowledged a very great and important benefit, he 
made Messire Nicolo a Knight, and honoured, and made very rich 
presents to, all his people. Departing from that place, in the manner 
of a triumph for the vidory achieved, he went in the diredion of 
Frislanda, the principal city of the Island. This place i^ situated on 
its South-eastern side, at the entrance to a bay, of which there are 
many in that Island, in which they take fish in such abundance that 
they lade many ships with them, and supply Flanders, Brittany, 
England, Scotland, Norway and Denmark, deriving very great riches 
from this traffic." 

[Nicolo joined by Antonio. Nicolo's Voyage to Greenland, 
from his own written account.] 

" All the above information, Messire Nicolo wrote in one of his 
letters to Messire Antonio his brother, praying him to come to find 
him, with some ships. And, as he [Antonio] was no less desirous than 
his brother had been to see the world and to have converse with 
various nations, and so to make himself i. strious and a great man, he 
bought a ship, and, steering in that diredtion, after a long voyage, and 
many perils passed, finally joined Messire Nicolo, safe and sound, who 
received him with the greaf-st delight, both because he was his natural 
brother and because he was his brother in valour also." 

" Messire Antonio stayed in Frislanda and lived there fourteen 
years, four with Messire Nicolo and ten alone. There they grew into 
such grace and favour with the Prince that, partly to gratify Nicolo, 
but even more because he was excessively useful to him, he made him 
Captain of his fleet, and sent him with a great armament to attack 
Estlanda [Shetland], which is on the side bt^ween Frislanda and 
Norway. There they inflifted many injuries, but, understanding that 
the King of Norway was coming against them, with a large fleet of 
ships, to divert them from that war, they set sail in a Tempest so 
terrible that, being driven upon certain rocks, a great number of their 
ships were lost, and the remainder sought safety in Grislanda, a large 



The Zeno Book and its Contents. 

1 1 

Island, but uninhabited. The fleet of the King of Norway, likewise 
assailed by the same storm, was wrecked and totally lost in those seas. 
Zichmni, being informed of this by a small ship of the enemy which 
ran by good fortune into Grislanda, having first repaired his fleet, 
{folio 49] and perceiving himself to be near Islande^ on the North, 
determined to attack Islanda, which, exaftly in the same manner 
as the others, belonged to the King of Norway ; but he found the 
country so well fortified and furnished for defence that he could not 
but have been repulsed, as he had such a small fleet, and that, small 
as it was, likewise verv badly provided both with arms and men. On 
this account, he abandoned that enterprise without having done any- 
thing, and attacked, in the same channels, the other Islands called 
Islande, which are seven in number, that is to say, Talas, Broas, 
Iscant, Trans, Mimant, Damberc, and Bres. Taking possession of them 
all, he built a fort in Bres, in which he left Messire Nicolo, with some 
small ships, some men and provisions; and, as it appeared to him that he 
had done enough for the time with so small a fleet, he returned safely 
to Frislanda with the remainder. Messire Nicolo, remaining in Bres, 
determined to set forth in the spring on a voyage of discovery. So, 
fitting out his not very large ships, in the month of July, he made sail 
towards the North, and arrived in Engroueland "^ [Greenland], There 
he found a Monastery of the order of Preaching Friars, and a Church 
dedicated to St. Thomas, near to a mountain which cast out fire like 
Vesuvius and Etna. There is there a spring of hot water with which 
they warm the buildings in the Church of the Monastery, and the 
chambers of the Friars, the water in the kitchen being so boiling that, 
without any other fire, it serves all their needs ; and bread, being put 
into copper cooking-pots without water, is cooked as in a well-heated 
And there are little gardens covered in in the winter, which, 


' There is evidently some confusion in the mind of the narrator here : Hakluyt translates 
" Islande," the Islands, but the termination " lande " is Teutonic, though it has the Italian plural 
final tacked on to it, and there is no such Italian word meaning Islands. Major suggests that 
" Islande" is a misprint for "Esianda," or the Shetlands, both here and eight lines lower down, 
where the names of " I'altre Isole, dette Islande " are given, " Talas, Broas, Iscant, Trans, 
Mimant, Damberc, and Bres," which can fairly be identified with some of the Shetlands ; but in 
the " Carta da Navegar " these islands are grouped with Islanda, which is undoubtedly Iceland. 
The only conclusion is that the narrator did not himself understand what he was writing about, 
and has consequently failed to make his statement intelligible to his readers. 

* Throughout the whole book, Greenland is called " Engroueland," or " Engrouiland" (not 
" Engroaeland " as Major prints it), except once, viz., in the extradt from Antonio Zeno's letter 
given on folio 57, where it is called Grolanda. On the map the names are given as " Engronelant " 
and " Crolandia. ' Marcolini, in the Dedication, calls it " Grolandia " and " Engroueland." 


The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

being watered with this water, are preserved from the snow and the 
cold, which in these parts, on account of their situation being so very 
close under the Pole, are exceedingly severe. From these [gardens] 
are produced flowers and fruits and herbs of various kinds, just as they 
are in temperate climates in their seasons, so that the rough and wild 
people of these countries, seeing these supernatural effefts, consider 
the Friars as Gods, and bring them fowls, flesh, and other things, and 
hold them all as Lords in the greatest reverence and respedt. In the 
manner, then, which has been described, these Friars warm their habita- 
tions when the ice and snow are severe, and they can, in a moment, 
warm or cool a room by increasing the water to certain limits, or by 
opening the windows and letting in the fresh air." 

" In the fabric of the Monastery no other materials are used than 
those which are furnished by the fire [volcano], for the hot stones, 
which issue like sparks from the fiery mouth of the mountain, are 
taken at the time when they are at their hottest, and water is thrown 
upon them, which causes them to split open and to become pitch, or 
very white and very tenacious lime, which, when once set \^ folio 50], 
never deteriorates. And the scoriae, likewise, when they have become 
cool, serve in place of stone to make walls and arches, as, when once 
they have grown cold, it is no longer possible to dissolve them or to 
break them, unless indeed they are cut with iron ; and arches made of 
these are so light that they need no buttresses, but always last well 
and remain in good order. In consequence of their possessing such 
conveniences, these good fathers have eredted such dwellings and walls 
that it is a wonder to see them. Most of the roofs are made in the 
following manner : the wall being carried to its proper height, they 
then incline it inwards little by little as they go on, so that in the 
middle it forms a rain-proof arch ; ^ but they have not much appre- 

' Tanto che nel mezzo forma un giusto piover. This passage is difficult to translate. 
Hakluyt, the first translator, has omitted it altogether from both his editions of 1582 and 1600. 
Megisser {Septentrio Novantiquus, 1613, p. 240) has done the same, and has also left out the 
whole preceding sentence which describes the ccnstrudlion of the roofs. Pontanus (Rerum 
Danicarum Hist., 1631, p. 753) renders it sicut in medio relinqualur imp/uvium. The 
impihvium was the tank in the floor of the hall in a Roman villa beneath the square opening, 
called compluvium, in the roof, the latter being so sloped as to shoot the rain into the 
imp/uvium : the word is also used for the open space itself (Smith, Diii. of Greek and Roman 
Antiq. Art. Domus). Major {Voyages of the Zeni, Hakluyt Soc, 1873, p. 14), translates the 
passage by '^so that in the middle it formb, a passage for the rain," which is no clearer than 
the original. The method of lighting by holes in the roof in the Northern regions is mentioned 
by Olaus Magnus {^Hist. de Gentibus Seplentrio : Rome, 1555. Lib. XII. capp. 2 and 3), 
but his descriptions do not give the idea that the openings were in the nature of the Roman 

The Zeno Book and its Contents. 



hension of rain in those parts, because the Pole being, as has been 
said, very cold, the first-fallen snow melts no more until nine months 
of the year have passed, for so long does their winter last." 

"They live on wildfowl and fish, since, in the place where the 
warm water enters the sea, there is a tolerably large and capacious 
harbour, which, by reason of the boiling water, never freezes even in 
the winter. Here, therefore, there is such a concourse of sea-fowl and 
fish that they catch an almost infinite number, which provides support 
for a great many people of the vicinity, who are kept in continual 
employment, as well in working on the buildings as in catching birds 
and fish, and in a thousand other matters which are required in the 

" The houses of these people surround the mountain, and are all 
circular in shape and twenty-five feet in diameter. They make them 
narrow in towards the top, in such a way as to leave above a little 
aperture, by which the air enters, and which gives light to the place ; 
and the earth is so warm below that they do not feel any cold within. 
Hither, in the summer, come many boats from the neighbouring 
islands, and from the cape upon Norway, and from Treadon 
[Trondhjem], and bring to the Friars all the things which they can 
desire, and they trade with these for fish, which they dry in the open 
air and in the cold, and for skins of different sorts of animals. Thus 
they acquire wood for burning, and timber, excellently worked, for 
building, and grain, and cloth for clothing ; for, in exchange for the 
two things mentioned,^ nearly all the neighbouring people are desirous 
of selling their merchandise ; and so, without trouble or expense, they 
have whatever they wish." 

compluvium. It would seem from the next passage in the text, viz., " but they have not much 
apprehension of rain in those parts," and from that, a few lines further on, which describes " the 
little aperture at the top by which the air enters, and which gives light to the place," that the 
objeft of the openings is to obtain light and ventilation while excluding rain and snow. Dr. 
Rink {Danish Greenland, pp. 176-180), in describing the old Greenland houses, mentions as 
charadteristic of their suitability for the severe climate, the airtightness of the walls and roofs, and 
adds that " Ventilation is afforded chiefly by the long narrow doorway which forms the entrance to 
the house," and " that a venthole was also made in the roof" " In the south the winter-huts have 
to be protc'lied against rain and thaw occasionally in the cold season ; in the north the frost 
generally prevails sufficiently to make this measure superfluous." Neither the impluvium of 
Pontanuo' translation, nor Major's " passage for the rain," seems to suit the case. The compiler 
probably did not understand the information upon which he founded his description, whatever 
its sources may have been , but it seems ridiculous to suppose that the objerfl of building the 
roof was to let in the rain, and the above somewhat free, but not inadmissible, rendering, has 
therefore been adopted. 

* " The two things mentioned " are, apparently, dried fish and skins. 

14 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

" There come together in this Monastery Friars from Norway, 
Sweden, and other countries, but the greater part are from Islande^; 
and there are always in this port many ships, which cannot get away 
because the sea is frozen, awaiting the spring thaw." 

"The boats of the fishermen they make like the shuttles'^ which 
the weavers use to make cloth. Taking the skins of fishes, thev fit 
them over the bones of the same fish, of which they make a fiame, 
and sew them together, and lay them over many times double. They 
turn these boats out so strong and sound, that it is \_folio 51] certamly 
a miraculous thing to observe how, during tempests, they fasten them- 
selves inside, and allow them to be carried over the sea by the waves 
and the winds without any fear of being wrecked or drowned ; 
and, if they do strike on the land, they stand safely many blows. 
They have a sleeve at the bottom which they keep tied in the middle, 
and, when water enters the boat, they take it in one half [of the sleeve] 
and close it above with two wooden shutters, then taking the ligature 
from below, they drive out the water. However many times they have 
to do this, they do it without any trouble or danger." 

" Since the water of the Monastery is sulphurous, it is conduced 
into the rooms of the Superiors by means of certain vessels^ of copper, 
tin, or stone, so hot that, like a stove, it warms the habitation very 
well, without introducing any stench or other noxious odour. Besides 
this, they lead other spring water through a culvert underground, so 
that it may not freeze, as far as the middle of the courtyard, where it 
falls into a large copper vessel which stands in the midst of a boiling 
spring, and so they warm the water for drinking and for watering 
their gardens." 

"They have in the mountains all the commodities which they can 
most desire. Nor do these good fathers put themselves to any other 
trouble than that of cultivating their gardens, and making beautiful, 
charming, and, above all, commodious buildings ; nor tor this do 
they want for good, clever, and industrious workmen, although 
pagans, and they pay them largely. To those who bring them fruits 
and seeds they are liberal without limit, and lavish in their expenditure. 
On these accounts, there is a very great concourse of people there 
seeking employment and instrudion, in order to earn in that place 

' See Note i on p. 1 1 . 

^ Navicelli, literally, " little ships," so named from their resemblance in shape to boats. 

' Vast, literally, " vessels," probably means here pipes or conduits. 

The Zeno Book and its Contents. 


such good wages and better living. They use, for the most part, the 
Latin language, especially the Superiors and the principal men of the 

[By the Compiler.] 
" So much is known of Engroueland [Greenland], concerning which 
Messire Nicolo described all the foregoing particulars, and more 
especially the river discovered by him, as may be seen in the map 
made by me. At last, not being used to such severe cold, he sickened, 
and, soon after returning to Frisland, he died there." 

" Messire Antonio succeeded to his riches and honours, but, 
although he tried many ways, and begged and prayed much, he could 
never succeed in getting back to his own home, because Zichmni, 
being a man of spirit and valour, had resolved from the bottom of his 
heart to make himself master of the sea. Wherefore, availing himself 
of the services of Messire Antonio, he desired that he should sail with 
.^ several small ships towards the West, to obtain information as to the 

' existence of some very rich and populous Islands on that side, dis- 

covered by some of his fishermen ; which discovery Messire Antonio 
narrates in one of his letters, written to his brother Messire Carlo, with 
so much detail that, except that we have changed the old language and 
style, we have let the matter stan>. as it was." 

[The Frisland Fisherman's Story. From Antonio Zend's letter 

to his brother Carlo.] 

\^ folio 52.] " Tv/enty-six years ago, four fishing boats sailed [from 
Frisland], which, driven by a great tempest, wandered many days, lost, 
as it were, upon the sea, until, when at last the weather moderated, 
they found an Island, called Estotilanda, lying to the Westward, and 
distant from Frislanda more than a thousand miglia^ on which one of 
the boats was wrecked. Six men who were in it were seized by the 
islanders, and conducted to a most beautiful and largely populated city. 
^ The King who ruled there summoned many interpreters, but found 

none who had any knowledge of the language of these fishermen, 
except one who spoke Latin, and who had been cast upon the same 
Island by a similar tempest. This man, demanding of the castaways, on 
behalf of the King, who they were and whence they came, gathered 
all their statements, and reported their effedl to the King, who, when 
he fully understood their case, willed that they should stay in that 


The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, 

country. Wherefore, obeying this command, because they could not 
do otherwise, they remained five years in the Island and learnt the 
language. One of them in particular, having been in different parts 
of the Island, reports that it is very rich, and abundant in all the good 
things of this world; that it is rather smaller than Iceland, but more 
fertile, having in the middle a very high mountain from which spring 
four rivers, which water it. The inhabitants are quick-witted, and 
possess all the arts which we have. It is believed that in earlier times 
they have had commerce with our countrymen, because this man said 
that he saw Latin books in the King's library, which none of them at 
the present time understand. They have a distiui^ language, and 
letters. They get, by mining, metals of all sorts, and, above all, they 
have abundance of gold. Their trade is with Engroueland [Green- 
land], whence they receive furs, and sulphur, and pitch. And, 
towards the South, he says, there is a great country very rich in gold, 
and populous. They sow grain and make beer, which is a kind of 
beverage which the Northern people use as we do wine. They have 
woods of immense extent. They construdl their buildings with walls, and 
there are many cities and villages. They make small ships and navigate 
them, but they have not the loadstone, nor can they indicate the 
North by the compass. On this account, these fishermen were held 
in great esteem, so much so that the king despatched them, with twelve 
small ships, towards the South, to the country which they call Drogio ; 
but during the voyage they met with so great a tempest that they gave 
themselves up for lost. Nevertheless, in trying to escape from one 
cruel death, they delivered themselves into the clutches of another 
much more terrible, for, being taken into the country,^ most of them 
were eaten by the ferocious inhabitants, who feed upon human flesh, 
which they consider a most savoury viand." 

" But this fisherman, with his companions, by showing the natives 
the method of taking fish with nets, saved their lives; and, fishing 
every day in the sea, and in the fresh waters, they caught many fish, 
and gave them to the Chiefs ; by which means \folio 53] the fisherman 
acquired so much favour that he was held dear, and was beloved and 
much honoured by everyone. His fame spread among the adjacent 
nations, and a neighbouring Chief conceived so great a desire to have 
him in his service, and to see how he exercised his wonderful art of 

' Presumably " Drogio," though it is not so stated explicitly either here or in any other 
part of the narrative. 



The Zeno Book and its Contents. 


taking fish, that he made war upon the other Chief, by whom the 
fisherman was protedcd ; and prevailing at last, because he was the 
more powerful and warlike, the fisherman was handed over to him, 
with his companions. During the thirteen years which he spent 
continuously in the parts aforesaid, he says that he was transmitted in 
this manner to more than twenty-five Chiefs, they being constantly 
stirred up to make war one against another, solely for the sake of 
having him in their service j and so, as he went on wandering, without 
ever having a fixed abode in one place for any length of time, he came 
to know from actual experience almost all those parts." 

" He says that it is a very large country, and like a new world ; 
but the people are ignorant, and destitute of all good qualities, for they 
all go naked, and sufi'er cruelly from the cold; nor have they learnt 
how to cover themselves with the skins of the beasts which they take 
in hunting. They have no metal of any sort. They live by hunting, 
and carry lances of wood sharpened at the point, and bows, the strings 
of which are made of the skins of animals. They are a people of 
great ferocity, and fight together to the death, and eat one another. 
They have Chiefs, and certain laws, which differ much amongst them." 

" But, the further one goes towards the South-west, the greater 
civilization one finds, because there the climate is more temperate, so 
that there are cities, and temples of idols wherein they sacrifice men, 
whom they afterwards eat. In these parts they have some knowledge 
of gold and silver, and use them." 

" Now this fisherman, having dwelt in these countries so many 
years, purposed, if he could, to return to his fatherland ; but his com- 
panions, despairing of the possibility of ever seeing it again, let him 
depart, wishing him a successfiil journey, and they themselves re- 
mained where they were. Then he, commending them to God, fled 
through the woods towards Drogio, and was made most welcome, and 
kindly treated by a neighbouring Chief who knew him, and who had 
great enmity against the other Chief [from whom he had run away] ; 
and so, going from the hand of one to that of another of the same 
Chiefs with whom he had been before, after much time and con- 
siderable hardships and fatigues, he arrived finally in Drogio, where he 
dwelt the three following years. Then, by good fortune, he learnt 
fiom the Countryfolk that some ships had arrived upon the coast, and 
he conceived good hopes of accomplishing his desire. He went to the 
coast, and, enquiring from what country the ships came, learnt to his 



The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, 

} . 

great pleasure that they were from Estotilanda. Then, having begged 
to be taken away, he was willingly received, because he knew the 
language of the country ; and, there being no one among the sailors 
who understood it, they used him as their interpreter. Afterwards, he 
frequently made \_/olio 54] that voyage with them, until he grew very 
rich, and, having built and equipped a ship of his own, returned to 
Frislanda, bearing to the Lord of it [Zichmni] news of the discovery of 
that very rich country. In all this he was credited, because the sailors 
confirmed as true many other new things which he reported. It is on 
account of this affair that the Lord Zichmni has resolved to send me 
with a fleet towards those parts; and there are so many who wish to go 
over there, on account of the novelty of the thing, that I think we 
shall be a very strong force, without any public expense." 

[By the Compiler.] 

" This is what is contained in the letter which I have cited above. 
I have stated its tenor here in order that another voyage which Messire 
Antonio made may be better understood. On this voyage he sailed 
with many people and ships, not, however, being appointed Captain, 
as he thought at first he would have been, because Zichmni decided 
to make the exploration in person ; and I have a letter about this 
expedition, which states as follows : " 

[The Letter from Antonio Zeno to his brother Carlo Zeno 


" Our great preparations to go into Estotilanda were commenced 
under an evil omen j for, three days exadtly before our departure, the 
fisherman, who wa'i to have been our guide, died. Notwithstanding 
this, our Chief would not abandon the intended voyage, and took with 
him as guides, instead of the dead fisherman, some of the sailors who 
had returned from that Island with the latter. And so we steered our 
course towards the West, and discovered some islands subject to 
Frislanda ; and, passing certain rocks, we stopped at Ledovo, where we 
remained seven days for the sake of the repose, and to furnish the Beet 
with some necessary things. Departing from thence, we arrived, on 
the I St of July, at the Island of Ilofe; and, because the wind made for 
us, we passed onward, without the least thing to hinder us, and went 
far out into the deepest ocean. Not long after, a storm assailed us, so 


The Zeno Book and its Contents. 


fierce that, for eight days at a stretch, it kept us at work, and cast us 
about so that we knew not where we might be, and we lost a large 
proportion of the ships. At last, the weather having become calm, we 
got together the ships which had been separated from the others, and, 
sailing with a good wind, we discovered land in the West.^ Keeping 
our course diredlly for it, we arrived in a quiet and secure port, and 
we saw people, almost infinite in number, armed and ready to strike, 
running towards the shore to defend the Island. Thereupon, Zichmni 
ordered his people to make signs of peace, and the Islanders sent to us 
ten men, who could speak ten languages, but we could not understand 
any of them, except one who was from Islanda^ [Iceland]. This man, 
being conduced into the presence of our Prince, and asked by him how 
they called the Island, and what people inhabited it, and who ruled over 
it, replied, that the Island was called Icaria, and that all the Kings who 
had ruled over it were called Icarus, after its first King, who, as they 
said, \_folio 55] was the son of Daedalus, King of Scotland, who, having 
made himself master of the Island, left his son there as King, and left also 
those laws which the Islanders still used ; and that, after these things were 
done, purposing to sail further on, he was drowned in a great storm; that, 
on account of his death in this manner, they still called that sea Icarian, 
and the King of the Island Icarus. Also that, because they were 
satisfied with that state which God had given them, they did not wish 
to change their customs in any particular, nor would they receive any 
foreigner ; that they therefore prayed our Prince that he would not seek 
to violate those laws which they had preserved in happy memory of 
their King, and had observed down to that time ; adding that he would 
not be able to do it without his own certain destruftion, they being all 
prepared to abandon life, rather than to give up, on any account, the 
use of those laws. Nevertheless, in order that it might not appear 
that they altogether refused intercourse with other men, they said, in 

' Major {Voyages of the Zeni, Hakluyt Soc, 1873, p. 26) has a note on this passage to the 
efFedl that da ponente here means that the adventurers discovered land " on its western side," 
and not " to the westward," referring, for his reason, to the subsequent passage stating that they 
sailed round about the island, cireondandol 'isola, and found a port on the eastern side. But 
circondare means to encircle, to surround, to make the circuit of, and not to go half way 
round. Besides, if Major is right, then, as Zichmni had been sailing westward with a favour- 
able wind, it follows that the land must have been discovered behind him. There seems no 
reason for abandoning the ordinary meaning of the passage, viz., that the land was discovered 
to the west, or in front of the fleet. 

" Major, Op. cit., p, 27, translates Islanda in this passage Shetland. This is only one of 
many liberties which he has taken with the text of 1558. 


The Voyages of the Brothers Zen't. 


conclusion, that they were willing to receive one of us, and to give 
him a high position amongst them, and to do so solely in order to learn 
my [sic] language and to have an account of our customs, just as they 
had already received those other ten men who had come to the Island 
from ten other different countries. To these things our Prince made 
no other reply than to make enquiry as to where there was a good 
harbour. Then he feigned to depart, and, making a circuit of the Island, 
in full sail, put into a port pointed out to him on the Eastern side. 
There the sailors disembarked, to obtain wood and water, with as 
much despatch £;s possible, as they doubted whether they might not be 
attacked by the Islanders; nor was their fear vain, for those who dwelt 
near by, making signs to the others with fire and smoke, quickly armed 
themselves, and, the others joining them, they came down to the shore, 
armed with weapons and arrows, in such numbers against our people 
that many were left killed and wounded ; nor did it avail us that we 
made signs of peace to them, for, as if they were fighting for their all, 
they grew more and more exasperated. Therefore, we were forced to 
set sail, and to go along in a great circle round the Island, being always 
accompanied, along the mountains and shores, by an infinite number of 
armed men. Then, doubling the Cape at the North of the Island, we 
found very great shoals, amongst which, for ten days continuously, we 
were in much danger of losing the fleet, but, luckily for us, the 
weather was very fine all the while. Passing thence as far as the Cape 
on the hast of the island, we saw the Islanders, alv/ays keeping pace 
with us on the summits of the mountains and along the shore, with 
cries and arrow-ohots from afar, showing towards us more and more 
the same inimical mind. We tiierefore determined to stop in some safe 
port, and to see if we could not speak \^ folio 56] once more to the 
!,.eianJp', but we did not succeed in this design, for the people, little 
better than beasts in this respe<ft, remained continually in arms, with 
the deliberate intention of resisting us if we should attempt to land. 
Wherefore Zichmni, seeing that he could not dj anything, and that, if 
he should remain obstinate in his purpose, vidluals would soon be 
wanting in the fleet, set sail with a fair wind and sailed six days tc 
the Westward; but, the wind changing to the South-west, and the sea 
therefore becoming rough, the fleet ran before the wind for four days. 
At last land was discovered, but we greatly feared to approach it, on 
account of the swelling seas, and because the land observed was 
unknown to us. Nevertheless, by God's aid, the wind dropped and 

The Zeno Book and its Contents. 


it became calm. Then 8omc men from the fleet went to the land in 
rowing boats, and not long after returned and reported, to our very 
great delight, that they had found a very good country and a still 
better harbour. At which news, having hauled up our ships and 
small vessels, we went on shore, and, having entered a good harbour, 
we saw afar off a great mountain which cast forth smoke ; this gave 
us hope that inhabitants would be found in the Island, nor, for all that 
it was so far off, did Zichmni delay sending a hundred good soldiers 
to reconnoitre the country and to report what kind of people in- 
habited it. In the meanwhile, the fleet was supplied with water and 
wood, and many fishes and sea-fowl were caught j they also found 
there so many birds' eggs that the half-famished men were able to eat 
their fill." 

"While we remained here, the month of June* came in, during 
which season the air in the island was more temperate and mild than 
can be expressed. In spite of this, not seeing anyone there, we began 
to suspedl that so beautiful a place was, nevertheless, uninhabited, and 
we gave to the port and to the point of land which ran out into the sea 
the names of Trin and Capo di Trin. The hundred soldiers who had 
gone away returned, after eight days, and reported that they had been 
over the island and to the mountain ; that the smoke proceeded from it 
because, as they had proved, at the bottom of it was a great fire ; that 
there was a spring from which was produced a certain matter, like 
pitch, which ran into the sea ; that many people inhabited the neigh- 
bouring parts, half savage, and sheltering themselves in caves j diat 
these were of small stature and very timid, for, diredly they saw the 
soldiers, they fled into their caves ; and that there was a large river 
there, and a good and safe harbour. Zichmni, being informed of these 
things, and seeing that the place had a healthy and pure climate, and 
very good soil, and rivers, and so many peculiar advantages, began to 
think of making his dwelling there, and of building a city. But his 
people, who had already endured a voyage so full of hardships, began to 
rebel, and to say that they wished to return home, because, \_ folio 57] 
as the winter was near, if they let it come in, they would not be able 
afterwards to get away until the following summer ; so he retained only 
the rowing boats, with those men who were willing to remain theic, 

' It will be observed that this date is wrong. The expedition must have started on or 
before the 23rd of June; for, as appears above (see p. 18), it stayed seven days at Ledovo, and 
afterwards arrived at Ilofe on the ist of July. 


33 The Voyages of the Brot 'jers Zeni. 

sending back all the others in the remaining ships; and he desired, 
against my will, that I should be the Captain. I departed therefore, 
because I could not do otherwise, and sailed towards the East for 
twenty days continuously without ever seeing land ; then, turning to- 
wards the South-east, after five more days I sighted land, and found that 
I had reached the Island Neome. Knowing this country, I perceived 
that I had passed Islanda. Wherefore, having procured fresh provisions 
from the Islanders, who were under the dominion of Zichmni, I sailed 
in three days, with a fair wind, to Frislanda, where the people, who 
believed that they had lost their Prince, because of the long time that 

we had spent upon the voyage, received us with signs of the greatest 

• »» 


[By THE Compiler.] 

" After this letter I find nothing further, except what I judge from 
conjedure. I gather, from a clause in another letter, which I give 
below, that Zichmni built a town in the port of the island newly 
discovered by him ; also, that he did his best to explore the whole 
country, together with the rivers in various parts of Engroueland 
[Greenland], because I see these described in detail in the map, but the 
description is lost. The clause in the letter is as follows : — " 

[Extract from another letter from Antonio Zeno to Carlo Zeno.] 

" As to those things which you seek to know from me concerning 
the customs of the men, the animals, and the neighbouring countries, 
I have written about all these a separate book, which, please God, 
I shall bring home with me. In it I have d nbed the countries, the 
monstrous fishes, the customs and laws of Frislanda, of Islanda 
[Iceland], of Estlanda [Shetland], of the Kingdom of Norway, of 
Estotilanda, of Drogio, and, lastly, the life of Nicolo the Knight, our 
brother, with the discoveries made by him, and matters relating to 
Grolanda^ [Greenland]. I have also written the life and exploits of 
Zichmni, a Prince certainly as worthy of immortal remembrance as any 
other who has ever lived in this world, on account of his great valour 
and many good qualities. In this life may be read of his discoveries 
in Engrouiland [sic) [Greenland] on both sides, and of the city built by 

* That is, that part of Greenland alleged to have been visited by Nicolo Zeno, the traveller, 
in the neighbourhood of the monastery. This is called " Engroueland," or " Engrouiland," 
throughout the narrative, except in this place; in the map Grolanda is rendered "Crolandia." 

The Zeno Book and its Contents, 2 3 

him. Wherefore, I will say no more to you in this letter, hoping 
soon to be with you, and to satisfy you concerning many other things 
vivd voce.'' 

[Bv THE Compiler.] 

"Ail these letters were written by Messire Antonio to Messire Carlo, 
his brother, and I grieve that the book and many other writings, in 
which perhaps these very same projeAs may have been carried out, 

have come, I know not how, unhappily to harm ; because, being still a 

icls, and not understanding what they 
were, I tore them in pieces and destroyed them, as boys will do, whicn 

boy when they came into my hands, and not understanding what thej 

I cannot, except with the keenest regret, now call to mind. Never- 
theless, in order that so fair a memorial of such things may not be lost 
{/b/io 58], I have placed in order in the above narrative what I have 
been able to recover of the aforesaid materials, to the end that I may, 
to some extent, make reparation to this present age, which, more than 
any other yet gone by, is interested in the many discoveries of new 
lands in those parts where, it might have been thought, they would 
be least expe<fled, and which is very much given to the study both of 
recent accounts, and of the discoveries of unknown countries made 
by the great spirit and enterprise of our ancestors." 





^SiStCJ^^ _^.^^^-«:^^/?W^ >**^-^^ ^S" 

From Bordone's Isolario, Venice, 1528, fol. i. 

! -3SFWCTW— "f"*^TI 






HE author or compiler of the book was one Nicolo 
Zeno/ a member of a distinguished patrician family, 
which had given a Doge, and several notable states- 
men and warriors to Venice, and from which Cardinal 
Zeno descended. Nicolo Zeno, the compiler, was a 
dired: descendant of the Antonio Zeno whose travels 
are described in the book, and was conned:ed through 
his great-grandmother with the reigning families of Persia and Cyprus.'^ 
He was born on tlie 6th of June, 15 15. He was Savio di Terra- 
firma and a member of the Council of Ten. He was sent, in 1543, 
as one of the members of an embassy to the Emperor Charles V.** 
He had a considerable contemporary reputation, both in public life, 
as a writer, and as a mathematician and geographer. He is said to 
have compiled a large work, the Cronaca or Storia Universale^ 
divided into decades, but the only portion printed was the litde 
volume of Annalsy the title of which is given above. The remainder 
of the work is said to have been still in manuscript when it was lost. 
Nicolo Zeno died on the loth of August, 1565. 

' The only definite authority for the attribution of the authorship of the text of the narra- 
tive to Nicolo Zeno is Moletius, in his edition of Ptolemy, V^enice, 1562 (Tab. xvii. Addit- 
aruni. Text) : — " Ut videre est in commentariolis rerum Persarum, harumque partium inventionis, 
qui lingua Italica typis dati sunt a Clariss. Nicolao Geno, eorum atnepos." The Dedication 
bears the name of Francesco Marcolini, but, from expressions in the book, it would certainly 
appear that the compiler was a member of the Zeno family. 

^ See Appendix III. 

■^ Zurla Dissertazione, 1808, p. 31, and Casali, Annate della Tipografia Veneziana di F. 
Marcolini de Forli, i86i. 


The Compiler and the Publisher of the Zeno Book. 2 5 

Francesco Marcolini, the printer and publisher of the book, was 
also a man of some note. He was born in Forli, and went to Venice 
about 1534. There, his great and varied abilities soon brought him into 
friendly, and even intimate, relations with such leading intelleftual men 
as Daniel Barbaro, to whom he dedicated the Annals^ Jacopo Tatti 
Sansovino, the archited and sculptor, Luigi Dolce, Antonio Doni, Titian 
and Pietro Aretino. He is said to have been an excellent " amateur" 
in archited:ure and drawing, a clockmaker, an antiquary, an author, a 
sculptor and a wood-engraver. His design for the bridge at Murano 
was chosen from among many others. Aretino, writing to Sansovino 
in 1545, calls this bridge " a miracle of construftion." As a printer, 
Marcolini produced numerous important works, many of them 

The story of the map and book, gathered from the latter, is as 
follows : — The compiler (who for convenience may be called Nicolo 
" the younger," to distinguish him from Nicolo /"/ Cavaliere^ one of 
the travellers) says that, when quite a boy, he came into possession of a 
book written by Antonio Zeno (the traveller) describing " the countries, 
the monstrous fishes, the customs and laws of Frislanda, of Islanda, 
of Esdanda, of the kingdom of Norway, of Estotilanda, of Drogio, 
and, lastly, the life of Nicolo, il Cavaliere^ our [Antonio's] brother, 
with the discoveries made by him, and the matters relating to Gro- 
landa;" and of a document, also by Antonio, describing " the life and 
exploits of Zichmni, a prince certainly as worthy of immortal remem- 
brance as any other who has ever lived in this world, on account of 
his great valour and many good qualities. In this life may be read of 
his discoveries in Engrouilanda {sic) on both sides, and of the city 
built by him." He also became possessed of certain old family 
letters. The book and many other writings, says the compiler, had 
come, he knew not how, unhappily to harm, because he, being still a 
boy when they came into his hands,^ and not understanding what they 
were, tore them in pieces and destroyed them, as boys will do, which 
he could not, except with the keenest regret, then call to mind. 
Nevertheless, in order that so fair a memorial of such things might not 
be lost, he had placed in order in his narrative what he had been able 
to recover of the aforesaid materials, to the end that he might to some 

' Zaccaria, Catakgo ragionato di of ere stampate per Francesco Marcolini, Fermo, 1850. 
" Nicolo Zeno the younger was born 6th June, 1 5 1 5 ; the Annals was not published 
before December, 1558, when he must have been upwards of forty-three years old. 


(„«»..-. *'Ni4*ri|i 




The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 




extent make reparation to that age, which, more than any other 
yet gone by, was interested in the many discoveries of new lands in 
those parts where they might have been least expefted, and which was 
very much given to the study both of recent accounts, and of the 
discoveries of unknown countries made by the great spirit and great 
enterprise of his ancestors.^ 

In another place, the compiler says^ that it occurred to him to draw 
out a copy of a navigating chart of the northern parts, which he once 
found he had amongst the ancient things in his house. This, 
although the chart was all rotten, and many years old, he had suc- 
ceeded in doing tolerably well, and which [copy], placed before the 
eyes of those who took a delight in such things, might serve as a light 
to make intelligible that which, without it, they would not be so 
well able to understand. 

Such is Nicolo the younger 's own account of the materials which 
he possessed for his work, and of the manner in which he made use 
of them. 

Some of the names in the text and upon the map, as, for instance, 
" Islanda " and " Engroueland" were not new; others, as " Estotiland " 
and " Drogeo," had not been heard of before. 

There was nothing improbable in the alleged voyage of the 
Venetian brothers into the North Sea, for reasons stated further on. 
The compiler of the book was a nobleman of reputation, and had, 
according to his own statements, drawn his facts from original 
documents, preserved, though in a damaged condition, in the archives 
of his family. 

His book went forth to the world with the prestige of the well- 
known names of Zeno, Barbaro and Marcolini attached to itj and 
it appears to have been at once accepted, without question, as genuine 
history and geography ; indeed, there seems to have been no reason 
why, at that time, it should not have been so accepted. The carto- 
graphy of the Northern Atlantic was still confused. Many non- 
existent islands appeared upon the best maps of the time. It was 
still a question whether Greenland was united to the Continent of 
Europe,* or to America, or to both,* or whether it was part of Asia,' 
or an island. The latter question was, indeed, still open until Peary's 
recent explorations settled the fad that it is an island. 

' Ff. 57 and 58. ' Ff. 46 and 47. ' Ptolemy, 1482, and many later editions. 
* Ziegler's Schondia, 1532, " Some are of opinion that this West England vs firm land with 
the north-east parts of Meta Incognita, or else with Groenland," (Hakluyt, vol. iii., 1600, p. 77.) 
' Ruysch's map in /'/e/fwj', 1507. 





" mare et terre incognite," the addition of the names " Grone- 
and " GuarduF Insula," and some variations in the spelling 

HE Zeno map (Plate XL), which bears the date 
McccLxxx., was copied in Ruscelli's Italian edition 
of "Ptolemy," published in Venice in 1561^ (Plate 
XIL), with some slight alterations, viz., the elimina- 
tion of every alternate parallel of longitude, and 
the addition of figures indicating the number of 
degrees to ihose left (taking the longitude of Ferro 
as the prime meridian), the extension of the sea between the North 
of Europe and " Crolandia," over the trad marked in the original 

of the other names. The editor of the " Ptolemy " credits Nicolo 
Zeno the younger with the revision of the map, and sne:ike of him 
as being "in those two most noble sciences, that is to say, history 
and geography, universally held to have, at this day, few equals in 
the whole of Europe." The same map appears in ^he " Ptolemy " 
of Moletius, published in Venice, in Latin, in 1562.'* It follows the 
map of " Schonladia Nvova," which is an enlarged and simpUfied 
copy of Gastaldi's map, " Schonlandia Nova," in the Italian " Ttolemy" 
of 1548 (Plate VI.). Moletius is careful to point out that the two 
maps given by him differ considerably, although each contains nearly 
the same parts of the world, and to explain that he has placed them 
together, so that the older navigations and travels might be better 

> "Nvova Tavola Settentrionale," No. XXXV. of the new maps. 

"^ " Tabula XVII. ?"'Hitarum, ct XXVI., secundum sertem numerorum." 

' I 



The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 



compared with the more recent. He then refers to the Zeno story 
as being " printed in the Italian language by the most distinguished 
Nicolo Zeno," and he dedicates his commentary on the sixth and 
seventh chapters of " Ptolemy " to Caterino Zeno, son of Nicolo the 

The Zeno narrative, with a few interpolations chiefly relating to 
the family, next appears in the second edition of the second volume of 
Ramusio's Navigationi et Viaggiy published in Venice in 1574.^ 

The Zeno narrative and map were accepted as genuine by Gerard 
Kaufmann, better known as " Mercator," and its errorSj or falsities, are 
reproduced in his great map of the world, published at Duisburg in 1 569 
(a facsimile of the pertinent portion of which is given on Plate XIII.). 
On this map the name " Estotiland " appears for the first time upon 
the continent of America. It is interesting to compare that portion 
of this map which has reference to the Zeno question with so much of 
the corresponding portion as appears on the same great cartographer's 
map of Europe, published in 1554, four years before the publication 
of the Zeno map (see Plates VII. and XIII.). The unfortunate accept- 
ance by Mercator of Zeno's representations has probably done more 
than anything else to disseminate the errors of the Zenian geography, 
as Mercator's maps were reprinted and recopied very frequently. 
The first edition of " Ptolemy" in which they appeared was that of 
1578. After Mercator's death, in 1594, the plates of his maps were 
bought by Jodocus Hondius, who used them in the 1605 edition of 
" Ptolemy," in " Mercator's Atlas," first published in Amsterdam in 
1 595, and in other works ; and the maps were also reproduced by other 
publishers, in several forms and languages, with more or less alteration, 
and with, or without, acknowledgment.'' 

In 1570, Abraham Ortelius published at Antwerp his Theatrum 
Or bis Terraruffty which contained two maps embodying Zeno's 


* It is to be noted that Ramusio himself died in i J57, before the publication, in 1559, of 
the first edition of the second volume of the book which continued to pass under his name. 
Zarhlmann mentions a 1 564 edition of the second volun' ;, but it was unknown to Haym 
{Biblioteca Italiana, 1771), and Sabin {Dill, of Books relating to America, 1888), in his elaborate 
collation of the various editions of Ramusio, states definitely that the 1 574 edition of the second 
volume was the second edition, and adds that he could find no proof of the existence of a 1 564 

^ Ex. gr. Gerardi Mercatoris Atlas, folio, Amsterdam, 1605. Atlas Minor, Gerardi 
Mercatoris, oblong 4to, Amsterdam, 16 10. P. Berlii Tabularum Geographicarum con- 
traHarum Libri Septem, oblong 4to, Amsterdam, 16 18. Theatrum Geographi-e Veteris 
(Bertius), 161 8, Hist or ia Mundi, or Mercator's Atlas, folio, London, 1635. 


The Influence of the Zeno Book and Map. 29 

material, viz., " Americae sive novi Orbis nova descriptio," and 
" Septentrionalium Regionum Descrip." (Plate XIV.). The map of 
Europe in the same volume, though it covers nearly ihe whole ground 
of the Zeno map, shows no trace of Zeno's influence, exc».pt that 
" Monasterium S. Thomae " is marked upon the coast of Greenland. 
In the text prefixed to Map 45, " Sept. Reg. Descrip.," the editor, in 
speaking of " Frislandia," refers to the travels of Nicolo Zeno, and 
gives a short epitome of the parts of the narrative relating to Frisland, 
Icaria, and Greenland.^ The fuller remarks, quoted by Hakluyt, in 
favour of the Zeni, as mentioned below, first appear in the 1592 
edition of the Theatrum Orbis^ in the text prefixed to Map 6, 
" Mare pacificum vel del Zur." Both Mercator and Ortelius identify 
Drogeo with " Dus Cirnes (jallis," a mysterious island supposed to 
have been discovered by some French navigators, which appears on 
several maps of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 

Frisland appears, together with Iceland and Feroe, on the map, 
dated 1570, by Sigurdus Stephanius,^ the head of the school at Skai- 
holt. None of the other names initiated by Zeno are shown. 

In 1576, Martin Frobisher made his first voyage in search of a new 
passage to Cataya, China, and the East India, by the North-west. 
Coming to Greenland, in 61" N. lat., he mistook it for "Frisland," 
and, in his second and third voyages, undertaken in 1577 and 1578, 
he fell into the same error.* He was no doubt misled by the Zeno 
map, which puts the southern point of Greenland between 65° and 
66° N. lat., and the south of Frisland in 61° N. lat., about the true 
position of Cape Farewell. It is evident that he used that map as a 
guide, for, in the account of his second voyage, " Frislande," or "West 
Frislande," is stated to have been sighted in 60° 30' N. lat., and it is 
added that it " appeareth by a description set out by two brethren 
Venetians, Nicholaus and Antonius Zeni^ who, being driven off from 
Ireland with a violent tempest, made shipwracke here, and were the 
first knowen Christians that discovered this land about two hundred 
yeares sithence, and they have in their Sea-cardes set out every part 
thereof. . . . And for so much of this land as we have sayled 

* In this same text, in the 1592 edition of Ortelius, is interpolated a passage referring to 
the supposed recent visit of the English (Frobisher) to Frislandia, and to the name " Angiia 
Occidentalis," or West England, given to it by them, on the 20th June, 1578. 

"^ Torfaeus, Gronlandia Antiqua, Havni^, 17 15. 

' Hakluyt, 1589, pp. 619, 623, and 6jo; ed. 1599-1600, vol. iii., pp. 30, 2,Zi 4°> 5^' 
62, 77- 


"■^ ■»•«'.- '^*'"^Se-^ 


30 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

alongst, comparing their carde with the Coast, we find it very 
agreeable." ^ 

In Frobisher's " Articles and orders to be observed for the Fleete," 
on his third voyage, the captains are enjoined, *' If any ship shall 
happen to lose company by force of weather, then any such ship or 
ships shall get her into the latitude of [sic) and so keep that 

latitude until they get Frisland" ^ 

In the account of Frobisher's third voyage the fohowing passage 
occurs : — 

*' The twentieth of June, at two of the clocke in the morning, the 
General descried land, and found it to be West Frisland^ now named 
West England. Here the Generall and other Gentlemen went ashore, 
being the first knowen Christians that we have true notice of that ever 
set foot upon that ground, and therefore the Generall tooke possession 
thereof to the use of our Sovereign L^.dy the Queene's Majestic. . . . 
Some are of opinion that this West England is firme land with the 
North-east partes of Met a Incognita, or else with Greenland"^ 

Porcacchi di Castiglione (1576) gives* a map of Iceland drawn 
with the fiditious Zenian Islands to the east of it. In the accom- 
panying text, which is apparently taken from the exceedingly rare 
Italian pamphlet by Olaus Magnus, descriptive of his great map of 
1539 (Plate IV.), and from the larger work, by the same author, 
published in 1555, also referring to his great map,® there is no allusion 
to the Zeni or their voyages, nor is there any trace of the Zeno 
influence on any of the other maps in Porcacchi's book. 

In the Private Diary of DoEior John Dee^ under the date Nov- 
ember 28th, 1577, are the following entries : 

" I spake with the Quene hora quinta. I spake with her secretary 
Walsingham. I declared to the Quene her title to Greenland, Esteti- 
land, and Friseland;" and, under the date June 30th, 1578, *' I told 

' Hakliiyt, 1 599-1600, vol. iii., p. 62. Mr. Miller Christy has a copy made from a MS. 
map preserved in the library at Hatfield House, showing Frobisher's discoveries. Upon 
the original are indicated, in pencil, Frisland, Drogio, and Estotiland, in the positions in which 
the draughtsman evidently expefted those islands would be found. The map is dated 6th June, 
1576, and is signed by W. Borough. Frobisher sailed on the 15th of the same month. 

^ Hakluyt, 1599-1600, vol. iii., p. 76. 

' Hakluyt, vol. iii., pp. 76, 77. 

* L'IsoUpiu Famosi del Mondo, fol. Venice, 1576, p. i. 

' Opera breve, laquale demonstra, e dechiara, overo da il modo facili de inUndere la charla, 
over delU lerre frigidissime de Settentrione, etc. Venice, 1539 (Brit. Mus. C. 55, c. a), and 
Hisloria de gentibus Septenlrionalibus, etc. Rome, mdlv. 

• Edited by J. O. Halliwell (Camden Society). Published 1842. 

The Influence of the Zeno Book and Map. 31 

Mr. Daniel Rogers, Mr. Hackluyt of the Middle Temple being by, 
that Kyng Arthur and King Maty, both of them, did conquier 
Gelindia, lately called Friseland." 

In his map,^ dated 1580, but prepared, as appears from the en- 
dorsement, before Frobisher's third voyage in 1578, Dr. Dee shows 
Iceland, without the Zenian Islands ofF the Eastern point; Icaria, 
Groeland, and Engroueland, Estotiland (as an island between 60° and 
70° north latitude, and in the longitude of Cuba), Frisland, Neome, 
and Podalida. For Drogeo he substitutes " Orbeland aliis Dus Cirnes." 
In the endorsement on the map he says, "Circa Anno 530. King 
Arthur not only Conquered Iseland^ Groenland^ and all the Northern 
lies compassing unto Russia, but even unto r' c North Pole (in 
manner) did extend his jurisdidion : and sent Colonies thither, and 
unto all the Isles between Scotland and Iselandy whereby yt is pro- 
bable that the last-named Friseland Hand is of the Brytish ancient 
discovery and possession : and allso seeing Groeland beyonde Greenland 
did receive their Inhabitants by Arthur, it is credible that the famous 
Hand Estotiland was by his folke possessed. Circa A° 1353. The Latin 
Books in the King's Library in Estotiland, by no history (yet heard 
of) can most probably be ascribed to any other Mens bringing 
thither, than by the foresayd Colonies sent by King Arthur." 

On a map of America and the Adantic and Pacific Oceans, pub- 
lished by Rasciotti** at Venice in 1583, are shown '* Islant," with 
"Icaria" due west of it, "Drogeo de Francesi," and "Estotiland," 
which latter is placed on the continent of America. 

Lorenzo D'Anania accepts* the Zeno narrative as true, and shows 
Icaria, Frisland, and Estotiland, on the map of America, which first 
appears in the edition of his work published in 1582. 

The Zeno narrative next appears in English, translated from 
Ramusio's Italian version, in Halduyt's Divers Voyages, 15 82,* and 

' Dr. John Dee's map. Original in the British Museum (Cottonian MS., Aug. i. i. 
art. i). 

« Remarkable Maps of XV., XVI., and XVII. Centuries, Edited by C. H. Coote. 
Mailer, Amsterdam, 1894, Part I., Map 12. 

' L' Universale Fabrica del Mondo, etc., in Venetia, 1582, p. 178 et seqq, 

* Divers Voyages touching the discoverie of America and the Hands adjacent unto the same, 
made first of all by our Englishmen and afterwards by the Frenchmen and Britons. . . . IVith two 
mappes annexed hereunto . . . imprinted at London for "Thomas IVoodckcke . . . 1582. For 
facsimiles of the translation referred to above, and of Lok's map, see Appendix II. and Plate XV. 
The other map in the book, (" Thome's," 1 527), does not bear upon the Zeno question. There 
is a facsimile of it in Nordenskjold's Facsimile Atlas. 


11 \ 

3 2 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

in the second map (Lok's) Greenland is marked " N. and A. Zeno, 
1380." The translation does not appear in the same author's 
Principall Navigations Voiages and Discoveries^ ^589, which is 
devoted to English travels only, but it re-appears, with a few additions 
and some variations in spelling, in the third volume of the Voyages^ 
Navigations^ Traffiques^ and Discoveries^ published in 1 599-1600. 

We find a note of suspicion in Hakluyt's remarks which follow the 
account in his larger edition of 1 599-1600. "For the more credite 
and confirmation of the former Historic of Messer Nicholas and Messer 
Antonio Zeni (which for some fewe respedts may perhaps bee called in 
question) I have heere annexed the iudgment of that femous Cosmo- 
grapher Abraham Ortelius^ or rather the yealding and submitting of 
his iudgment thereunto: etc."^ He then quotes a passage attributing to 
Antonio Zeno a discovery of America a century before that by 
Columbus. This passage from Ortelius quoted by Hakluyt is fi-om the 
text prefixed to Map 6, "Mare Pacificum vel del Zur, ' and does not 
appear in any edition of the Theatrum Orbis earlier than that of 
1592. A clause is interpolated, in the text prefixed to the map 
" Sept. Regionum descrip.," in this edition, stating that Frisland was 
called by the xinglish Anglia Occidentalis. The name West England 
was fi'st given by Frobisher to Greenland, which he thought was Fris- 
land, on the 20th June, 1578, when on his third voyage.** 

The principal names of the Zeno map appear, however, upon the 
" Typus Orbis Terrarum," from Ortelius's Theatrum OrbiSy which 
map was provisionally issued with the 1589 edition of Hakluyt, 
" imtill the comming out of a very large and most exa<ft terrestriall 
Globe, colleded and reformed according to the newest, secretest, and 
latest discoveries, both Spanish, Portugall, and English, composed by 
M. Emmerie Mollineux of Lambeth^ a rare Gentleman in his pro- 
fession, being therein for divers yeeres, greatly supported by the purse 
and liberalitie of the worshipfiall marchant M. William Sander son ^''^ 
The globe here mentioned was finished in 1592, and the only known 
example extant is now preserved in the Library of the Middle Temple, 
in London. It shows Frislanda, Drogeo (which appears as part of 
Labrador, and not as an island), and some other Zenian ..ames, which 
are omitted in the important map of which it was, probably, the 


' op. cit,, vol. iii., 1600, p. 127. 

"^ Op. cit., vol. iii., 1600, p. 77. 

=■ Hakluyt, 1589, "To the Reader." 

The Infiuence of the Zeno Book and Map. 33 

original source. Buss Island,' supposed to have been discovered on 
Frobisher's third voyage in 1578, is delineated for the first time on 
this globe. The map, now known as the Molineux Map, or Wright's 
Map, was published in 1599,'* and contains a few of the Zeno mate- 
rials which appear in the more reputable company of the discoveries of 
Frobisher and Davis. It should form part of Hakluyt's work of 
1 599-1600, but rarely does so. 

On the 14th Odober, 1586, John Davis wrote to Mr. William 
Sanderson : — " The Sunneshine came into Dartmouth the fourth of this 
moneth : She hath been at Island^ and from thence to Groenland^ and 
so to Estotilandy from thence to Desolation^ and to our Marchants^ 
etc. ... I hope I shall finde favour with you to see your Card, etc."* 

Frisland is mentioned in the account of the apocryphal voyage of 
Lorenzo Ferrer Maldonado to the Straits of Anian, alleged to have 
taken place in 1588.* The account of this voyage was first brought 
to the notice of the public by a translation from the Spanish Manu- 
script in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, by Amoretti, the librarian 
of that establishment. The voyage has long been discredited, but it 
is mentioned here as it was referred to, amongst others, by Zurla in 
support of the Zeno story. 

There is no suggestion of Zenian material in Sebastian Munster's 
edition of Ptolemy^ i542> nor in the editions of his Cosmography^ 
published, during his lifetime, in 1544 and 1550; but, in some of the 
posthumous editions of the latter work we find some Zenian na nes 
and islands incorporated in the maps. For instance, in the Basle edition 
of 1588, Map I, Estotilandt appears upon America. In Map 3, 

' Of course " Buss Island" has really no direft connexion with the Zenian narrative, as it 
was first mentioned only in 1578; but it afterwards became so confused, and even identified, 
with the Frisland of the Zeni, that it is necessary to refer to it. 

" There are tvo states of thrf Molir'' 'x Map. The first impression was reproduced with 
Admiral Markham's Voyages and fVor! John Davis (Hakluyt Society, 1880), with a note 
on the map by Mr. C. H. Coote. Th. :ond impression (which may be distinguished from 
the first by a fourth cartouche in the South Pacific, containing an inscription referring to the 
voyages of Drake, SarmientJ, and Candish), is reproduced in Nordenskjold's Facsimile Atlas, 
Plate L. Very few copies of the first impression "t" ^xtantj the last, sold by public auiftion at 
Christie and Manson's on th. 19th June, 1894, fetched ;^375 (Quaritch). This copy formerly 
belonged to Sir James Hay Langham, Bart. The Molineux Map is now generally accepted as 
that referred to in Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, Aft III., Scene 2, as "the new map with 
the augmentation of the Indies." 

^ Hakluyt, 1589, p. 786, and 1599-1600, voi. iii., p. 108. 

* A translation of a copy of this account obtained from Don Filipe Banza, Superintendent 
of the Hydrographical Department in Madrid, is given in the second appendix to Barrow's 
Voyages into the Ar£iic Regions, 1818. See also Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical 
History of America, vol. ii., p. 455, and vol. viii., p. no. 



The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

,i , 




"New Europa," S. 0. Tome^ appears on Greenland. In Map 19, 
*' Regiones Septentrionales," the Zenian names are given on Gron- 
landt^ which is shown as a large triangular island, as in Ortclius (Plate 
XIV.) ; Friesland is shown with only the names Cabaru^ Ocibar^ 
Godinecky and Sorand upon it, and the islands Neome^ Podalida^ Ilofe., 
Ledeve^ Grislandt^ Icaria, and Estotilandt also appear. The Shet- 
lands are called See landt. Munster died in 1552, six years before 
the Zeno book was published, and it has been suggested that his 
Cosmography was one of the sources of parts of the Zeno narrative. 
But, if this be so, the position is reversed in the later editions of the 
Cosmography^ and Munster's honoured name, without his will, has 
helped to spread the Zenian myths. 

Livio Sanuto credits * the Zeni brothers with the discovery of the 
parts nearest to the Pole, and refers to the map and narrative as 
authorities upon the true boundaries of Greenland. 

Myritius'^ mentions the Monastery of St. Thomas in Engroneland, 
Frisland, and Nicolo Zeno. 

Peter Plancius shows Frisland, Cape Trin, and Estotiland, on his 
" Orbis Terrarum Typus," 1594. He also shows the Island of Bus. 
No copy of Plancius's earlier map of 1592 is now known to be extant. 

Cornelius Wytfliet," writing in 1597, fully accepts the brothers 
Zeni as the first discoverers of Labrador, under the name of Estotiland, 
and, in his map of " Estotilandia et Laboratoris terra," puts the names 
"Estotilandt" and "Terra de Labrador" together. He also shows upon 
the Greenland coast the names of the rivers and promontories which 
are to be found on the Zeno map. Frisland also appears, but Drogeo 
and Icaria are not shown, except upon his general map of the world. 

The accounts of the Monastery of St. Thomas, of the volcanoes, 
of the hot springs, and of their use for warming the monks' chambers 
and cooking their food, appear in the first Latin edition of Linschoten's 
voyages, 1599,* and also in the French edition of 1610, but the 
Historia Triu?n Navigationum (recording the voyages of Barentz in 
[594, 1595, and 1596), which contains the accounts, is not in either 
the first edition, in Dutch, 1596, or in the first English edition, 1598. 

' Geografia, Vinegia, 1588, fF. 14 and 17. 

- Opusculum Geographicum, Ingoldstadt, 1590, Part II., chapter xix. 

•' Descriptionis Ptokmaice yfugmentum, Louvaiii, 1597. Eighteen out of the nineteen 
maps in this work are reproduced in Nordenskjold's Facsimile Atlas. 

* Navigatio ac Itinerarium Johanttis Hugonis Linscotani. Hagae Comitis, 1599. ^*'"' ''•> 
p. 18. 

The Jnfittence of the Zeno Book and Map. 35 

The Latin edition also contains .1 1. f the Northern regions, 

attributed to William Barents, which shi)vvs Estotiland and part of 
Frisland, and has some ot the Zenian names on the coast of Greenland. 
This map, on a reduced scale, also appears in De Bry,' 1601. There 
is, however, no mention of the monastery, nor of the other Zenian 
details as to Greenland, in the original account of the three voyages 
by Gerrit de Veer," published, in Dutch, Latin, and French, at 
Amsterdam, in 1598, from which Linschoten made his Abstrad ; nor 
in the Italian edition, published at Venice in 1599 ; nor in the English 
translation, published in London in 1609. The Zenian details in 
Linschoten's Latin edition of 1599 are, therefore, interpolations by the 
editor, who was, according to Camus," Linschoten himself. 

Matthias Quad, in hii Compendium Univeni* quotes the Zeno 
story as an authority. The same author, in a later work, gives a map, 
avowedly copied from Gerard Mercator,"* which shows Frisland, Estoti- 
land, and Drogeo. 

In a map dated 1605, by H. P. Resen," Frisland and Estotiland 
are shown, with seme curious legends attached. It is more fully 
referred to below in the chapter which deals with the " Carta da 

The map, engraved by Hessel Gerritsz, to illustrate Hudson's 
voyages,' shows Yslandt, Frisland and Bus, and Groenlandia, but the 
latter bears none of the Zenian names. This map on a reduced scale 
is used by Levinus Hulsius (Part XII., Oppenheim, 16 14). 

In the account of James Hall's voyage of 1606^ Frezeland is 
mentioned ; it is not, however, stated that he saw it, but that he saw 
land which he supposed to be Busse Island, more to the westward than 
it was placed in the marine charts. 

' Tres Navigat tones Hollandorum in modo diilam Indiam. Francofurti, 1601. Part III. of 
De Bry's Pelits Voyages, 

" Waerachtighe Beschryvinghe van drie seylagien, etc. Amsterdam, 1598. 

' Memoire sur la Colleltion des Grands et Pelits Voyages, par A. G. Camus, Membre de 
rinstitut National Imprime par I'ordre et aux frais de I'lnstitut, Paris. Frimaire an XI. (1802), 
p. 191 n. 

* Compendium Universi, compleiJe'.i Geographicarum Enarrationum Libros sex. Colonia 
Agrippinae, 1600. Book 6. 

' "Typus Orbis Terrarum ad iinitationem universalis Gerhardi Mercatoris" in Geo- 
graphisch Handtbuch, Coin, 1600; and the Latin translation Fasciculus Geographicus, Coin 
am Rein, 1608. The map is reproduced in Nordenslyold's Facsimile Atlas, Plate XLIX. 

" Reproduced in " Om *sterbygden" of K. J. V. Steenstrup (Aftryk af Meddelelser om 
Gr^nland, IX.). Copenhagen, 1886. 

' Descriplio ac delineatto Geographica DeteHionis Freti, etc., Amsterdam, 16 12. 

^ Purchas his Pilgrimes, 1625, vol. iii., p. 822. 



The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

Frisland and Estotilandia ar" shown on the map, dated 1606, by 
Gudbrand Thorlacius, Bishop of Holcn.* 

Mention of Ditmar Blef ken's mendacious and libellous booklet'' 
ought not to be omitted, as it has been supposed by some authors to 
confirm Zeno's description of Greenland. Blefken gives an account, 
(which, he says, he heard from a blind monk while he was in Iceland 
in 1563), of the Monastery of St. Thomas in Greenland, where the 
monk said he had been in 1546. The account contains details 
corresponding closely to those given by i-A i «- The authenticity of 
Blefken's narrative has been so entirely di .> nved by Arngrim Jonas," 
and its falsities so thoroughly exposed, that even Major, who frankly 
admits that he would have been glad of Blefken's sUj.p'^'-t. if he could 
have accepted it, abandons it utterly, and points out that, «s Blef- 
ken's book was not published till forty-nint years after Zeno's narrative 
appeared, he might easily have borrovvd his accounts from the latter. 
That he did so is the more likel) a^ he states that insula qua 
Ebuda vocantur lie off the north-east extremity of Iceland, where 
Zeno shows his seven misplaced islands, Mimant, Troas, Bres. >. tc. 

A German version of Zeno's narrative is given by Megisser,* and is 
accompanied by maps of Frisland and the Shctlands, on the same plate 
with a map of the Faroes (which latter group of islands does not appear 
on the Zeno map, unless under the guise of Frisland), all taken from 
Mercator's Atlas ;° also, by a map of Iceland, reduced from Bishop 
Gudbrand Thorlaksen's large map of that island," and by a map of 
" Engronelant," which bears Zenian names. On Abraham Goos's 
globe, published by Joh. Jansonnius at Antwerp in 162 1, St. Thomas 
is shown upon Greenland, together with Frisland and Buss? 

Sieur Pierre D'Avity^ refers, apparently with credence, to the 
discovery of Estotiland by fishermen of Freslande^ and its subsequent 
recognition by Antonio Zeno in 1390. 

An abstradl of the Zeno voyages appears in Purchas His Pil- 

' Torfasus, Gronlandia Antiqua, Havniac, 17 15. 

- Islandia, sive populorum el mirabilium gu<e in ea insula reperiuntur accuratior descriptio : 
cui de Gronlandia subjinem quadam adjeSla. Hague, 1607. 

' Anatomic Blefkeniana, Holen, 16 1 2. 

* Seplentrio Novantiquus oder Die Newe Nort fVelt. Leipsic, 1613. 

'•" Historia Mundi, Amsterdam, 1606 ; London, 1635. Map 6, p. 29. 

° Ortelius, Theatrum Oriis Terrarum. Antwerp, 1595. Map 103. 

' Reproduced in facsimile in Remarkable Maps of the XIl^., XV., and Xyith, Centuries. 
Muiier, Amsterdam, 1894, Part I., No. 9. 

' Les Estats, Empires, et Principautez du Monde. Paris, 1622, p. 264. 

— — ^ — >. 

Tlie Influence of the Zeno Book and Mh . 37 

grimes y 1625.' A second and fuller notice, in Purchas his Pil- 
grimage^^ the author concludes thus : 

*' This History I have thus inserted at large, which, perhaps, not 
without cause in some thinges, may seem fabulous ; not in the Zeni^ 
which thus writ, but in the Relations they received from others. 
Howsoever; the best Geographers are beholden to these Brethren, for 
that little knowledge ihey have of these parts ; of which none before 
had written : nor since have there been any great in-land Discoveries." 
And he refers to Ortelius, Hakluyt, Botero, and Maginus, in support. 
In " The course from Island to Groneland^^ which follows Ivar Boty's 
Treatise in Purchas, the following occurs:" "If you see Ice that 
commeth out of Trolebothony you shall goc more Southerly, but not 
too farre South for fearc of Freesland^ for there runneth an hard 
streame. And it is fifteene miles or leagues from Frees land.'' 

" Item. Freesland lyeth South and Island East from Gronland." 

Pontanus, in his Danish history, 1631,* prints a Latin version of 
the Zeno narrative in full, leaving its credibility to the judgment of the 
reader, but accepting it hi'nself as true. He docs iu)t, however, else- 
where in his text (exccnt in a quotation from Wytfliet) mention any of 
the peculiar Zenian islands. Arngrim Jonas, more fully referred to 
below, comments upon this somewhat remarkable inconsistency." 

Luke Foxe, who sailed the Northern Seas in 163 1, gives an abstradl 
of the Zeno narrative, and, in the " Polar Card,'' which illustrates his 
book, shows Frisland, but all other traces of the Zeno map are 
wanting. The Island of " Buss " is shown. He also quotes Arngrim 
Jonas, and Ditmar Blefken. As to the Zeno narrative, he says : 

" This writer acknowledging that Originall copies of the Zenij's 
Letters, were by him careleslly torne in peieces in his youth, which 
losse he now grieued at, I doubt in thij, he was enforced in many 
things, to patch vp, as his memorie would serve, so as there may be 
some likelyhood of vntruths, howsoever I doe beleeve, the first Copies 
were true, though this is subiedl to mistakings."" 

The only reference to the Zeni, in Foxe's account of his own 

' op. cit,, vol. iii., p, 6io. 

*" Purchas bis Pilgrimage (a distindt work from his Pilgriines, but usually treated as vol. v. 

of the larger book). Fourth edition, 1626, pp. 807-809. 

" Purchas bis Pi/grimes, vol. iii., p. 520. 

* Rerum Danicarum Historia, libri x. Amsterdam, 1631, pp. 755-763. 

^ Specimen Islandite. Amsterdam, 1643, p. 161. 

" North fVest Fox. London, 1635, pp. 12 and 181. 




The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, 

voyage, is the following wild conje<fture : " nor will I be perswaded, 
but that if there were a DorgiOy as is mentioned by the Zeni, that that 
tra<ft of land on the S. betwixt Frobrishers [sic] strait and Cape Fare- 
well^ is the same."^ 

On " The Piatt of Sayling for the Discoverye of a Passage into 
the South Sea, 1631, 1632," as the map illustrating James's voyage is 
entitled,- i'Vezeland is shown, but there is no other Zenian name, 
iiid no allusion to the Zeni in the text. The course of the voyage, 
however, did not touch any of the Zenian localities except the South- 
western point oi Greenland. 

\n Willem jansz (Blaeu) and Herman Allertsz (Coster's) " Grote 
Werclfs Caerte," revised by Franciscus Hoieus, and published by Hugo 
Allardt, about 1640,^ St. Thomas ^ and some other Zenian names, 
appear on Greenland, and Frisland is shown, but Icaria^ Estotilar/H^ 
and Drogeo are absen- 

Hugo Grotius* refers to Frislanda and Estotilanda on the authority 
of Zeno's narrative. De Laet, in his notes on Grotius, shows that he 
doubts the story. ° In his answer to the second dissertation of Grotius, 
after denying that he had said that all the statements in the Zeno 
narrative seemed to him to be false, but only those concerning Estoti- 
land, the King's library, and the fisherman's story, De Laet adds, that 
if he had said that he thought nearly all the statements false, he would 
not have considered that he had said anything except the truth.® 

Mothe le Vayer is quoted by Terra Rossa' and Zurla,® as saying, 
on p. 71 of his Geographic (which we have not seen), when treating 
of Nortii America, that the land of Estotiland in Davis's Straits was 
discovered in 1390, and that neither Christopher Columbus, nor 
Amerigo Vespucci, was the first to find the New World, for, more 
than a hundred years before them, Antonio Zeno, a Venetian, went 
into that part of the continent by order of the King of Frislanda, 
called Zichmno (Zurl? has Zichim). 

La Peyrere, in his kdation du Groenlandy addressed to Mothe 

' North West Fox. London, 1635, p. 181. 

- The Strangle and Dangerous Voyage of Captain Thomas James, etc 

Edited by C. H. Coote. 

London, 1633. 
Muller, Amsterdam, 1894; Parti., 

R<,;narkable Maps, etc. 
Nos. 7 and 8. 

* Dissertatio de Or^gine Gentium Americanarum. Amsterdam, 164.2. 

■' Not,e Diss. Hugcnis Grotii, De origire Gent. amer. Amsterdam, 1643, pp. 20-22. 

" Responsio ad Diss. Secundam Hugonis Grotii, etc. Amsterdam, 1644, p. 1 1. 

■ Riflessioni Geogrcfiche. Padova, 1686, folio 5. 

» Disserlazione, 1808, p. 120. Marco Polo, vol. ii., pp. 78, 79. 

The Influence of the Zeno Book and Map. 3^ 

le Vayer, mentions the Monastery in Greenland dedicated to St. 
Thomas/ on the authority of the versified chronicle of the Danish 
priest, Claude Christophersen (Lyscander), who died about 1635.^ 
He also shows Frisland on the " Carte de Groenland " which illustrates 
his book, but there is no other sign of the Zeno story on the map, 
and no mention of the Zeni in the text. 

The Zeno story was accepted and supported by many other 
geographers and authors, and its materials incorporated in many books 
and maps; but enough has been said to show that, for nearly a 
hundred years after the publication of the Uttle volume of^«««/j, and 
its accompanying map, they were generally looked upon as authentic. 

' Relation du Groenland. Paris, 1647, p. 29. 

- Ibid., p. 10. 


Labrador [Greenland] from Bordone's Isolario, Venice, 1528, fol. 6. 



;'?^>-^~^^^^ ^ j^^ 




IHILE geographers and authors were spreading the 
Zeno Map and narrative broadcast as authentic 
documents, praftical navigators were finding out 
that there was ar least as much fidtion as fadl in 
the map. At first they gave the map credit, and 
tried to fit to it the newer discoveries in the northern 
world. Frobisher, as we have seen, thought that 
Greenland was Zeno's Frisland. Mercator, working upon Davis's 
discoveries, made Cape Desolation, Cape Chidley, and Sander- 
son's Hope, agree with Zeno's " Af," " pr Hoen," and " pr Hit," 
respeftively.^ But the Island of Frislanda, " much larger than Ire- 
land,"^ and having a large and lucrative trade with " Flanders, 
Brittany, England, Scodand, Norway, and Denmark,"^ had disappeared 
from the face of the earth ; " Icaria," too, was gone, legend and all. 
The positions of these islands, as far as they could be calculated from 
the map, had been sailed over again and again, but the wonderfiil 
lands were not there. Professor Storm refers* to the Diary of a 
Voyage of Christen Nielson, a Dane, made in 1579, in which, when 
he came to the place where Frislanda should have been, according to 
the Zeno Map, he has noted, " here we were, as the Captain (the 
Englishman James Alday) said, thirty miles from a land which was 

' Lelewel, Geographie du Moyen Age^ vol. iv, p 98 n. (35). 
- Annals, folio 47. ^ Ibid., folio 48. 

* Om Zeniernes Reiser, p. 3, whete Gr<^nlands Historiske Mindismaerker, lii. 644, which 
contains the Diary, is referred to. 


. - -...~— * . 


Doubts and Controversy. ' 41 

called Frisland;" but, adds Storm, one sees also from the Diary that 
the ship v/ent backwards and forwards in this sea without hitting upon 

Arngrim Jonas, a native of, and resident in, Iceland, who, in 1592, 
was commended to the world by the Bishop of Holen as " an honest 
and learned young nian,"^ was the author of "The Commentary of 
Iceland," ** printed by Hakluyt, and of other works on that island,^ 
directed partly to the refutation of fables about it, and of the libels 
upon its inhabitants. In his Specimen Islandics he exposes many of 
the falsities, both of the history and geography, of the Zeno Annals. 
He denies absolutely the existence of the Zenian Islands to the east 
of Iceland, and derides the account of the flourishing winter gardens 
in Greenland. 

Arnoldus Montanus, and Ogilby, the editor of the English edition 
of Montanus's work, in referring to Zeno, say* that " he has set down 
many things that have little resemblance to truth according to what is 
since found by credible navigators ; and therefore we cannot depend 
on Zeno's discovery." 

Moses Pitts, in his fine English Atlas^ ^ though he shows " Fris- 
land," and some other Zenian names, in the map of the World on 
Mercator's projedlion, and on his map of the North Pole and parts 
adjoining, refers to the Zeni in terms of disparagement thus : " tho 
there be grounds sufficient to make us doubt some of their relations 
yet not to rejedl them," and writing of " Freesland or Friseland," he 
says, " They [the Zeni brothers] describe the inhabitants to be good 
Christians, very civil, and to be governed by a great Lord whose name 
was Zickmay^ whose mighty conquests and strange accidents may be 
read in Hackluit. It is not our business to write or repeat romances." 

Another author, a man of mark in his day, who ventured to doubt 
the truth of the Zeno story, was the French geographer, Michel 
Antoine Baudrand. In his Geographical DiSiicnary^ 168 1, he 
makes" some very pertinent criticisms and awkward queries as to the 

' Hakl., 1599, ''°'' '•' P- 55-' 

"■ Ibid. 

" Crymogaa^ or History of Iceland, 1609. .'inato'-ztie Biifkemam, H.o\en, 1612. Specimen 
hlandi.-! Historicum, Amsterdam, 1643, p. 142 el seq. 

* De Nieuwe en onbekende fVeereld, Amsterdam, 1671 ; and America, London, 1671. 

'' English Atlas, Oxford, i68g, folio, vol. i., pp. 10 and 13. 

" Ceographia ordine litterarum disposita, Paris, 1681, in Latin, afterwards published in 
French in 1701. This book was a new edition, much amplified, of the work of Ferrarius, 
published in 1670. , . 









/ *- 

i I 


TAe Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

existence, not only of Frisland, but of that part of the imaginary 
Great Southern Continent called " Beach," which, it was claimed, had 
been discovered by Marco Polo, a countryman of the Zeni. He 
Vi^ntiires to ask "where are they?" and proceeds to express his doubts 
as to their existence, giving for a reason as to Frisland, the absolute 
silence of other authors, and of French, English, Danish, and Belgian 
navigators about it. In this, however, as will have been seen, he is 
not quite accurate. 

This expression of scepticism on the part of Baudrand brings upon 
the field a comic figure, raging furiously, Padre Dottore Vitale Terra 
Rossa. In his Rijlessioni Geograjiche^ a book which is as much 
an attack on Baudrand as a defence of the Venetian nobles, he claims 
to nave proved that the patricians of Venice first discovered all the 
lands anciently unknown, also America and Terra Australis ; that an 
exadl and perfed concordance of the old and new geography is 
desirable, for the honour of the Venetian noblemen ; and he contends, 
in opposition to Baudrand, that none of the geographical accounts 
published by his clients are feigned or fabulous. He is intensely 
indignant with Baudrand for writing in disparagement of the Venetian 
nobility,^ but feels only called upon to refute three out of " the 
arbitrary catalogue of lies,"* viz., those relating to Beach, Frislanda 
and Java Minor, and he is content to prove the existence of those 
places by showing that " they are on many maps." " Beach " and the 
Great Southern Continent would, however, have proved unfortunate 
examples for him, had he lived long enough to learn that the huge 
continent shown around the South Pole, covering nearly one-sixth of 
the surface of the globe, which he may have been accustomed to see 
on the maps of Mercator and Ortelius, and of other much later 
cartographers, had no existence, and that it is in fa<3: represented only 
by two, or perhaps three, large islands and a good many little ones. 

In several maps in Speed's Atlas, 1627,* and in a map of 
Visscher's published in 1652,° the Great Southern Continent, with 
Beach upon it, and Frisland, in the North Sea, both still appear. 

On a terrestrial globe by Padre CoroneUi, dated 1688, and pre- 
served in the Palazzo Bianco at Genoa, " Labrador " bears this legend in 

' Rijlessioni Geografiche circa U terre incognite Distese in ossequio perpetuo della Nobilita 
yeneziatta, Padua, 1686. 

^ lbid.,}p. 85. ' Ibid.,^. 90. 

* A Prosper 0/ the most Famous Parts 0/ the JVcrld, by John Speed. London, 1627. 

* In Seller's Atlas Terrestris. Circa 1660, 

IV.'^^. . 

Doubts and Controversy. 43 

Italian: " Estotilandia, or the New Bretaigne and Terre de Labrador, 
discovered by Antonio Zeno, a Venetian patrician in 1390, before the 
other countries of America were known." Frisland is not shown, but 
about the place where it usually appears is the legend, " Between the 
degrees 59 and 64. of North Latitude, and 349 and 353 Longitude, 
many place the island Frislande, discovered 300 years ago by Nicolo 
Zeno, a Venetian Noble, in the name of the King of Denmark, but, 
as the sailors who have so often navigated this sea have never been 
able to find it, so these think, either that it must have been submerged 
or that the report of it is fabulous." Zurla refers to the Isolario ^ of 
Coronelli in support of the Zeno story. He also quotes an inscription 
upon the general map of America, in the Nouveau Theatre du Monde 
by Peter Vander Aa, as follows : " Terra Labrador Hispanis^ Nova 
Britannia Anglis^ Estotilandia Danis^ Canada Septentrional is Gallis^ 
inventa anno 1390 ab Antonio Zeno." 

Cellarius, in his Historia Medii yEvty 171 2, refers to the visit of 
Antonio Zeno to the shores of America. 

Some of the Zenian names and islands are mentioned in the books 
and maps of many other authors of the seventeenth century, for 
example, Nicolaus Belga (1603), Blaeu (1643), Visscher (1650), 
Sanson (1660), Dudleo(i 661), Cluvcrius (1676), Van Keulen (1698). 

Torfaeus, a native of Iceland, and royal historiographer to the 
King of Denmark, a learned man well qualified to form a judgment 
upon the subjeA, rejedts ^ the Zeno narrative altogether. 

The French geographer, Guillaume de I'lsle, shows an undefined 
island " Frisland " upon his maps. He appears to have held that it 
had formerly been continuous with Iceland, and had been submerged 
by some natural convulsion. In the map entitled Hemisphere Occi- 
dental''^ he identifies " Bus Island " with " Frisland," but in later 
editions of the same map, omits both altogether. 

Moreri* is another authority quoted in confirmation of Zeno, but 
he is not a strong supporter, as he describes Frisland as " a supposed 
country " in the Northern Ocean, so called on account of the great 
cold there. " Its inhabitants live almost entirely on fish, and nearly 
all their commerce is in this fish, or in other marine monsters. This 
is what some authors say, but, on looking closely into the matter, as 

' CoronelH's Isolario forms vol. ii. of Atlanle Veneto, Venice, 1695-6, 

' Historia Vinlandia Antiqu,e, Havnia, 17 15. Prefatio ad Leiftorem. 

' Hemisphere Occidental, 1720. In the Nouveau Atlas, Amsterdam, (1733 ?). 

* Le Grand Dilfionnaire Historique, Amsterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht, 1724. 

¥ 1 



44 TV/g Foyages 0/ the Brothers Zeni. 

no one has ever found the country, those who know these parts best 
declare that there is no such place as Frisland, and that what has been 
mistaken for it is some part of Greenland." It is true that he 
mentions Estotiland, but with an " On '^it" He does not mention 
the Zeni, nor any of the Zenian localities, under separate headings. 

Hans Egede, a Danish missionary, who endeavoured, with royal 
sandlion, to re-discover f.nd revive the lost colonies cf Greenland, refers, 
in his description of that country written about 1741, to the accounts 
by Zeno and Blefken of the Monastery of St. Thomas, but does not 
accept them as true.^ 

Morisotti refers to the voyages of the Zeni, and mentions Frislandia^ 
Estotilant and some other Zenian localities.'"^ 

The French historian, Charlevoix, speaks of the Estotiland of the 
Zeni as " un pays fabuleux et qui n'a jamais existe que dans I'imagina- 
tion des deux freres Zani, nobles Venetiens."^ He also says : " que la 
Frislande, si elle existe, n'est peut etre qu'une partie du Groenland, ou 
de rislande ; et qu'il n'y a nul fond a faire sur tout ce qu'en ont 
debite les deux Freres Zanis : que I'Estotiland, suivant le rapport de 
ces deux Nobles Venitiens, est fort cloignc de la Frislande, puisque de 
leurs tems il n'y avoit aucun Commerce entre ces deux Pays, et que ce 
fut par un pur hasard, que des Pecheurs eurent connoissauce de ce 
Dernier ; que le Royaume enchante, dont le Souverain avoit une si 
magnifique Bibliotheque, a disparu depuis qu'on a parcouru le Nord 
de I'Amerique." 

Peter Kalm, the Swedish naturalist, records a discussion which he 
had, in 1748, with Dr. Mortimer, the secretary of the P^oyal Society of 
London, and says that he saw in the library of the Society a map of 
the missing island of Friesland, engraved in 1666, showing the names 
of many havens and places on the island. Kalm seems to favour the 
theory of submergence.* 

David Crantz, in his History of Greenland^ originally written in 
High Dutch in 1765, and translated into English two years later, 
refers to the alleged voyages of the Zeni as of doubtful authenticity .° 

' A Description of Greenland, 1745, p. i^ et seq, 

- Orbis Maritimi Historia, Dijon, 1743, pp. 593 and 615. 

•'' Histoire Generate de la Noiivelle France, 1744, vol. i., r j, and vol. iii., p. 15. 

' Nairn's Account of his yisit to England on his way to America in 1748, translated by 
Joseph Lucas, 1892 (from " En Resa til Norra America . . . Pehr Kalm," Stockholm, 1753). 
pp. 1 14 and 1 15. 

'" History of Greenland, London, 1767, vol. i., p. 273, 



Doubts and Controversy. 


Martiniere, in his Geographical Didionary, expresses his disbelief 
in the Zeno story. ^ Zurla, however, claims that Martiniere's description 
of Frisianda, which is simply taken from one of the maps of the 
Zenian Frisland, is a precise and distindl confirmation of the " Carta 
da Navegar." 

Marco Foscarini, Doge of Venice, writing in 1 7 5 2 ,** treats the 
account of the voyage of the Zeni as true. On the other hand, in 
referring to the story, Tiraboschi,'' a native of Bergamo, while modestly 
declining to decide the question of its truth or falsity, points out 
several of the more glaring improbabilities in it, as throwing doubt 
upon it. As far as we have been able to ascertain, he is the only 
Italian author, except Coronelli, who does not accept it Without question. 

In 1783, Vincenzo Formaleone, in his Saggio sulla antica de 
Venezianiy claims the discovery of the new world fr r the Zeni.* In 
the same year, according to Casali, Foimaleone published in Venice 
the Storia Curiosa delle aventure di Caterino Zeno^ da un antico 
originali manoscritto ed ora per la prima volta publicata; but the 
manuscript had never existed, the imposture was soon discovered, and 
Formaleone acknowledged that in the composition of the work, he had 
plundered the writings of Nicolo Zeno and of Ramusio, inserting many 
apocryphal particulars.® We have been unable to see this work of 
Formaleone's, of which there is no copy in the British Museum ; 
but, although it relates apparently only to the Persian part of the 
Zeno Annals, it has been mentioned, on the above authority, as 
indicating the small amount of credence to be accorded to Formaleone's 

In 1784, Dr. John Reinhold Forster wrote, in German, his 
History of the Voyages and Discoveries made in the North, which was 
translated into English and published in London in 1786. In it he 
takes up the cudgels on behalf of the Zeni, and says that," after himself 
narrowly inspecting and translating the book, " it was in the highest 
degree evident to me, that the whole of this relation is true, as, in fad:, 



' Le Grand Diiiionnaire Geographique Historique et Critique^ 1768, Under v. Estotilande. 

^ Letteratura Feneziana, Venice, 1752, p. 406. 

' Sloria delta Letteratura Ilaliana, Modena, 1772-95, vol. \ ., 1775, p. 101 et seq. 

■* " Cosi I'ardito F'iorentino, Americo Vespucci, rapi al Colombo la gloria di dare il nonie 
al Mondo nuovo : gloria per altro nom sua; poiche rapita anch'essa ai nostri Zeni " (p. 10). 

* Annali del/a Tipografia Veneziana di Francesco Marcolini da Forli. Scipione Casaii, 
Forli, 1 86 1. 

" Op. cit., ed. 1786, p. 198, 






The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 


it contains within itself the strongest proofs of its own authenticity." 
His reasons do not seem to be by any means conclusive, and his 
identifications of the Zeno place names are sometimes of the wildest 

Forster is the first writer who attempts to identify " Zichmni," of 
the Zeno narrative with any historical personage. He suggests ^ that 
Zichmni was Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, basing his conjedture on 
the date of the assumption of that title by Sinclair in 1379, and upon 
the resemblance (?) of the names Zichmni and Sinclair. But it has 
been since proved by Zurla, who credits the Zeno story, that the date, 
1380, given in the jtnnals as that of tho Zeno Vo)ages, must have 
been wrong by ten years, and the coincidenre of dates, on which 
Forste relied, has therefore disappeared. Zurla's corredion had, 
however, been aiiticipated, whether by design or accident, by Ortelius 
in his Theatrum Or bis of 1592, and the date " 1390," there given 
by him, was adopted by many other sujsequent writers. There are 
other objecticns to the identification, oi which there will be occasion 
to speak in more detail further on. It has, however, since Fo'ster's 
publication, been the sheet anchor of those who hold to the truthful- 
ness of the Zeno narrative, and great weight has naturally been 
attached to it by them. 

In his Memoire sur risk de Frislande^ written in the same year 
as Frrster's work, Buache attempts to show that such an island as that 
Frisland described by Nice 16 Zeno the younger, never existed, but, 
that the island represented under that name on the Zeno map corre- 
sponds in position to the Faroes. Eggers,^ writing a few years later, 
also identified Frisland with the Faroes, chiefly by a comparison of 
names on the Zeno map with adtual names upon the islands. Both 
these authors are claimed by believers in the good fsith of Nicolo 
Zeno the younger, as supporters of his story. 

Pennant expresses his belief in the genuine chtrafter of the Zeno 

Passing by Filiasi,® D. J. Morelli,® und others, v :th the remark 
that the Italian, and especially the Venetian writers, ha''e with iew 

* Northern VoyageSy 1786, pp. 181 n, and 208, 209. 
' L'Histoire de rAcademie des Sciences, 1784. 

' Memoire sur I'ancien Greenland, 1791. 

* Ariiic Zoology, London, 1792, vol. i., p. 331. 

' Reccrche storico-criiiche suW opportunita ddla Laguna Veneta Pel commercio, 1803. 
' Dissertazione intorno ad alcuni viaggiatori erudili veneziaui toco noli, Venice, 1 803. 


Doubts and Controversy. 47 

exceptions, and with a unanimity born, no doubt, of patriotism, 
upheld the veracity of Nicolo Zeno the younger, we come to Cardinal 
Placido Zurla. This erudite churchn"»an is a staunch supporter of the 
Zeni, and we are much indebted to him for the results of his careful 
and exhaustive investigations into the history of the Zeno family.^ 
The same author also touches the subjedt in his monograph on the 
Fra Mauro Map.** Zurla upholds the veracity of the narrative 
throughout, and gives fresh variety to the subjed: by some of his 
identifications of Zenian localities. He also scolds Tiraboschi for 
venturing to express any doubt upon the matter. 

Edmonston" follows Forster, and claims that the latter "had 
ingeniously obviated most of the doubts which have been entertained 
on the subjed: of the Zeni voyages.' 

An account of the Voyages of Aiitonio and Nicolo Zeno, abridged 
from that in J. R. Forster's Northern Voyages^ is included in Kerr's 
ColleEiion of Voyages^ and is prefaced by a strong expression ol 
opinion that the whole story is a fabrication and unworthy of credit. 

Sir John Barr..w, referring to the letter describing the second 
voyage of Caspar Cortcreal, written by Pietro Pasquagli, the Venetian 
ambassador in Portugal, to his brothers, and dated the igth of Odober, 
1 50 1, eleven days after the return of the ships (which is printed in the 
Paesi nouamenti ritrovati^ and in a somewhat garbled Laf'n version 
of the same book, known as Itinerarium Portugallensium'^)^ says 
that Cortereal reached a land which, " according to his conjedure . . . 
lay near a region formerly approached by the Venetians almost at the 
North Pole," and, with some audacity, implies, in a note, that the 
Venetians referred to were Nicolo and Antonio Zeno.' Dr. Lardner 
makes a similar statement. There is no warrant whatever for this 
conclusion. Cortereal himself never returned from this voyage, and 

' Dissertazione intorno at viaggi e scoperte setlentrionali di Nicolo ed Anti^nio Fratelli Zeni, 
Venice, 1808; which also appears in almost the same form in Di Marco Polo e degli altri 
viaggiatori veneziani piu illustri, Venice, 1818, vol. ii., pp. 5-94. 

* // mappa monde di Fra Mauro camaldoUse, discritto ed illustrato, Venice, 1 806. 

' yf view of the ancient and present state of the Zetland Islands^ Edinburgh, 1 809, vol. i., 
pp. 66-75. 

* Kerr's General History and ColletUon of Voyages and I'ravels, Edinburgh, 181 1-24, 
vol, i., p. 438. 

' Paesi Nc^atnenti ritrovati, Vicentia, 1 507 ; Second Edition, Milan, 1512; Third 
Edition, Venice, 1517, lib, vi,, cap, cxxvi, 

" j'tinerarium Portugallensium, Mediolani, 1508, cap, cxxvi, 

' Chronological History of Voyages into the Jrilic Regions, London, 1818, p, 40. Lardner' s 
Cyclopttdiu, under " History of Maritime and Inland Discoveries," vol. ii., p. 139. 

.V, ' 


The Voyagei of the brothers Zcni. 

what is stated in the letter is, that tli;"y brought thence' "a piece of 
broken sword, gililed, which certainly came troin Italy. A certain 
boy there wore in his ea two silver globes, which appeared without 
doubt to have been made in Venice, and this makes me believe that 
the land is a continent."^ 

Bernard O'Reilly" believed in the truth of the story of the voyage 
of the Zeni brothers, and thought that " Frisland," or " West Fries- 
land," as he calls it, was represented, in his time, by the sunken land 
ot Buss. O'Reilly is mentioned here because he has been quoted by 
several writers on the Zeno voyages, but his authority is worthless, 
and his book a fraud. 

Washington Irving, in his History of Columbus^ gives a sketch 
of the Zeno voyages, taken app.irently from Forster's work, but reje<5ls 
the Zeno story. 

In 1828, Lieut. W. A. Graah, of the Danish Royal Navy, was 
dispatched by his Government in command of an expedition having 
for its objeft the exploration of the East coast of Greenland, from 
Cape Farewell to North Lat. 69°. He sailed in June, 1828, and 
returned in September, 1831, having reached Dannebrogs Island, on 
the East Coast, in North Lat. 65° x 8'. In his narrative of this voyage, 
he relets, incidentally, several times to the voyages of the Zeni° with 

Make Brun" treats the Zeno stories as real, and attempts to explain 
the confusion of the Zeno narrative. As to the account of Greenland, 
he says : " Ce tableau des merveilles di Rrtgroneland offre probablement 
des tragmens d'une relation veridique, mal rciinis, et surtout mal 

' Curtereal is supposed to have reached Labrador. 

- Paesi novamente ritrovati, cap. 126. Itin. Portugallens., cap. 126. In the latter 
book the passage runs thus : " F.liBis confraefli partem inaurata ; qufi; italiic ritu fabrefadba 
videbatur : quidani jiuer illic duos orbes argenteos auribus appensos circumferebat : qui haud 
dubie cclati more nostro visebantur: celattiram Venetam imprimis praseferenles : quibus rebus 
non difficulter adducimur continentem esse potius quam Insulam." The words in italics are an 
nierpolation, and no corresponding passage occurs in the original Italian. See also Harrisse's 
i es Carte Real, Paris, iH8j, pp. 50 and 209, and liiddle's Memoir of Sebastian Cabot, London, 
H 31, pp. 238 and 251. 

■■• Greenland, London, 18 18, pp. 10, 11, etc. See list of books in Appendix. 

* A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, London, 1828, vol. iv., 
pp. 217, 225. 

' Narrative of an Expedition to the East Coast of Greenlrnd, sent by order of the King 
of Demrnvk in search of the lost Colonies, translated for the i<oyal Geographical Society of 
London, 1837, pp. 3, 7, 20, and 175 n. 

" Precis de la Geographie Universelle, Bruxelles, 1832, vol. i, pp. 189-202, 213; vol. ii., 
p. 595 ; vol. vi., pp. 323, J26, 327 n, 331. Annales des voyages, vol. x., p. 69. 

« ''''^^vTr:i,r^f 


Doubts and Controversy. 


ap).!iquc8 .... circonstanccs, vraies en dies memcs, auront ere 
accumulees pour former rensemble fantasdque que nous venons de 
mettre sous les yeux dc nos ledteurs. Un neu de vanitc chcz Zeno 
le voyageur, ou un peu de negligence chez Zeno, le redadeur 
de la relation, ont facilement pu faire naitre cette confusion."' 
This can hardly be called strong testimony in favour of the Zeno 

Admiral Zarhtmann, Hydrographer to the Royal Danish Navy, and 
one of the Commissioners appointed to organize the expedition under 
Graah, above referred to, in a paper published in the Memoirs of the 
Society of Northern Antiquaries at Copenhagen, in 1833, and trans- 
lated into English soon after, attacks the Zeno narrative with force 
and eft'eft.'^ He writes with the authority of one who wa;' well 
acquainted with liis 8ubje<ft, and his paper forms one of the most 
valuable contributions to the literature relating to the matter. Never- 
theless, for want of information not available when he wrote, he falls 
into some errors. 

Baron Humboldt mentions ^ the voyages of the Zeni, without ex- 
pressing a final opinion, though he evidently leans towards accepting 
the accounts as genuine. He says, " En examinant avec impartialite 
la relation des Zeni, on y trouve de la candeur et des descriptions 
detaillees d'objets dont rien en Europe ne pouvait leur avoir donne 
I'idee." As to this remark, ii may be noticed that such maps as that 
of Olaus Magnus of 1539 (Plate IV.), the Zamoiski map of 1467 
(Plate II.), and the three maps, of the same type as the last named, 
found by Nordenskjold in Florence,* and more particularly referred 
to below, have been brought to light since Humboldt's time, and that, 
notwithstanding Humboldt's opinion, there did exist in Europe in his 
time, and in Venice in the time of Nicolo Zeno the younger, documents 
which contained a good deal, if not all, of the information served up 
to an interested public, in 1558, as original. Humboldt mentions 
Admiral Zarhtmann's paper, which had then recently appeared, but 
says that he had not yet examined it. 

' Precis, vol. i., p. 201. 

'^ Nordiske Tidsskrift for Oldkyndighed, Copenhagen, iSjjj; and Remarks on the Vojages 
in the Northern Hemisphere ascribed to the Zeni of Venice. By Captain C. C. Zarhtmann, R.N., 
and communicated by him in the Journal of the Geographical Society, London, 1835, vol, v., 
pp. 102 et seq. 

' Examen critique de I'Histoire de la Geographic du Nouveau Continent, Paris, 1836, 
Seftion II., pp. i 20 et seq. ^ 

* Bidrng till Nordens Aldsta Kartografi, Stockholm, 1892. 





50 T6e Voyages of the Brothers Zcni, 

Brcdsdorfi', writing in 1845,' discusses the voyages at some length, 
and, although he is claimed by Major as a supporter of the truth of 
the story, he gives some very excellent reasons against its credibility. 

Joachim Lelewel. in a chapter entitled " Tavola di Zeni,'"^ examines 
the map, and accpts it as a genuine fourteenth century produdion. 
He also gives his conjeftures as to the identity of the places named on 
the map. These, with the identifications of Forster, Zurla, and other 
writers, will be found in Appendix V. at the end of this volume. 

Miniscalchi Erizzo " defends the truth of the Zeno story at some 
length, and excuses the compiler's geographical blunders on the ground 
of his ignorance of the northern languages. He identifies, amongst 
other Zenian localities, " Neome " with " Foula," and " Icaria " with 
" The Sunken Land of Bus." 

Professor Konrad Maurer* in a paper on Mediaeval Greenland, written 
in 1873, declares against the authenticity of the Zeno narrative. 

In 1873 Mr. R. H. Major, F.S.A., of the British Museum, edited 
" The Voyages of the Brothers Zeno," for the Hakluyt Society." In 
the introduction. Major falls upon Admiral Zarhtmann with fury, much 
as Terra Rossa fell v^*on Baudrand, but in, perhaps, a more modern 
and civilized manner. He claims to have freed the Zeno documents 
from the discredit under which they had laboured j to have tracked 
the causes of the errors and misconceptions which had led to that 
discredit, and to have performed other literary feats, for evidence of 
which wc have in vain sought in his pretentious work. He is un- 
fortunate in some of his strictures upon Zarhtmann's conjectures, as, 
for example, in his conten^ptuous rejection of Zarhtmann's suggestion 
that it was probable that the Olaus Magnus map of 1539, published in 

' Brodrene Zeno's Reiser, etc., in Gnpnlands Historiske mindesmaerker udgivne af del Kongelige 
Nordiske Oldskrift Selskab. Kjobenhavn, 184J. Bind III., pp. 529-624. 

- Geographie du Moyen /Ige, accompagnee d' Atlas, '.Iruxciles, 1852-57, vol. iv., pp. 85-1 12 ; 
and also vol. ii., pp. 84 and 169, and Atlas Plate XXXVI. 

•' Le Scoperti Artiche, Venezia, 1855, pp. 106 et seq. 

* Gr'dniund in Mittelaller ; in Die Zweite Deutsche Nordpolarfahrt in den Jahren, 1869 und 
1870, unter fiihrung des Kapitan Karl Koldewey, Leipzig, 1873-74, B.-ind I., s. 239. 

'' The Voyages of the Venetian Brothers Nicoli and Antonio Zeno to the Northern Seas in the 
Fourteenth Century, Hakluyt Society, London, 1873. The introdudbion, with slight alteration, 
also appears under the title of The site of the lost Colony of Greenland determined, and pre- 
Columbian discoveries of America confirmed, from fourteenth century documents, in the Journal of 
the Royal Geographical Society of London, 1873, vol. xliii., p. 156, and a resume thereof in the 
Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, U.S.A., 1875. The introdudtion, 
only, to the Hakluyt Society's volume was translated into Italian by Carraro, Archivio Veneto, 
vol. vii., pp. 302-326; vol. viii., pp. 263-304. 


Doubts and Controversy, 


Venice, might have contained some materials which could have served 
Nicolo Zeno the younger in the compilation of his map. The Olaus 
Magnus map had been lost when Zarhtmann and Major wrote ; a copy 
has since been found, and, as will be seen from the extradt given in 
the Appendix (Plate IV.), Zarhtmann was right and Major was wrong. 
Neither were the Zamoiski map (Plate II.) nor the three Florence maps 
of the same type ' then known, in England at least, but they are now 
evidence to show that Major's incredulity as to the existence of the 
old MS. map, mentioned by Zarhtmann,'"' in the University Library 
of Copenhagen (in which the outline of Greenland corresponded with 
that in Bordone's Isolarioy and which contained names agreeing almost 
uniformly with those on Zeno's Greenland, and in the same order) 
is scarcely justified. But Major's work remains, in England and 
America at least, the standard work upon the subjedt. Desimoni, in 
Italy, and Gaffarel, in France, also rely upon it. 

Cornelio Desimoni claims " that the disputes as to the veracity of 
Zeno's narrative, and the questions as to the identities of Zenian 
localities, have been settled by Major beyond all doubt. In the 
second paper, noted below,* he writes an able and interesting essay, 
expounding and supporting Major's views, and discussing those of 
Zarhtmann. In a third paper ' he re-discusses the story, and criticises 
the papers of Krarup (1878), of Admiral Irminger (1879), ^^ Steenstrup 
(1882), of Nordenskjold (1882), and of Erslev (1885), all of which 
had appeared since he had written in 1878. All his papers are 
marked by a close knowledge of his subjeft, and by a temperate tone 
which make them pleasant reading. 

Krarup takes " an entirely new view of the direftion of the travels of 
the Brothers Zeni, and endeavours to show that they visited the White 
Sea ; he identifies " Frislanda " with North Friesland or Schleswig, and 
Zichmni with Henri de Siggens, Marshal of the Army of Holstein. 

' Reproduced in Nordenskjold's Bidrag till Nordens Aldsta Kartografi, Stockholm, 1892. 

^ TransaHions of the Royal Geographical Society, London, 1835, vol. v., p. 1 14. 

' Memoria intorno at viaggi del Fratelli Zenj al Settentrione d'Europa ira la fine del Secolo 
xiv. in Giornale Ligustico di Archeologia Storia e belle /irti, Genova, 1878. [Brit. Mus. P. P. 
4189 f.] 

* I viaggi e la carta dei Fratelli Zeno, 1 3^0-1 ^o ^, m Archivio Storico Italiano, 4!^ Sent, 
vol. ii., Firenze, 1878, pp. 389-417. [Brit. Mus. P. P. 3557 a.J 

" / viaggi e la carta dei Fratelli Zeno, 1390-1405, Studio Secondo, in Archivio Storico 
Italiano,^ Serie, vol. xvi., Firenze, 1885, pp. 184-214. [Brit. Mus. P. P. 3557 a.] 

« Om Zeniernes Reise til Norden, Dansk Geogr. Selskab Tidsskrift, 1878; and Zeniernes 
Reise til Norden, et Tolknungs Forsipg, Copenhagen, 1878. 



52 T/ie Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

State Councillor J. Steenstrup,Mn 1882, in a paper in whicii he 
examines the Zeno map and narrative, concludes that the author has, 
in all probability, remodelled the map on older materials ; that the 
narrative is derived from several older sources ; that the whole, either 
by imposture, or by a misunderstanding, has bfen attributed to the 
elder Zeni ; and, further, that the author of the map has used several 
older maps of the northern seas, but that the voyagers probably went 
no further north than North Frisland, or to the west coast of South 
Jutland. Pie identifies Frisland with Iceland, and gives many other 
identifications which will be found in Appendix V. 

Baron Nordenskjold, in the same year (1882), in a paper on the 
same subjedt as that of Steenstrup,^ contends that the original of the 
Zeno map is the basis of the various resemblances which are found on 
the maps of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, of which he gives a 
series of facsimiles.^ It should be again noticed that both the last men- 
tioned papers were written before the Olaus Magnus map of 1539, the 
Zamoiski map of 1467, and the three Florence maps were re-discovered, 


' Zeniernes Reiser i Norden, in Arboger for mrd Old kindighed, for 1883, and Les Voyages 
Jes Freres Zeni dans le Nord, in Compte rendu du Congr'es des Jmericainistes, Copenhagen, 1B84. 
- Studier och Forskningar foranledda af minor resor i boga norden, 1883. 
' Fide Storrr Om Zeniernes Reiser, p. 5. 

^S^fi F^^^^ 





^^fj^lS^^^^^J r "*^^ "^^l 



The Monk Rock in the Faroes. (From Olaus Magnus, 
Hist, de Gent., Sept., 1555, p. 64.) 



IR. OSCAR BRENNER'S fortunate discovery, in 
the Munich Public Library, in 1886, of a copy of 
the large map published by Olaus Magnus, at 
Venice, in 1539, threw important lights on the 
origin of the Zenian " Carta da Navegar," and set 
at rest for ever the doubts which had existed as to 
the identity of the map of 1539 with that contained 
in the Basel edition of Olaus Magnus' De gentium Septentrionalium 
of 1567. In his paper describing his valuable find, Brenner shows 
the correspondence of many of the names on the Zeno map with those 
on the 1539 map.^ The two have in common other features which 
are referred to below in the chapter on the '' Carta da Navegar." 

Professor Gustav Storm ^ is the first authority, we believe, who has 
studied the Zeno narrative and map by the lights afi'orded by the 
Olaus Magnus map, 1539, and by the Zamoiski map, 1467. No one 
is more competent to expose, as he has so completely done, the falsities 
of the narrative, and the dishonesty of Nicolo Zeno the younger, in 
allowing the "Carta da Navegar" to be put forward as the copy of a 
map made in the fourteenth century, or to trace some of the real 
sources of that sixteenth century compilation. Unfortunately Professor 
Storm's destrudive criticism of the " Carta da Navegar " is not available 
to the reading public in an English version. 

The year 1892, the quater-centenary of the discovery of America 
by Columbus, was, naturally, remarkably prolific in literature relating 

' Die dchtt '.arte d^s Olaus Magnus, vom lahre, 1539, nach dem exemplar der Miinc/iener 
Staals Bibliothek, Von d'Oscar Brenner, Christiania, 1886. ^ With a reduced facsimile of the map. 
* Om Zeniernes Reiser, Norske Geographiske Selskab, Arbog II., 1890. 

1 (: 




54 The Voyages of the Brothers Ze?ii. 

to that subjeA. Among the more notable writers are to be found, in 
Europe, Clements Markham,^ Harrisse,** Charles Elton,^ Paul Gaffarel,* 
and Kretschmer " ; in America, Justin Winsor," and John Fiske.'' 

Neither Markham nor Harrisse adopts the Zeno narrative as true j 
Elton accepts the identification of Zichmni (who, however, is never 
called " Zinco," as Elton says) with Henry Sinclair, and attempts to 
explain the inconsistences of the map and narrptive. Gaffarel staunchly 
contends for the truth of Zeno's relation. 

Justin Winsor, with his usual caution, does not commit himself to 
any definite opinion on the subjeft, but John Fiske, relying upon 
Major, accepts the whole story. Referring to Zarhtm ji's paper 
above mentioned, he says,® " All that human ingenuity is ever likely 
to devise against the honesty of Zeno's narrative is presented in 
this erudite essay, which has been so completely demolished under 
Mr. Major's heavy strokes that there is not enough of it left to pick 
up. As to this part of the question we may now safely cry, ' Finis, 
laus Deo.' " 

How little this confidence of Fiske's is justified ; how widely 
Major's " heavy strokes " have missed their mark, and left him open to 
attack in turn, we intend to show. But Major, in spite of his claim to 
the contrary, was working mainly by conjedlure, and the information 
which is now available to prove that, on many points on which he 
differed from Zarhtmann, the latter was right, had not come to light 
in 1873. Major, therefore, doing the best he could with the materials 
before him, was not to blame if his conclusions were erroneous, but 
Fiske, writing in 1892, has not the same excuse. 

We notice Fiske more particularly because we find in a recent 
book," by one of the Sinclair family, a claim, based avowedly on Fiske's 
work, to rank " Prince Henry Sinclair," as a civilized man " in the 
modern sense of civilization," as " the one and only discoverer of 
America," and much more to the same purpose. 

One of the more notable publications of 1892 was the handsome 
atlas and volume of text by Dr. Kretschmer. Valuable as it is, it 

* Life of Christopher Columbus, by Clements Markham, C.B., London, 1892. 

" The Discovery of North America, by Henry Harrisse, London and Paris, 1892. 
^ The Career of Columbus, by C. T. Elton, London, Paris, and Melbourne, 1892. 

* Histoire de la Decouverte de I'Amerique, Paris, 18 92. 

" Entdeckung Amerika's, Berlin, 1892. * Christopher Co'umbus, London, 1892. 

' Fiske's Discovery of America, 1892. * Fiske, op. cit., tfol, i., p. 237 n. 

" Caithness Events, Wick, 1894, 

The Present Status of the Zeno Book. 55 

would have been far more '•eliable as a work of reference, if the editor 
had been content to give facsimiles of the old maps which he repro- 
duces, instead of giving, as in too many cases he has done, his own 
pidures of what he thought the old maps ought to have been. In his 
text he discusses the Zeno map, and concludes that the portion relating 
to Frisland, at any rate, was copied from earlier maps j that the 
projection of the Zeno map was not a new one at the date of its 
publication, i nd he refers to the accounts of the travels of the brothers 
Zeni as " questionable in the highest aegree." ^ 

The most recent opinion which has appeared on the Zeno question 
is that expressed by Mr. H. W. Wilson, in a concise and comprehensive 
summary in The Royal Navy? Mr. Wilson states both sides fairly, 
and gives references to several of the principal commentators, and 
to the Olaus Magnus and Zamoiski r. ips. He says:^ "If the sub- 
stantial truth of the narrative be accepted, there are many difficulties 
to be explained away. ... * Against the narrative, in its present 
form at any rate, much can be urged. At the very best we must 
suppose Nicolo Zeno the younger guilty of altering and interpolat- 
ing. His story of the torn documents, musty with age, is a very 
common pretext with the fablemonger. The original documents have 
never been produced or discovered. . . . ® There may have been a 
voyage to Iceland, and even to Greenland, but it will be well to 
suspend judgment till some trace of the original documents is dis- 


Zeno's booklet, with its accompanying map, has now been before 
the world for some 340 years, and has passed ihrough strange vicissi- 
tudes. At first accepted as true, very soon suspeded, both book and 
map were but litde later proved to contain much that was false. 
Wholly disbelieved and attacked by some ; entirely believed and 
defended by others; or partly accepted, while still condemned, or 
excused, according to the idiosyncrasies of the individual commentator, 
the gradations of opinion concerning its authenticity were numerous. 
The greater number of writers on the subjedt have been apologists, 

' Entdeckung Amerika^s^ pp. 248-252. 

"^ The Royal Navy. A History from the Earliest times to the Present. By IVm. Laird 
Clowes, assisted by Sir Clements Markham, Capt. A. T. Alahan, Mr. H. fV. IVilson, Mr. 'Theodore 
Roosevelt, Mr. E. Fraser, etc, London, vol. i., 1897. 

* Ibid,, p. 328. * Ibid., p. .736. ' Ibid., p. 337. 



T/ie Voyages of the Brothers ZenL 

who have seemed to find a strange delight in exercising their ingenuity 
upon endeavours to account for untruths, to explain away difficulties, 
to excuse mistakes, and to prove that, if certain things had not been 
such as they undoubtedly were, the documents might have been wholly 
or partially true. The conclusions of this class of writer have been 
exceedingly varied and inconsistent with one another. 

Those who have thought it worth while to attack such an obviously 
unreliable work have been fewer, and somewhat obscured by the 
number of apologists, but their conclusions have be"n uniform in 
condemning the work as a mischievous concoftion. 

There is, of course, another class of writer, which accepts any printed 
statement as proved fadt ; their name is legion. 

Thus the little booklet with its map has been the origin of a mass 
of literature, quite out of proportion to the importance of its subjedl. 

In its early days it v/as pradlically misleading, deceiving such 
navigators as Frobisher, Davis, and Hall, and helping nobody ; whilst 
in its later days it had the effedl of throwing the cartography of the 
North Atlantic into confusion for some two hundred years. 

Many notable names appear in the list of commentators; but, in 
spite of all endeavours, most of them honest, and certainly charitable to 
Nicolo Zeno the younger, the confusion of the work has never been 
reduced to order ; its difficulties have never been solved ; and the 
charader of its compiler has never been cleared from reproach. 

Though some of our leading geographers have recently seemed to 
ignore Zeno's work, it still remains a stumbling block to mi»ny of those 
who have occasion to study the geography or history of those parts of 
the world to which it ostensibly re/ers. Such students would be glad if 
the question of the authenticity of the work, or the reverse, could be 
definitely settled one way or the other. 

Such is the present position before the world of the book, which is 
to be considered, in some detail, in the following pages. 



Part II. 


- 'A 



', I 
















' a 








HE short statement as to the family of the 
Zeni, given in the ^nnah^ is slightly amplified 
by some words interpolated in Ramusio's re- 
print of the narrative, and, still further, in some 
of the editorial portions of his Navigationi et 
Viaggi, Cardinal Zurla also gives ^ us the 
result of his own careful investigations on 
this subjedt He states, on the authority of 
a manuscript entitled Campidoglio Veneto^ by 
Girolamo Capellari, that, in 1379, there were three persons of the 
name of Nicolo Zeno, in Venice. 

The only questions connedled with the family history, which bear 
upon the authenticity of the narrative seem to be : firstly, which of 
these three persons of the name of Nicolo Zeno, who were in Venice 
in 1379, was Nicolo Zeno, the traveller? secondly, when did he start 
upon his travels ? As Zurla is a staunch supporter of the truth of the 
narrative, it will be fair to accept his conclusions, that Nicolo, the 
travelle-, was Nicolo Zeno, da S. Canzian^ an opulent patrician who 
took part in the eleftion of the Doge Marco Cornaro, in 1367, and 
that of the Doge Michele Morosini, in 1382; that he was one of the 
twelve sent by the Venetian senate, in 1367, to Marseilles, to bring the 
Pope to Rome ; that he commanded a galley against the Genoese, in 
1379; that he was an ambassador to Ferrara, in 1382; that he was 
one of the three Syndics eleded, on the 26th November, 1388, to take 

' Dissertazione ititorno at Viaggi e Scoperte Settentrionali di Nicolo ed Antonio fratelli Zeni, di 
D. Placido Zurla, Venezia, 1 808. Reprinted with additions, as Dei Viaggi e Scoperte Settentrionali 
di Nicolb ed Antonio Zeni Patrir. Vsneti Dissertaziuni, in Di Marco Polo ■: degli altri Viaggiatori 
Veneziani piU illuitri, Venezia, 181 3, vol. ii., pp. 5-93. 







The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

h ' 

possession of Treviso; and, that he could not have sailed for the 
northern seas in 1380, as stated in the narrative; and that he certainly 
could not have done so before 1388, and, probably, not till 1390.^ 

The date of the voyage is given in the Zeno text in words : Panno 
milley e trecento^ e ottanta. On the illustrative map it is given in Roman 
numerals — " mccclxxx." Major, who accepts Zurla's conclusion as to 
the date, attempts to explain the discrepancy by assuming that the year 
1380 is given in error. He %ix\s^ '' when it is considered that this dai^e 
is written above the m in * <nai. numerals, thus mccclxxx, it will 
be seen how easily that ta^A< st of ail delinquencies either of the author, 
the editor, or the en^^a^ " - , — the dropping of a final x, may 
have occurred. The short scnten* 'n the narrative * this was in One 
thousand three hundred and eighty,' most certainly occurs in a part 
written by Nicolo Zeno, junior, and the legend at the top of the map is 
manifestly by him also, so that there is a common origin for both." 

It is, however, difficult to see how the dropping of an " x " on 
the map accounts for the date being wrongly given in the text of the 
narrative, from which the date on the map must have been derived, and 
in which the number is written in words. Nicolo Zeno, the younger, 
himself says '^ that he got the portion of the narrative in which the date 
occurs from a letter of Nicolo, il Cavaliere^ to his brother Antonio. 
This statement Major contradidls, for some reason which, though not 
obvious, he omits to explain. 

Major further adds,^ " that there is reason in the editor's [Major's] 
suggestion about the possible dropping of an 'x' is shown by a remark- 
able fadt. The great Antwerp ^eographer Ortelius, in recording this 
"ery narrative, copied the Roman numerals as they stand at the top of 
the map, making 1380, yet when our Hakluyt produced the same story 
on the authority of Ortelius, he gave the date of 1390, thus proving by 
a converse blunder how easily this kind of error may occur." But 
Major himself is here guilty of an inaccuracy, the corredlon of which 
will quite destroy any value which might attach to his illustration. In 
the text appended to the map " Septentrio. Reg. descrip.," both in 
the 1570 and 1592 editions of the Theatrum Orbis of Ortelius, the 
date is given in Roman numerals, " mccclxxx," as Major says. But the 

' Dissertazione, etc., i8o8, pp. 41-43, and Di Marco Polo, 1818, vol, ii., pp. 16-18. 
' Voyages of the Venetian brothers N. and A. Zeno, etc., p. xlvii. 
^ Annals, folio 48. See ante, p. 10. 
* Voyages of the Zeni, p. xlvii. 

Family History, 


text which Hakluyt quotf-i occurs for the first time in the 1592 edition 
of Ortehus, an.^ refers to a new map, that of the " Mar del Zur." In 
thio tc.'ct the d^ te is given in words " circa annum millesimum trecen- 
tesimum nonagesimumque." Hakluyt made no mistake, but quoted 
cofedily. Ortelius is resf nsible for the alteration of the date to 1390, 
and he has been followed by many subsequent writers, long before 
Zurla had shown that 1380 could not have been the real date of 
the allc ^jd voyage. Forster's conjecfture of the identity of Henry 
Smclair, Earl of Orkney, with the " Zichmni " of Nicolo Zeno's story, 
tt^i" mainly upon the correspondence of dates, as explained hereafter 
in the sedlion on "Zichmni." Forster, who wrote in 1784, had not, 
of course, the advantage of acquaintance with. Zurla's investigations 
(1808), the result of which is the destrudtion of thf* presumed coincid- 
ence of dates. 

From the record, quoted by Zurla,^ of the mi "-nag f Tomaso, xhc 
son of Nicolo, the traveller, which took place : i ;?obj it appears that 
Nicolo, the traveller, was dead at that date. 

Marco Barbaro, in his manuscript ^iscendinzt Pctrizie^ gives the 
date of Nicolb's voyage as 1390, but the Ma-, xr'^t, even if the date, 
1536, can be trusted, is not to be depended up.>ii ior accuracy, as it also 
states that Antonio Zeno " by order of Zicno, King of Frislanda, went 
to the continent of Estotilanda, in North America." Ortelius and many 
subsequent writers have made similar statements, all of which are cer- 
tainly at variance with the Zeno narrative, which gives a full account 
of the voyage in which Antonio Zeno failed to find either Estotiland, 
or Drogeo, and of his return from that voyage to Frisland. 

The date given by Nicolo, the younger, the compiler of the story, 
was not the result of a clerical or typographical error, but was probably 
calculated by him from the fad that the fighting in Chioggia was 
pradically concluded by the capture of the town on the 24th of June, 
1380 (though peace was not adually concluded till the 24th of August, 
1 381). He either had never been aware of, or had forgotten, the fads 
afterwards unearthed by Zurla which prove the date 1380, assigned 
for the commencement of Nicolo's voyage, to be incorred. 

' Zurla, Dissertazione, etc., 1808, p. 45, and Di Marco Polo, vol. ii., p. 19. 

" Quoted by Zurla, from a copy in the possession of Lorenzo Antonio da Ponte, and by 
Major. The original MS., said to be in Barbaro's own handwriting, is in the Biblioteca Mar- 
ciana, Venice. There is a copy of it in the British Museum. Genealogie dei Noblii (sici Veneli 
di Marco Barbaro detlo il Gobbo die 16 Feb., 1679. ^^' L^B' ' '55]- ^^ ^^* never been printed. 

1 . 





The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

It is not necessary, however, to attach much weight to the un- 
fortunate seledion of a date by the pseudo-historian, damaging though 
it is to the credit of his history, in view of the many other and greater 
difficulties presented by the narrative, when compared with fadts now 
known. We can afford to let the matter pass and to accept the con- 
clusions of Zurla and Major, and others of their way of thinking, 
especially as there is no reason to doubt the probability of a voyage into 
the North Sea by the brothers Nicolo and Antonio Zeni. Indeed Mr. 
Rawdon Brown, referred to by Major, has shown ^ that an annual voyage 
to England and Flanders was made under the auspices of the Venetian 
Senate, in most ordinary years, from the year 1317 to the year 1533. 

It is noticeable that, while Major ^ refers to the list of these Flanders 
voyages given by Rawdon Brown, he Joes not mention that the name 
" Nicolo Zeno " adually appears in that list as that of the Captain 
appointed to the command of the Flanders galleys, on the 22nd of 
January, 1385 j for, although this adds to the confusion by introducing 
a third date, it affords the only confirmation yet found of the allegation 
by Nicolo Zeno, the younger, that a "Nicolo Zeno" did go on a 
voyage to the North Sea in the ninth decade of the fourteenth century. 
As these annual voyages were of short duration, it is quite possible that 
the Captain of 1385 may have been Nicolo, the traveller, of the Zenian 
narrative, though, as we have seen, there were two other persons named 
Nicolo Zeno in Venice in 1379. 

The Flanders voyage was one of the six annual government 
voyages." The galleys employed were provided by the Senate, on the 
motion of the Government ; they were then put up to audion, and 
let for the voyage to the highest bidder. The Captain (or rather Com- 
modore as we should say) was elefted by the Grand Council, but paid 
by the merchants to whom the galleys had been hired out The 
objed of the voyage was to carry the produce of India and Persia, and 

' Archivio di Venezia con riguardo speciale alia Storia Inglese. Venezia, 1865, p. 274. 
Calendar of State papers and MS8. relating to English affairs in the Archives and . :lle£lions of 
Venice, and in other Libraries of Northern Italy. Published by the Lords of the Treasury, 
London, 1 864, cxxxii., table No. 4. 

' Voyages of the Zeni, p. j. 

' The six government squadrons sailed for : (i) the Black Sea, to trade in skins ; (2) for 
Greece and Constantinople, taking, as now, wood and bales of English and Flanders cloth ; (3) 
for the Syrian ports, trading in gums, spices, etc. ; (4) for Egypt ; (5) for the North Coast 
of Africa ; and (6) for England and Flanders. In England, the Venetians exchanged glass, 
sugar, spices, silk, and wines, for tin, wood, hides, and broadcloth (see Venice; an historical sketch 
of the Republic, by Horatio F. Brown, London, 1893, p. 252). 

Family History. 



Venetian merchandize, to England and to the North and West of 
Europe. The time allowed for trading in the ports of destination was 
strictly limited, generally to forty or fifty days. The Government 
ships had to be restored to the Arsenal, at the close of the voyage, in 
good condition. Vessels fitted out by private owners were sometimes 
allowed to accompany the fleet, but their owners, like the hirers of the 
Government vessels, were bound by oath to observe the regulations laid 
down for the fleet. The vessels were all built upon Government 
measurements and private individuals were compelled to conform to the 
regulation size.' The most stringent rules, afFedting even the smallest 
details, were enforced by the Government, and it seems to be in the 
highest degree it.iprobable that the remarkable events and explorations, 
recorded in the Zeno narrative, and alleged to have been reported by 
letters to Carlo Zeno in Venice, should, if they really took place, have 
escaped the vigilance of the Venetian Government, and should have re- 
inained unknown, or unnoticed, for more than a century and a half. 

Of Antonio Zeno, da S. Fantin^ who, according to the narrative, 
was fourteen years with Zichmni, Zurla tells us that he was married 
in 1 384, that he had three sons, and that he could not have started on 
the voyage in question till about 1391 or 1392. The record of the 
marriage of Antonio's son, Dragone, with Anna Morosini, which took 
place in 1406, shows that Antonio was then dead. 

Carlo Zeno, da S. Gio^' - / Crisostomo^ the brother of the travellers, 
is an historical figure ji considerable mark, but, except as the brother 
to whom the letters from Antonio were addressed, his personality does 
not afFed the narrative. 

Of Nicolo Zeno, the younger, enough has been said in the Story of 
the Book.^ {Attte^ p. 24.) 

^ Venice^ Horatio F. Brown, p. 252. See also Preface to Calendar of Venetian State Paperj, 
1202 — 1509, by Kawdon Brown, London, 1864, pp. Ixi. et seq. 

^ Zurla, in his chapter on the Zeno family, refers to the following authorities : Andrea Gataro, 
Storia Padovana (Muratori Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, vol. xvii.); Andrea Redusio, Cnronicon 
Tarvisinum (Muratori, vol. xix.) ; Jacopo Zeno, Vita di Carlo Zeno el Grande (Muratori, vol. 
xix.) ; Marin Sanuto, the younger, P'ite de Duchi di Venezia (Muratori, vol. xxii.) ; Marcantonio 
Sabellico, Storia della Reppublica de Venezia ; Giacomo Zabarelia Trasea Peto Owero origine 
della serenissima famiglia Zeno, Padova, 164.6; Girolamo Capellari, Campidoglio Veneto MS. in 
Biblioteca Marciana. The life of Carlo Zeno entitled La Vita del Magnifico M. Carlo Zeno e 
Valoroso Capitano della Illusrrissima Republica Venetiana, Composta dal Reverendo Gianiacomo 
Feltrense, e tradotta in vulgare per Messer Francesco ^irino (^'^enetia, i 544), is, according to 
Haytn {^Biblioteca Italiana, vol. i., p. 230), by Jacopo Zeno. He was Bishop of Feltre and 
Belluno, and a grandson of Carlo Zeno. Quirino's translation is a poor one from the Latin 
original, which latter was first printed by Muratori. A pedigree of the Zeno family, extended 
from that given in the Annals, forms Appendix III. 

j .^ 




HIS portion of the narrative contains the story of 
Nicolo'a voyage from Venice, of the wreck upon 
Frislanda, and some particulars as to that island and 
its surroundings, and introduces the reader to that 
remarkable historical ghost, Zichmni, Lord of Por- 
landa, and Duke of Sorant.* 

It is proposed to deal with the cartographical 
history of the island Frislanda in a separate chapter devoted to the 
consideration of the Zeno " Carta da Navegar." It will there be shown 
that the island under this name first appears upon the Cantino map 
of 1502, and that the name on the La Cosa map of 1500, which has 
been taken for Frislanda — even by some high authorities — is in reality 
" Stillanda." 

It has, until quite recently, been supposed that the existence of 
an island called "Frislanda" in the Northern Atlantic was indicated 
by the mention of that name in a passage in a life of Christopher 
Columbus, the author of which is represented on the title fo be the 
admiral's son, Ferdinand Columbus.^ The passage, which is quoted 
in full further on, purports to be an extraft from a note written by 

' The Sorano of the text is altered to Sorani in the Table of Errata {folio 5) of the Zeno 

^ Historic del S.D. Fernando Colombo nelle quali s'ha particoltfc frf vera relatione della vita 
y de' fatti dell' Ammiraglio D, Christoforo Colombo, suo padre, «c. Nuouamente di lingua 
Spagnuola tradotle nell' Italiana dal S Alfonso Vlloa. Venetia, mdlxxi,. 


The Voyage of Nicoll Zeno; Frlslanday etc, 65 

Christopher Columbus himself about his supposed voyage to the North 
Sea, in 1477. It is nece.sary, in this connection, to refer shortly to the 
history of this book. 

In 1516 iigostino Giustiniano, Bishop of Nebbio, in Corsica, 
published, at Genoa, a Polyglot Psalter,' in which he inserted, as a note to 
the fourth verse of the nineteenth Psalm, a short account of Columbus 
and his life. This note" contained a number of statements which, as 
the compiler of the Historic considered, refledled unfavourably upon 
the Admiral and his family. Some of these statements were repeated in 
another work by Giustiniano, upon the Republic of Genoa, 'not published 
till 1537, which is also referred to in the Historie. This seems to fix 
1537 as the earliest date at which the Historie could have been begun. 

One of the objedls of the writer of the Historie was, avowedly, to 
refute these objectionable statements, which are specified in the second 
chapter of the book. No Spanish original of the Historie^ either in 
manuscript or in print, has ever been found, and, on examining the 
subjedl, it appears to be more than doubtful whether any ever existed. 

The Historie^ bearing on the title-page the name Ferdinand 
Columbus as that of the author, and purporting to be a translation 
from Spanish into Italian, first appeared in print in Venice in 1571. 
It was never previously published in Spanish, and the Spanish edition 
(Barcia's) which appeared in Madrid, in 1747, was only an inferior 
re-translation from the Italian. 

The Historie^ in spite of some inexplicable passages, was for many 
years regarded as genuine, and as one of the most valuable sources of 
knowledge as to the history of the Admiral. But, in 1870, Mr. Henry 
Harrisse, till then a believer in the authenticity of the book, brought to 
bear his critical acumen and great linguistic knowledge upon it, with a 
view to the solution of its difficulties. He published from time to time 
several books relating to the subjedl.* He has shown conclusively. 

' Psalterium Hebraeum, Graecum, Arabicum et Chaldaeum, cum tribus Latinii inter- 
pretationibus et glossis. Genoa, mdxvi. 

'^ V irinted, with an English translation, in Harrisse's Notes on Co/uabus, privately printed 
at New j rk, 1866, p. 74. 

' Cast.yalissimi Annali delta eccelsa et illustrissima Republica di Genoa, dafideli et approvati 
Scrittori, per el Reverendo Monsignore Giustiniano, Genoese, Vescovo de Nebbio. Stampata in detta 
citta, etc. M ^xxvii. 

* D. Fernando Colon, Historiador de su Padre, Ensayo Critico, Sevilla, 1871, Fernand 
Colomb, sa vie, ses wuvres. Essai critique, Paris, 1872. VHistoire d Christn^.he Colomb 
altribuee a son fils Fernand Examen critique, Paris, 1878. Chrisiopkc Colomb, sen origine, 
sa vie, ses voyages, etc. Paris, 1884, etc. 





The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 


from internal evidence, that the Historie could not have been be^un 
before 1537 (Ferdinand Columbus died in 1539), that many of the 
statements contained in it are absolutely untrue, and that much of it 
could not have been written either by Ferdinand Columbus or with his 
knowledge and approval. Harrisse does not absolutely reject the passage 
referring to Frisland, but he greatly mistrusts it.* 

Ferdinand Columbus, a man of taste and culture, colledled a fine 
library, containing many thousand volumes, which he bequeathed to 
the Cathedral of Seville. The remnant now forms the Columbina 
Library in that city. He made, with his own hand, a complete and 
elaborate catalogue, almost all of which is still extant, and there is 
no sign of any life of the Admiral in the portion devoted to the 
writings of Ferdinand. There is, however, in the catalogue, a note 
mentioning a manuscript life of the Admiral, in nine chapters, written 
in Spanish by Ferdinand Perez de Oliva, about 1525.'^ As Oliva died 
in 1530, it Is clear that he cannot have been the author of the Historie^ 
which refers not only to Giustiniano's work, published in 1537, men- 
tioned above, but also to Oviedo's History of the Indies,^ first published 
in 1535, but it is not impossible that Oliva's work, which no longer 
exists, may have been laid under contribution by the compiler of the 

It is right to mention that Las Casas, in his Historia de las Indias^ 
refers to " that which Ferdinand Columbus relates in his History," and 
several times names him as his authority ; but he never refers positively 
to any History ot Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand. 

The Historia of Las Casas, " The Protestor of the Indians," was 
written by him in Spanish, between the years 1527 and 1561. It 
contains many passages of considerable length, which occur, phrase for 
phrase, allowing for the difference of the languages, both in the Historia 
by L. s Casas, and in the Historie of Christopher Columbus. Probably 
some of these have a common origin, which may have been some 
writings of Ferdinand Columbus, or the T^ife of Columbus^ by Perez de 

' Fernand Colomb, 1872, chap. xv. 

■' Ferdtnandi Perez de Oliva trail at us manu et hispano scrmone script us de vita et gestis D. 
Christopbori Colon primi Indiarum Almirantis et mans occeanis dominatoris. Dividitur in 5 
enarrationes. See Fernand Colomb, p. 152. 

^ La Historia General de las Indias, Sevilla, '535 ; and Historie, etc., chap. x. 

* Historia de las Indias, Escriia por Fray Bartolome de las Casas, Obispo de C/iiapa ;" first 

printed, at Madrid, in 1875, v'- '•> PP- S7> ^7 > ^'^^' '■•> PP- ^*> '^y" 9^ > ^°'' ''••» PP- '^'> 
134, etc. 

The Voyage of Nicolo Zeno ; Frislanda^ etc. 




Oliva, already referred to, which was in Ferdinand's Hbrary. Some 
passages in the Historie are, however, certainly borrowed from the 
Historia by Las Casas, their origin being betrayed by the clerical errors, 
especially in the spelling of names, which occur in them. 

Whatever may have been the origin of the Historie of 1571, and 
however authentic some of its sources may have been, it is certain 
that its author has introduced many falsehoods, contradidiions, and 
anachronisms, which lay it open to the gravest suspicion, and make it 
necessary to view with extreme caution any appeal to it as an authority.^ 

Among the passages which occur, both in the Historie of 1571 and 
the Historia of Las Casas, is that obscure passage, above referred to, in 
which mention of Frisland is made. It appears as an extrad: from a 
note written by Christopher Columbus, showing that all the five zones 
are habitable, and proving it by his own experiences on his voyages, and 
is as follows'-^: "In the month of February, 1477, I sailed a hundred 
leagues beyond the Island Tile, the southern part of 'which is distant 
from the Equator 73° and not 63° as some will have it. It does not lie 
withir the line which includes the west of Ptolemy^ but much further to 
the west. And to this island, which is as large as England, the English 
go with their merchandize, especially those oi Bristol ; and, at the time 
that I went there the sea was not frozen, although there were such high 

' " Les Historie, dans I'etat ou nous possedons cet ouvrage aujourd'hui, sont done une 
composition dont on ne doit se servir qu'avec une extreme reserve et jamais sans en controler ies 
assertions, ies recits, les citations, meme ies noms et les dates." Harrisse, Christophe Colotnb, Paris, 
1884, vol. i., p. 115. 

^ " En unas anotaciones que hizo de como todas las cinco zonas son habitabies, probandolo 
por experiencia de sus navegaciones, [Cnrtobal Colon] diet; ansi • Yo navegue el afio de cuatro- 
cientos y setenta y siete, en el mes de Febrero, ultra Tile, isla cien leguas, cuya parte austral 
dista del equinoccial 73° y no 63°, como algunos dicen, y no esta dentro de la linea que incluye 
el occidente, como uice Tolomeo, sino mucho mas occidental, y a esta isla, que es tan grande 
como Ingiaterra, van los ingleses con mercaderias, especialmente los de Bristol, y al tiempo que 
yo a ella fui no estaba congelado el mar, aunque habia grandisimas mareas, tanto que en algunas 
partes dos veces al dia subia 25 brazas y descendia otras tantas en altura.' Fs bien verdad que 
Tile la de Tolomeo, esta donde el dice, y que a esta la Ilaman los modernos Frislandia." — Las 
Casas, Historia de las Indias, Madrid, 1875, vol. i., p. 48. 

" Et medesimamente in una memoria, 6 annotatione, ch'ei fece, dimonstrando, che tutte le 
cinque Zone sono habitabili & prouandolo con I'isperientia delle nauigationi, [I'Ammiraglio] dice : 
lo nauigai I'anno mcccci.xxvii nel mese di Febraio oltra Tile isola cento leghe, la cui parte 
Australe e lontana dall' Equinottiale settantatre gradi & non sessaiitatre, come alcuni vogliono : 
ne giace dentro della linea, che include I'Occidente di Tolomeo, ma e molte piu Occidentale. Et 
a quest' isola, che e tanto grande, come I'lnghiiterra, vanno gl' Inglcsi con le loro mercatantie, 
specialmente quelli di Bristol. Et al tempo, che io vi aidai, non era tongi^lato il mare, quant- 
unque vi fossero si grosse maree, che in alcuni luoghi iscendeua ventisei braccia & discendeua 
altretanti in altezza. t bene il vero, che Tile, quella, gi cui Tolomeo fa mentione, giace doue 
egli dice : &questa da' modern! e chiamata Frislanda." — Columbus, Historie, etc., 1 57 1, pp. 8 and 9. 



The Voyages of the Brothers Ztni. 



tidf s, that in some places they rose 26 Braccia,^ and fell as much in 
hei|Tht. ylnd it is very true that that Tile^ of which Ptolemy makes 
meption^ lies where he says^ and that the moderns call it Frislanda." 

Sir Clements R. Markham suggests^ that the two passages which we 
have printed in italics are interpolations made by Las Casas, after the 
publication of the Zeno book and map. This seems to be the case, 
certainly as to the latter italicized passage (viz., that referring to Fris- 
landa), which is not included in the quotation marks which inclose the 
rest of the passage in the printed edition of the Historia^ but appears as 
part of Las Casas's own work. There are no quotation marks to guide 
us in the Historie of 1571. 

As to the former italicized passage the case is not so clear, but this 
does not affedl the present subjeft. 

It seems, therefore, that the only mention of Frisland in the 
Historia occurs in a passage written by Las Casas, at least ten years 
before the Historie appeared. During the three years between the 
publication of the Zeno story and the completion of his own work, 
Las Casas would almost certainly have heard of the Zenian Frislanda, 
and noted it in his book ; it seems also, that, as it has been shown that 
the author of the apocryphal Historie sometimes borrowed from the 
work of Las Casas, evidence fails to show any knowledge by Christopher 
Columbus of the island Frisland. 

According to the Zeno narrative, Frisland had belonged to the 
King of Norway, and was won from him, by force of arms, by Zichmni, 
in 1379. If this is authentic history, it is certainly extraordinary that 
there should be no mention in any of the Scotch, Icelandic, or Scandi- 
navian records, official or otherwise, either of the large and important 
Island of Frisland, or of its conquest by Zichmni, but none of the 
believers in the story of the younger Zeno have been able to point to 
any such mention. Ortelius (solemnly confirmed by the learned Dr. 
Dee* and followed by Cluverius'') gives Frisland to England, though, 

' The Venetian braccia was 26-3 English inches. {7he Marchants mapp of Commerce, by 
l-ewes Roberts, London, 1638.) Major and others have given the modern rendering " fathoms " 
which more than doubles the height of the rise and fail of the tide. 

- Ptolemy, lib. ii., cap. iii., and " Tabula Prima Europa." 

^ Life of Christopher Columbus, in The World's Great Explorers Series. London, [892, 
pp. 22 and 23. 

' Private Diary of John Dee, 1 554-1601, Camden Society, 1842, p. 4 ; and the endorsement 
on Dee's map, 1580 (Brit. Mus., Cott. MSS., Aug. i, i. art. i). 

'■ Philippi Cluverii Introduilionis in Universam Geographiam tam veterem quam tiovam Libri 
I I. Amsterdam, 1676, 4to, p. 60. 


The Voyage of Nicolo Zeno ; Frislanda^ etc. 


like Mercator, he calls Zichmni " King of Frisland," a personage who 
is as little knoM'n to historians as Zeno's " Daedalus, King of Scodand." 

"Porlanda" and " Neome " were to be found, with many other 
Zenian names, on the Portuguese map of 1553, by Matthew Prunes, 
where they probably respectively represent Foula and Fair Isle. 

As to '* the Duchy of Sorant," it seems clear that the younger Zeno 
had in his mind the " Sorand " of his map. For once the description 
in the text tallies with the map, as " Sorand " does lie " on the side [of 
Frisland] opposite Scotland ; " posta dalla banda verso Scotia. It will 
be seen from Appendix IV. that its place is taken, on the fifteenth century 
Catalan map, and on the Prunes map, by *' Solanda," which is probably 
the " Isola Solan " of the Fra Mauro map (Plate I.). 

" Ledovo " may be the " Liderovo," and " Sanestol " the " Inestol " 
of the Andrea Bianco map, 1448. Major confidently identifies ^ 
" Ledovo " with " Lille Dimon," one of the smaller Faroes, but this is 
a very diminutive, uninhabited and almost inaccessible rock, and a most 
extraordinary place for Zichmni and Antonio Zeno to stop at for seven 
days, with their considerable number oi ships and men, to rest and 
refresh themselves and to furnish the fleet with necessaries, as the 
narrative tells us that they did.^ 

Admiral Irminger gives an instrudlive description and a pidlure of 
Lille Dimon in his paper, in the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical 
Society ., 1879, vol. xlix., p. 402. 

Major'" identification is based upon his ^extraordinary piionetic 
theory (applied also to many other Zenian names), according to which 
a Venetian, hearing a Northerner say " Lille Dimon," would give for 
the oound he heard the written form of *' Ledovo I " 

Major identifies " Ilofe" with " Skuoe,"" fi^st adopting Bredsdorff's 
suggestion that the initial "I" has Keen written by Zeno by rr ' take 
for " S." That change gives " Slofe," which, by Major's theo 7, is the 
Venetian rendering ot the word " Skuoe," spoken by a Northerner I 
We suggest, as a simpler and more reasonable solution, that the supposed 
name " Ilofe " is only the word " Ifole," i.e. islands, with the " 1 " and 
long " s '' transposed by the copyist from some Italian map, and 

' Voyages of the Zeni, p. xv. 

' It is however stated, in the Fareyinga Saga, that the brothers Brester and Beiner kept 
some sheep, and the cattle intended for killing, on Lille Dimon, which is described as being 

'' Voyages of the Zeni, p. xv. 'n the F ereyinga Saga " Skuoe" is called " Skufo." This 
would render Major's explanation more reasonable. 



70 The Voyages of the Brothers ZenL 

the long " s" read as an " f " by the compositor; giving " Ilofe " for 
" Ifole" — both very easy and natural mistakes when the written "1," 
long " s" and " f " were so much alike in form. 

'* Suderoe " is the name of one of the Farces, and appears on the 
Olaus Magnus map of 1539, and on Mercator's " Europa," 1554. 

The " Bondendon " of the narrative, or " Bondendea Porti " of the 
map, as will be more fully explained in the chapter on the " Carta da 
Navegar," owes its existence, as do several other of the names on 
Frisland, to the mis-copying of Portuguese words denoting physical 
features, which were frequently placed upon maps of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. Major,^ by his theory, makes it the Venetian version 
of "Norderdahl!" 

It should be observed that Zeno describes Frislanda, the island, as 
much larger than Ireland- [supra^ p. 9), and Frislanda, the chief city 
of that island, as lying inside a bay in which there is such a great abund- 
ance of fish that many ships are laden therewith to supply Flanders, 
Brittany, England, Scotland, Norway and Denmark, and adds, that 
by this trade they gather great wealth [supra^ p. 10). Yet, until 1558, 
no one but Zeno and. perhaps, his relative Marco Barbaro, had ever heard 
of the place, and, at that date, the island had totally disappeared, with- 
out any record or remark whatever, either by the owners or skippers of 
the many ships trading thither, or by any of the consignees of their 
cargoes of fish. 

' Voyages of the Zeni, p. xvi. 

^ Major (Voyages of the Zeni, p. 6, n.) suspeds that "Irlanda" is a misreading for 
" Islanda." He also asserts " the Zeni's utter ignorance of Ireland ; " yet, in his introdudion 
(p. xcviii), he identifies the " Icaria" of the Zeni witli Kerry, and seems to imply that this helps 
his theory. But the Zeni cannot have visited Kerry and yet have been entirely ignorant of 


/o/ios 48"-5i')- 


NicoLo's Second Letter, 

ICOLO ZENO, after being joined by his brother 
Antonio, was made captain of Zichmni's navy. 
Zichmni had projedled an attack upon Eslanda 
(Shetland), but drew off on hearing that the King 
of Norway was coming against him with a great 
fleet. The same storm which utterly destroyed the 
Norwegian fleet also wrecked a good many of 
Zichmni's ships. The remainder took shelter in " Grislanda," a large 
but uninhabited island not far to the south of Islanda. 

Iceland is only thrice mentioned in the Zeno narrative, and only 
once with any detail, viz., when Zichmni, accompanied by Nicolo, 
after the failure of his expedition against Eslanda (Sf tiand), determined 
" to attack Islanda, which, exadlly in the same m ler as the others, 
belonged to the King of Norway ; but he foun( he country so well 
fortified and furnished for defence that he coul 
repulsed, as he had such a small fleet, and that, 
wise very badly provided both with arms and m 
he abandoned that enterprise without havi^ i done anything, and 
attacked, in the same channels, the other islaii s called Islande, which 
are seven in number, that is to say, Talas, Broas, Iscant, Trans, 
Mimant, Damberc, and Brcs. Taking possession of them all, he built 
a fort in Bres, in which he left M. Nicolo with some small ships, some 
men and provisions ; and . . . returned safely to Frislanda" {supra, p. 1 1). 

iiot but have been 
nail as it was, like- 
On this account. 

I - 



.,-.»T— ei(;jci»ri ■ 


72 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, 

The second and third occurrences of the name are on /olio 57. These 
latter are merely passing allusions. 

It is clear that Nicolo Zeno, the younger, has blundered badly 
over this part of his story. Arngrim Jonas, in commenting upon the 
above passage (which he knew from the Latin version given in 
Pontaiius ') shows, first, that the Iceland which he knew so well, and 
of which he is one of the most reliable historians, never was fortified 
or furnished for defence against attack by any fleet, however small ; ^ 
secondly, that the anc'.ent records of Iceland, though exceedingly 
minute in respedl to the smallest details, make no mention of so 
imminent a danger as that described by Zeno ; and, thirdly, that there 
were no such islands as those named by '^' ;no near Iceland. 

On the first point, Nicolo Zeno, the younger, may easily have been 
misled by Olaus Magnus, who, both in the Opera Breve of 1539,' 
which explains his map of that date, and in his larger work, Historia 
de Gent thus Septentrionalibus^ 'SSSi*^ inserts passages from which 
Zeno might have gathered that the Icelanders were a warlike and well- 
armed people. So far from this being the case, they allowed themselves, 
during a century and a half, to be continually harried, robbed and 
insulted by the crews of ships of several nationalities, chiefly English, 
and always with impunity to the ravagers. 

As to Arngrim Jonas's second point, Zeno could not have known 
for how long a time, or with what care and minuteness of detail, the 
Icelandic records had been kept, and, even had he done so, he would 
hardly have anticipated that his narrative would ever be subjedltd to 
the test of a comparison with those documents." 

As 10 Arngrim Jonas's third point, there could be litde doubt that 
Zeno in his narrative has confused Iceland {Islanda of che text) and 
the Shetlands [Eslanda^ Estlanda or Islande of the text), yet we cannot 
but think that the seven islands, to the east oi Iceland on his map, had 

' Rerum Danicarum, 1631, p. 755-763. 

- Specimen Islandia:, 1643, p. 143 et seqq, 

^ " Et li cavaliere armati [represented on Islandia] dimonstrano quivi farsi spessocrudelissime 
guerre, ed alcuna per leggier cause." Opera Breve, under A. o. ; see also infra, Plate IV. 

* " Hi autem Islandenses . . . : facili causa provocantur ad arma, ac bella, quae satis crudelia 
gerunt ; denique tam ad pedestrem, quam e(]uestrem expeditionem in omiii eventu ci'nJi:a 
disposita habent." Hist, de Gentibus Septemrionalibus, p. 733. See also p. 240, etc., in the 
work cited. 

'' " The native historians of Iceland are exceedingly numerous ... at present it may be 
sufficient to state that they have successfully elucidated even the most remote periods in the 
history of their country, and that their simplicity and distinftness furnish strong internal evidence 
of authenticity." Sir Geo. Stuart Macke.izie, Travels in Iceland, 181 1, p. 4. 


The Voyage of Nicolo to Shetland, Iceland, and Greenland. 73 

their origin in the ice floes shown in a corresponding position on the 
Ohms Magnus map (Plate IV.), which Zeno, whether through ignorance 
or impudence, has converted into islands! This seems also to be Professor 
Storm's view.^ 

Forster,'"* in 1784, recognizes these seven Zenian islands as the Shet- 
lands ; Eggers,^ in 1794, takes some trouble to distinguish the different 
parts of Iceland which each of them represented in his opinion ; ^ Zurla 
approves. Lelewel also° treats them as parts of Iceland. Major, how- 
ever, considers" that they were the Shetlands, misplaced by Zeno, the 
younger, in error, and that the words " Islanda " and " Islande," in the 
passages quoted at the beginning of this sedion, are misreadings for 
" Eslanda," meaning the Shetlands. The names of the seven Zenian 
Icelandic islands are apparently borrowed from the Shetlands,^ and they 
represent those islands in a vague, loose kind of way. The " Bres " of 
the narrative is the modern Breosay. 

We have seen that Zichmni left Nicolo in the new fort in Bres, with 
some small vessels, some men, and some stores. Nicolo determined to make, 
from thence, an exploring expedition, and, sailing towards the north, in 
the month of July, arrived, according to thf* narrative, in Greenland. 

Now, if Bres had been an island off ^ ^ast coast of Iceland, as 
Nicolo, the younger, understood it to be, an i as he has shown it on his 
map, a northerly course from thence could only have brought Nicolo, 
the traveller, to Greenland. But as Bres is really Bressay, in the 
Shetlands, the same course from thence would, more probably, have 
brought him first to Iceland. The description of Greenland given in 
the narrative, though in many respedls inapplicable to that country, 
would apply fairly well to Iceland. 

In Greenland, we are told, Nicolo found the wonderful monastery 
of the order of the Preaching Friars, and the church dedicated to St. 
Thomas, the Volcano, like Vesuvius or Etna, and the hot springs and 
other remarkable things described in the narrative {supra, ^. w et seqq,). 
The existence of any of these things in the part of Greenland indicated 
by the map, or of some o. them in any part of Greenland, is inconsistent 
with all human knowledge, even at the presen-, day, extended as that 
knowledge has been by the frequent and determined explorations made 

' Otn Zeniernes reiser, pp. 9 and 14. " Northern ''oyages, p. 200. 

'' Ueber die wa/ire lage Jes Alten Ostgronlands. Kiel, 1794. 

* Dissertaziotte, etc., 1808, p. 91. Di Marco Polo, vol. ii., p. 55. 

■* Geographie du AInyen Age. vol. iv., p. 95. 

" Voyages of the Zeni, p. 1 1, n. 2. ' Ste infra, Appendix IV. 



74 T/ie Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

on the Greenland coasts during the last two centuries. But the volcanoes 
and hot springs, hot enough to be capable of cooking food, either by 
baking or boiling, did exist in Iceland, as was known in Italy in the 
time of Zeno the younger, and still exist. In speaking of the monastery 
Zeno says : " Hither in the summer come many boats from the 
neighbouring islands, and from the cape upon Norway and from Treadon 
(Trondhjem)," to trade for dried fish and skins. And further, " There 
come together in this monastery Friars from Norway, Sweden, and 
other countries, but the greater pare are from Islande ; ' and there are 
always in this port many ships, which cannot get away because the sea 
is frozen, awaiting the spring thaw" \^ante^ p. 14]. And yet no trace 
can be found in Greenland, no mention in history of this flourishing 
trading station. It has been noticed elsewhere that in 13H9, and for 
many years previously, Iceland and Greenland were regarded as the 
private prope' v of the Danish Crown, and none but royal ships were 
permitted to go to those countries.'^ 

On the question as to where Zeno the vounger can have got his 
details of these northern parts, Olaus Magnus and Bordonc may be 
referred to. There is not one of the wonders described by Zeno the 
idt a of which may not have been taken from the works of one or other 
of those two authors. 

As to the possession by the Friars of aM sorts of comforts, and all 
that they want, the hot springs and the lake kept from freezing by their 
flow, compare he description by Olaus Magnus of the Royal Fortress 
of Aaranes m Lveden :' " This Fortress had around it all the advantages 
which any fortunate abode of mortals could demand and obtain from 
the Powers above." The " vast Lake Vener abounding in fish," was 
hard by, and the neighbouring marshes protefted the approaches even 
in the severest winter, " for very rarely were these marshes Irozen, 
because of the hot vapours from the sulphurous streams." We seem, 
also to see a possible origin of the Friars' gardens in the following 
chapter of Olaus, which describes the wonderful garden of the Mountain 
Kinderberg, near the aforesaid fortress. 

' This may mean Iceland or the Shetlands. Major translates it by the latter name. See 
note I, on p. 1 1, supra. 

- Vide infra, p. 96. 

^ " Habebat hsec arx in circuitu omnes commoditates quas unquam felix mortalium sedes a 
superis inipetrare potuerat et obtinere." . . . " V istuiu .ic piscosum lacum Vener." . . . 
Nam rarissime propter calidas vcnarum sulphureari m exhalationes j.^'udes illae congelantur." 
— De Gcntibus Sept., lib. 2, cap. xxi. 


The Voyage of Nicolh to Shctlafid^ Icela?icly and Greenland. 75 

In the same hook' there arc accounts of hot springs in T-reland and 
Scotland in vvhi h anything may he cooked; and ot the sione which, 
when water is poured upon ir, becomes hke Hme. That the things 
thus described by Olaiis do not belong to the locality assigned to them 
by Zeno matters little, considering the latter's method of gathering 
materials for his story Irom all quarters ; and especially seeing that the 
locality, which he does assign tor his flourishing monastic emporivmi, 
happens to be in reality in the middle of the frozen sea, between Green- 
land and Spitzbergen. As to the habitations, Bordone'^ describes the 
method of lighting the cave-dwellings from the top; while Olaus Mag- 
nus" has several chapters describing the materials and manner of con- 
strudion of houses, in various forms (round amongst others), and the 
method ot obtaining light from the top. Bordone mentions the great 


abundance of fish, their great size and strange forms, and the trade 
done in salted fish ; while Olaus Magnus refers, over and over again, 
to the abundance and great size of the fishes of the north, and figures, 
both in his book and in his map, divers strange varieties. 

Again, Olaus Magnus gives us "^ a woodcut pidlure, here reproduced, 
whirh might well serve to illustrate Zeno's description of the con- 
veyance of the hot water iii«-o the middle of the Covrt, where it falls 
into a large vessel of brass, that stands in the middle of a boiling fountain. 
The use of hot water, led by conduits into baths, is in Iceland, at least 
as old as the time ot 8norre Sturlasson, who was beheaded in 1241.'' 

' De Gentibus Sept., lib. 2, cap. i. '' Isolario, ed. i^2i, folio v. 

'■' De Gentibus Sept., lib. 12, cap. i., ii., iii. 

' /*;</., p. 527. De Balneis, & ventosis, ac phlebotomia. 

' See Irminger, in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc: Loiulon, 1879, vol. xlix., p. 41 1, and Troil, Letters 
on Iceland, I>ondon, 1780. The following is rroil's description of Snorre Sturlasson's bath : 
" And at a little distance from them [the site of Sturlasson's house and the burying place of his 


I \ 





The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

It may be noticed that even the most devoted of Zciio the vounger's 
supporters have been obliged to aband(.n him on the question of the 
locality assigned by him for the Monastery. 

We will postpone the consideration of Nicolo Zeno's volcano in 
East Greenland till we come to the account of Antonio Zeno's volcana 
in West Greenland. 

The younger Zeno's knowledge of the Greenlanders' leather boats, 
or kayaks, is one of those things about which he is suppoi^ed to have 
possessed informatior.' in advance of that of his age. His description of 
them (though we canr.ot agree with Major,* that it is "truly admirable,") 
is certainly in keeping with the rest of his story, as it shows a complete 
misunderstanding of its iubjcft, and is, in some respeds, untrue. 

Both Ziegler'^ and C'laus Magnus ' mention these boats. The latter 
«ays that in 1 5 1 5 he saw two of them over the western door of the 
Cathedral consecrated to Halvard at Aslo (Christiania). He also figures 
one in his map of 1539, and in the Opera Breve gives much the same 
account as that given by Zeno, as to the safety of those who use them : 
" in these they are safe in all conditions of the winds, whether carried 
on to the rocks, or into the depths ;* where they attack ships, even 
the ships of foreigners, and pierce the same under the water and sink 
them." The figure on the Map (Plate IV. B.a.) may very well have 
given Zeno the idea of the shape of a weaver's shuttle, though it gives 
no idea of the real form or use of a kayak. As a matter of fadt, a 
kayaker is completely shut in by the union of his leather clothing with 
the ring of the kayak, only his face being exposed. Olaus Magnus in 
another place '^ also mentions the making of ships, "which, as there are 
no iron nails, aiC joined together with the sinews of animals, especially 
of reindeer, and with the roots of trees." 

The leather boats are also mentioned by Schoner," who speaks of 

family] Snorra Laug, one of the finest baths in Iceland. This bath, which is large enough to 
contain fifty persons at one time, is mured in with a wall of basalt and concrete thermarum; it 
has a smooth level bottom, and is surrounded with benches. In Sturleson's time a long covered 
passage led from thence to the dwelling-housf, so that the bathers retire from the bath without 
fjeing exposed to the cold. The spring is at forty paces' distance, and is called Scribla, and the 
water from it is conveyed to the bath through a conduit made of stones. At the end of this 
conduit is a hole in a rock, which is shut with a spigot and faucet, and through which you let in 
as much warm water as you think fit ; this, when too hot, may easily be cooled by water from 
an adjoining brook." — Op. cit., pp. 189, 190. 

' Voyages of the Zeni, p. Ixxxix. - Schondia, 1536, folio xcii.b, 

' De Gentibus Sept., p. 68 ; Ope a Breve, 1539, under B.a. 

* Ct. Annals, folios 50, 5 . " Opera Breve, under C.p. 

' " Pigmei parvi longitudine cubitales ; quos vidit Claudius Clavus Niger captos in mari in 


The Voyage of Nkolo to Shetland^ Icelandy and Greefihuid. 77 

the little pigmies a cubit long, some of whom Claudius Clavus had 
seen captured at sea in a moderate-sized boat made of leather, whicii 
in Sch()ner's time was preserved in the Cathedral Church of Nidrosia 
(Trondhjem). They had in the same place, he adds, a long boat also 
made of leather, which was once also captured with some pigmies. 

The larger Greenland leather boat, the umiak^ is not covered in at 
all, and can only be used in fair weather. 

The ridiculous account of the "sleeve"^ (manica) in the bottom of 
the boat must be an addition of Zeno's own. Such an arrangement 
would be entirely irnpra<tlicahlc, indeed impossible, in a kayak ; it may 
have its origin in a misreading oi Olaus ^ agnus' somewhat obscure 
descriptions in the Opera Breve and De Gentibus Septentrio?talibus 
Historian above referred to. Olaus Magnus also refers to the " vessels 
covered with leather round about and well sewed ;" which Pliny, 
quoting Timaius, mentions as being used by the Britons. - 

It is unfortunate that so many wrirtrs upon the Zeno narrative have 
drawn across the trail of the investigation the interesting question of the 
situations of the old Danish settlements in Greenland, so long lost sight 
of. It is not proposed to follow the false scent of this literary or 
historical red herring. It is now well ascertained that both the Eastern 
and Western Settlements were upon the western face of Greenland, and 
Major attempts to transport Zeno's Monastery thither. He finds in 
the Springs of Ounartok (which have only a temperature of 108° Fahr. ') 
not indeed Zeno's hot springs, but evidence of the probability of the 
existence, 500 years ago, of some other hot springs which, he holds, 
may have been the hot springs described by Zeno. No springs hot 
enough to cook food have, however, been discovered in Greenland. 
The Geysers in Iceland reach the temperature of 2 12° Fahr., and could 
do all that the Zenian springs are said to have done for cooking and 
warming purposes. Besides, in order to bring Nicolo Zeno from Bressay 
to the southern point of Greenland, as Major would do, it would be 
necessary to ignore Zeno's statement that he sailed from Bres [Bressay] 
towards the north. The course from Bressay to Cape Farewell would 
be due west. 

iiavicula modica de corio preparata, quas hac nostra fempestate in Ecclesia Cathedrali Nodrosia? 
reservatur. Habent ibidem navem longam etiam de corio quae quondam cum pigneis etiam 
capta erat." — Lucukntissima quicdam terra totiu; Hescriptio, etc., Nuremberg, 1515, 4to. 

' yinnals, folio 51". 

^ C. Plinii Secundi Historic Mundi Liiri XXXFII."—Uh. 4, cap. xvi. 

^ A temperature of 115" P'ahr. is the lowest at which serum albumen will coagulate; and 
certainly another 10° or 12° must be added before an egg could be cooked. 

I \i 






l^|2|8 125 



:^ lii 12.0 


1 1.25 II U ,,.6 









(716) 872-4503 








h. ! 

Antonio Zeno's First Letter to Carlo Zeno, yj?//w 51 ''-53''). 

IT is upon the story, said to have been related by a 
fisherman of Frisland to Zichmni, that the claim on 
behalf of Venice to a pre-Columbian discovery of 
America has been mainly based ; and it is this portion 
of the Zeno narrative which has given the greatest 
interest to the inquiries and speculations which have 
been made, as to the good faith of Nicolo Zeno the 
younger, and the truth of his story. 

Whatever may be the case as to other parts of the book, it seems 
certain that the whole of this story is pure fiftion, built up by Zeno 
the younger from the Columbus letters; Vespucci's letters of 1503 and 
1504, the Paesi Novamente retrovatiy 1507 (with several later Italian 
editions) ; the Itinerarium Portugalisnsium^ 1508 (which is an inexad 
Latin version of the Paesi)', Peter Martyr's Decades ^ 151 »> 1521, 
1530, etc. ; Grynaeus' Novus Or bis, 1532 ; and other early works of 
the sixteenth century, especially Benedetto Bordone'* Isolario (Venice, 
1528), which appears to have supplied the compiler of the Annals with 
many suggestions and much material for this and other portions of his 

The main outlines of the fisherman's story correspond closely with 
those of the history of Jeronimo Aguilar, one of Valdivia's men. 
Valdivia, in 151 1, was sent from Darien to give information to the 
Admiral, Diego Columbus, of the want of food and necessaries there. 
The story is told both by Peter Martyr, in De Nuper repertis Insulis 
(which appeared first in 1 5 2 1 as a separate work, and afterwards as a 



The Story of the Fr island Fisherman. 79 

part of the Fourth Decade), and also by Gomara in his Historia de 
Mexico^ published at Antwerp in 1554. 

The Zeno r^arrative wrecks the fisherman on Estotilanda: Nelle 
quali si ruppe un de navigli, e set huomini, che uerano, etc. {/olio 52'). 
Valdivia and his companions were wrecked off Jamaica : E . . . se 
perdio la caravella en los Baxos . . . To^y otros seys {Gomara^ fol. 21). 

The Italian version of Gomara, by Mauro, published after Zeno's 
time, in 1566, renders this passage : Si ruppe la caravella nelle . . . 
sicche . . . lo e altri sei, etc. 

Zeno has found it necessary, for the purpose of his tale, to wreck 
his unfortunate fisherman twice, the first time upon Estotilanda, the 
second upon Drogeo. On their voyage to Drogeo the fisherman and 
his companions encountered such a great storm ** that they gave them- 
selves up for lost; nevertheless, in trying to escape from one cruel 
death they fell into the clutches of another, much more terrible, for 
being taken into the country, most of them were eaten by the ferocious 
inhabitants who feed upon human flesh, which they consider a very 
savoury viand." The fisherman, after passing from hand to hand among 
many chiefs, eventually escaped and fled, and was made most welcome 
and kindly treated by a neighbouring chief who knew him, and who 
had great enmity ajrainst the other chief [from whom he had fled]. 

The second par?: of the account of Valdivia's shipwreck corresponds 
with that of this wreck of Zeno's fisherman on Drogeo. Valdivia and 
his men took to their boats, without oars or sails, and were carried 
away by the violence of the sea. The residue, likewise, consumed by 
famine, and " falling from one calamity into another," were driven to 
Yucatan, where they fell into the hands of a cruel king who slew 
Valdivia with certain of his fellows, and, when he had first sacrificed 
them to his Zemis, shortly afterwards he, with his friends, ate them, 
for they eat only their enemies and strangers. In the meantime, Aguilar 
and six of his fellows were reserved to be sacrificed. On the third day, 
they escaped and fled to another king, who was the enemy of the first 
king, and who received them, yet only as bondmen. 

Again, when Zeno's fisherman heard of the arrival of ships in 
Drogeo and went to the coast, he found, to his great satisfaction, that 
they were from Estotilanda, and asked the sailors to take him with 
them. He was willingly received by them, because, as he understood 
the language of the country, which none of the others understood, 
they used him as an interpreter. 

I ;i 



The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, 



So, also, when Aguilar heard of the arrival of the foreigners, and 
went to the coast to meet them, he inquired of them in Spanish whether 
they were Christians, and when they replied that they were Spaniards, he 
wept for joy and begged them to render thanks to God, who, of His 
goodness, had delivered him from the hands of infidels and wicked men, 
and placed him among Christians and those of his own nation ; and 
they returned thanks to God for his liberation, and for having sent 
them an interpreter sure and truthful. 

Turning from the comparison of these two narratives to Zeno's 
account of Estotilanda and Drogeo, it will be found that the description 
of Estotilanda is drawn from accounts of Mexico, Hispaniola, Cuba, and 
other islands, while that of Drogeo is chiefly from accounts of the 
northern parts of South America. 

As evidence in support of these statements, a comparison may be 
made of the Zeno narrative with the references to and extrads from 
various works given below. There is, indeed, nothing original in Zeno's 
fisherman's story, except the statement that the books in Estotilanda 
were in Latin. 

Bordone ^ supplies Zeno with many of the materials for the descrip- 
tion of Estotiland in his account of Mexico. There we find the 
originals of the citta bellissima^ the king, the great population, the 
cities and castles, and the abundance of good things. 

Zeno describes a mountain from which four rivers rise {folio 52').^ 
Havendo ne I mezzo un monte altisstmOy dalquale nascono quattro fiumi^ 
che la irrigano. Bordone tells of a similar mountain in Hispaniola: et 
da ditto monte^ quattro fiutni scendono giuso nel piano? Both authors 
tell of the learning and artistic skill of the people. Zeno says {folio 5 2''), 
that they have a distind: language and letters: Hanno lingua^ e lettere 
separate. Bordone says, referring to Mexico:* Hanno certe charratere 
?iel loro scrivere. 

The account of the possession of metals of all sorts, and especially of 
gold, is common to both writers. Zeno tells us {folio 52**) of the country 
lying to the south {Ostro)y " very rich in gold," where " they sow corn 
and make beer, which is a kind of drink that northern people take as we 

* Isolario, \^i%, folios vii., viii. and ix. 

* " Having in the middle a very high mountain from which spring four rivers, which water 
it [Estotilandal " {supra, p. i6). 

■' " And from the said mountain four rivers flow down into the plain," Isolario, xii. a. 

* " They have distinft characters in which they write." Ibid., ix. a. 


The Story of the Frisland Fisherman, 


[the Venetians] do wine" {folio 52'').^ Bordone tells ** us of Paria lying 
to the west (Ponente), rich in gold, where they have wine, red and 
white, but not made of grapes (for the country does not produce the 
vine), but of some fruits not known to the Spaniards. 

Peter Martyr also tells us of the books, and describes the letters as 
being much like to the Egyptian charadlers, but written in lines like 
ours; of the drink, made from maize and other fruits; of the gold 
mines ; and, of the working of metals. 

The above references are all from early accounts of Mexico, of 
Hispaniola, Cuba, and neighbouring islands, and of the northern parts 
of the Southern Continent of America. 

In the latter portion of the fisherman's story, which relates to Drogeo, 
we find the descriptions mainly drawn from accounts of South America. 

Where Zeno says^ \_ folio 53*] : Et dice il faese essere grand! ssimo 
ftf quasi un nuovo mondo ; the Paesi Novamente has,* / quali novo 
mondo chiamare ne sta licito ; and Bordone," Terra di SanSia Cruce 
ouer mondo nouo . . . grandissima isola. 

Again, Zeno says" \^/olio 53*] of the inhabitants of Drogeo: Ma 
genti roza & priva di ogni bene^ perche vanno nudiy tutti che patiscano 
freddi crudeli, ne sanno coprirsi delle pelli degli animali^ che prendeno 
in caccia. Bordone says ' of the natives of Hispaniola : £/ gli habitant! 
di questo luogo, non solo sono pigri, ma essa pigritia^ & tarditate, inutili^ 
&* di ogni bonta priui^ tal che^ piu presto^ giacciar se lassano {perche 
quiui fa molto frcddo, che di bambagia {perche in questo luogo ue ne 
gran copia)far alcuna cosa per coprire le loro carni. 


' I 

' Olaus Magnus, in the thirteenth book of his Historia de Gentibus Sept., 1555, fully describes 
the mode of preparation, etc., of the beer made and used in the North. 

* In the account of Columbus's third voyage, from which Bordone derives this passage, the 
Admiral infers that for " making the white and red wine they use maize, which is a plant that 
bears an ear like that of wheat. ' SeleSl Letters of Columbus, edited by R. H. Major, Hakluyt 
Society, 1870, p. 126. Bordone, /Wdr/'o, xi. a. 

' " He says that it is a very great country, and, as it were, a new world." Major, Voyages 
of the Zeni,^. 22. 

* " Which it might be permitted to call a New World." Paesi Nov., cap. cxiiii. 

* " The Land of the Holy Cross, or New World ... a very great island." Isolario, 
folio x'. 

* " The people are very rude and destitute of any good qualities, for they ail go naked, and 
suffer cruelly from the cold, nor have they the sense to clothe themselves with the skins of thr 
animals they take in hunting." 

^ " And the inhabitants of this place not only are lazy, but, on account of their laziness and 
slowness, are useless and destitute of any good qualities, so that they rather allow themselves to 
freeze (for it is very cold there) thati make anything to cover their flesh with of the cotton 
(which grows in this place in great quantity)." Isolario, folio xii*. 




! ! 


The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

Zeno ssiys^ {foho 53']: Non hanno metallo di sorte alcuna^ viveno 
di cacciagioniy & portano lancie di legno nella punta aguzze, 9^ archly 
le corde de i quali sono di pelle animali. Vespucci has^: Le loro 
armi sono archi 9f saette mo I to ben fabricati^ salvo che non tengon 
ferrOy ne altro genere di metallo forte : et in luogo del ferro pongono 
denti di animali^ di pesci, un fuscello di legno forte arsicciato nella 
punEla. . . . Altre arme tenghonoy come lance tostati. The Paesi 
Novamente has*^: Le sue arme sono larco &' le saette ; and Bordone,* 
le loro armi sono saette, maze, et pietri. 

Zeno says" \_ folio 53']: Sono popoli di gran ferocitu, combat teno 
insieme mortalmente, ftf si mangiano Puno r altro, and \^folio 52''] 
cibandosi essi di carne humana, che tengono per molto saporita vivanda; 
Vespucci has' : Usono di guerra infra loro con gente che non sono 
di lor lingua molto crudelmente, senza perdonare la vita a netsuno, 
se non per maggior pena ; and, further on, Mangion pocha carne 
salvo che carne del huomo ; . . . Si mangiono tutti eloro nimici che 
amazzano, pigliano, si femine come maschi . . . ftf j / maravigliorono 
udendo dire a noi che non si mangiamo nostri nimici. The Paesi 
Novamente puts it thus': Alle bataglie li incendono : in lequale cru- 
delissime insieme si amazano : e quelli iquale de la bataglia captivi 
menano : non de la vita : ma del suo viSlo percasione da esser amazati li 
servano : imperho che li altri laltre parte : &* ivencitori iventi man- 
zano : Sf infra le carne la humana e aquelli comuno cibo . . . Molto piu io 
dico che essi maraviglieno per che nui non manzano li inimici nostri : S^ la 
carne de quelli non usano in li cibi : la quale dice esser saporosissima. 

' " They have no metal ot any kind. They live by hunting, and cany lances of wood 
sharpened at the point, and bows, the strings of which are made of the skins of animals." 

' " Their arms are bows and arrows very well made, save that they have no iron nor any 
other kind of hard metal, and in place of iron they put the teeth of animals, or of fishes, or a spike 
of strong wood, with the point hardened by fire. . . . They have other arms, such as fire-hardened 
spears." Vespucci's Letter s^ Quaritch's facsimile, 1893, folio a. iii. 

' " Their arms are the bow and arrows." Paesi Nov., cap. cxvii. 

* " Their arms are arrows, clubs and stones." Isolario, folio xi". 

' " They are a people of great ferocity, and have deadly fights against each other, and eat one 
another." " For they eat human flesh, which they hold to be a very savoury viand," folio a. iii. 

' " Warfare is carried on among them against people who are not of their own language very 
cruelly, without granting life to anyone, except to reserve him for greater pain. . . . They eat 
little flesh except human flesh. . . . They eat all their enemies whom they kill or capture, females 
as well as males . . . and they wondered to hear us say that we did not eat our enemies." 
Vespucci's Letters, Quaritch's facsimile, 1893, folio a. v. 

^ " In their battles they fight fiercely, and slay one another in them most cruelly, and those 
whom they take captives in battle they keep not for use living, but to be eaten when required 
as food ; for this is done by both sides, and vidors eat the vanquished, and of all meat human 

The Story of the Frisland Fisherman. 


Bordone has:' ftf gli vinti ad esser mangiati serbati sono^ ftf tra 
tutte le carne^ Phumana e alloro in comune uso. 

Where Zeno has' \^/olio 53'], hanno superiorly et certe leggi molto 
differenti tra di loro ; Bordone has' \_ folio x**] // costumi de gCisolani 
. . . sono molto dissimili in diverse parte de lisola ; and [yolio xi*] 
Alcuni a tiranni sotoposto sono . . . et cosi di varii costumi e tutta 

Zeno tells us [folio 53*] of "cities and temples dedicated to 
idols, in which they sacrificed men." Bordone gives* a soiewhat full 
account of temples, idols and human sacrifices. Peter Martyr does 
the same, and describes'' the manner of sacrifice and how they eat " the 
brawnes of the armes, and fleshy parts of the thighs, and calves of the 

Examples of such passages, containing the materials of Zeno's de- 
scriptions, might be multiplied almost indefinitely if we were to go 
back to the original accounts of the voyages of Columbus, Vespucci, 
Cortes and others, from which Peter Martyr," Montalboddo and Bordone 
compiled their works. But, as we find so much in Bordone which is 
also in Zeno, from the dwarfs of Greenland to Daedalus and Icaria, it 
seems probable that the Isolario was Zeno's guiding star through the 
perilous paths of fiditious history, and we have therefore referred prin- 
cipally to that book. 

Although it may be allowed that all descriptions of wrecks, of 
naked cannibals, of savage customs, and of unknown countries, must 
have a certain sameness, and that the use of similar phrases may be 
mere coincidences, yet so close a correspondence has been shown 
between the Zeno narrative of 1558 and the earlier accounts of 
transatlantic discovery, published at the end of the fifteenth and in 
the beginning of the sixteenth centuries, in so many instances, and 

flesh is the commonest food among them . . . and more than that I say that they wondered that 
we did not eat our enemies and use their flesh as food, which they say is most savoury." Paesi 
Nov., cap. cxvii. 

' ' And the vanquished are kept to be eaten, and of all meat human flesh is in most common 
use among them." Isolario, folio xi*. 

* " They have chie^ and certain laws diflfering much amongst themselves." 

' " The customs of these islanders ... are very unlike in different parts of the island . . . 
some are subjeA to chiefs . . . and thus are of various customs." Isolario, folio x** and xi*. 

* Isolario, folio viii"*. 

' De Insults nuper inventis, 15 21, pp. 12, 13; ed. 1533, folio 70*, and cap. iv. in Lok's 

" Peter Martyr was one of the Council of the Indies, and had therefore also special facilities 
for obtaining information as to the newly-discovered lands at first hand. 







I • 


1' I 


TAe Voyagei of the Brothers Zeni, 

in such a number of details, that it cannot reasonably be attributed to 

The conclusion that the story of the Frisland fisherman was compiled 
by the younger Zeno from some of the sources which we have indicated 
is, therefore, justified. It will now be seen that the Estotilanda and 
Drogeo of the narrative (which are quite distindt from the Estotilanda 
and Drogeo of the map, to neither of which can the narrative possibly 
apply) are (as to Estotilanda) Mexico, and (as to Drogeo) the Paria of 
Columbus, and the Lariab of Vespucci, with some details added to 
each, borrowed from the accounts of several of the West Indian Islands. 

The question of the derivations of the names Estotilanda and 
Drogeo will be considered further on. 



ll ' 




;■ ^'-^'''J 


S^^. ^J^' 




Second V.ZT-rzv.y /olios 54*- 5 7'). 

IN consequence of the information given by the 
Frisland fisherman, Zichmni determined to sail for 
Estotiland, and made great preparations for the 

The travelled fisherman unluckily died three days 
before the date fixed for the start; but Zichmni, 
nothing daunted, persevered in his intention. He 
sailed westward from Frisland and came to Ledovo, and thence to 
Ilofe, where the fleet arrived on the ist of July, and pushed on thence 
as the wind was favourable. Soon after, a storm arose which drove 
the adventurers about, they knew not where, for eight days. When 
the storm at length abated, they continued their westward course 
(the narrative does not say for how long) and discovered land on 
the west, which turned out to be an island, called by the inhabitants 
" Icaria." 

It is difiicult to imagine what led Nicol6 Zeno, the younger, to 
import the island of Icaria, legend and all, from the ^gean into the 
Deucalidonian Sea, and his apologists have found this a hard nut to 

Terra-Rossa gives a garbled quotation from Baudrand in order to 
lead the reader to infer that Terra- Rossa's " antagonist" (as he generally 
called Baudrand) had admitted the existence of an "Icaria" in the 
North Sea, whereas the island to which Baudrand refers in the passage 





The Voyagei of the Brothers Zeni. 

partially quoted by Terra-Rossa is placed by Baudrand in the Persian 
Gulf. Terra-Rossa writes as follows : ' 

" All the other four islands \Frislanday Eilanda^ Enrrouelanda^ 
ftf Estotilanda] were by my learned Adversary, in the Volumes of his 
Geography, proved and admitted to be true, genuine, and not imaginary. 
He has indeed taken laudable care to prove the truth of the Northern 
Icaria, which at this day is no longer seen represented under its old 
name on Maps of the World or on charts. In order to remove all con- 
fusion, or ambiguity, he has been very careful to distinguish it from the 
other Oriental Icaria, which is now called Nicaria or Nicouriy situated 
in the i^gean Sea. With the authority of Gallio, his favourite author, 
he has been able to prove this Northern one, seen only by Antonio, 
and not by Nicol6 Zeno : Icarium^ or Icharam^ to be Baharein^ an 
island celebrated for pearl fishery. Verb. Jcarium" But the passage 
quoted by Terra-Rossa is only part of the last clause of Baudrand's 
article, which runs thus:^ " Icarium, an island in the Persian Gulf, 
placed opposite the mouth of the Euphrates by Strabo and Arrian, and 
called Ichara by Pliny and Ptolemy, now Carge, according to Castaldo, 
although some more recent authorities think it is called Elchadr, and 
Gollius believes Icarium or Icharam to be Baharein, an island celebrated 
for pearl fishery." 

Forster gives ^ the strange story as told by Zeno the younger, and 
identifies Icaria with Kerry (I),'^ a wild guess founded upon a slight 
resemblance between the sounds of the two names ; but this identification 
will not bear the test of comparison with either the Zenian narrative 
or map. 

Zurla passes over the legend in silence, and identifies the 

' " Tutte le altre (juattro Isole [Frislanda, Eslanda, Engrouelanda, and Euolilanda] furono 
dal mio dotto Auuersano ne i Volutni della sua Geoeraiia giustificate, & accordate come vere, 
leali, e non finte. Ha infino fatta diligenza lodeuole per approuare I'lcaria Settentrionale, la 
quale oggi non si vede piu espressa col suo antico nome su i Mappamondi, o nelle Tavole. A 
fine di leuare ogni confusione, 6 gli equiuoci, si e molto bene ingegnato distinguer la dall'altra 
Orientale Icaria, che di presente si chiama Nicaria, 6 Nicouri nelT' Egeo Mare situata. Con 
I'autorita di Gallio suo Autore favorito ha saputo confermare di questa Boreale, dal solo Antonio, 
e non da Nicolo Zeno veduta : Icarium, sive Icharam esse Baharein, insulam unionum piscatione 
celebrem. Verb, Icarium" See Riflessioni Geografiche, p. i6i. 

' " Icarium, insula sinus Persici, ostio Euphratis objcAa Straboni, et Arriano, que Ichara 
dicitur a Plinio, et Ptolemaeo, nunc Carge, teste Castaldo, quanquam recentiores aliqui Elchadr 
dici existiment et credat Gollius Icarium sive Icharam esse Baharein, insulam unionum piscatione 
celebrem." Baudrand, Geographia, i68i. Art. "Icarium." 

' Northern Voyages, p. 1 93. 

* Ibid., p. 206. 


yintbnio Zenoi Western Voyage to Icaria. 


island with Newfoundland, and so takes Antonio Zeno to North 

Major (who follows Forster in his identification, though for different 
reasons''), driven to his wits' end to account for the introduction of the 
Daedalian myth, which he calls' the '*only one piece of fable in the 
whole story ... is strongly of opinion that this excrescence on the 
narrative is the handywork of Nicol6 Zeno, junior, and for the following 
reason. The form of the name Icaria was a very reasonable one for 
a southerner to give to the northern name of Kerry, but the northerners 
from whom Zeno received it would be little likely to tell him such a 
story as that which we have here of Dxdalus and the Icarian Sea, which 
manifesdy takes its origin from the form which the word had taken 
under the southerner's pen. On these grounds the editor [Major] 
suggests the reasonableness of the conclusion that Nicol6 Zeno, junior, 
found in his ancestor's letter the name Icaria only, without the fable. 
But as, during the very time that intervened between his discovery of 
the letters when he was a boy and his publication of them, his fellow 
citizen Bordone brought out two editions of his *■ Isolario ' in which 
that well-known fable is told of the island of N icaria {olim Icaria) in 
the ^gean Sea, it seems highly probable that this suggested to his mind 
the grafting of the story on the name which he had found transmitted 
by his ancestor under the same form." 

Professor Storm points out* that he who has here introduced the 
Greek myth has, nevertheless, rationalized it by making Icarus to have 
been drowned in the <itorm. But Nicol6 Zeno had no need to do 
that, it was already " rationalized " for him in Bordone's Isolario.^ 

We agree with Major that Nicol6 Zeno the younger took this por- 
tion of his story from Bordone ; but it seems strange that Major does 
not offer, on behalf of his client any explanation of, or apology for, 
the introduiStion of this unwarrantable addition to the contents of the 
precious ancestral manuscript. This " only one piece of fable," though 

' Hi Marco Polo, vol. ii., p. 83, and the Mappa Mondo therein. 

' One of Major's reasons is curiously chara^eristic of his method : " The signals, the fire 
and smoke, the pursuit ong the hill tops, and the howling of the strangers off the coast, are 
Irish all over." — Voyages of the Zeni, p. xcix. The signals l>y fire and smoke are at least as old 
as the time of ^schylus (b.c. 500), and have been used all over the world ever since. More- 
over, Olaus Magnus shows on his map of 1 539, " Fuochi nelli monti littorali si accendono nel tempo 
della guerra, a chiamare quelli the defendano quelli luogbi." " Fires on the mountains of the coast, 
lit in the time of war to call together those who defend those places." Opera Breve and map, 
under H. i . ' Voyages of the Zeni, pp. xcix-c. 

♦ Om Zeniernes Reiser, p. 19, n. ° Isolario, ed. 1528, folio xlvi. 



The Voyaget of tht Brothers Zeni. 


so calmly admitted by so stalwart an adherent of Zeno as Major, ii 
quite sunicicnt to taint the whole story with suspicion. 

If it is desired to identify the Zenian " Icaria " with any known 
island which will at all correspond cither with the delineation on the 
Zenian map, or with the description in the text, it is evident that both 
the "Newfoundland" of Zurla, and the " Kerry" of Forster and Major, 
must be abandoned. The conditions required for a correspondence 
with the Zenian Icaria seem to be most nearly fulfilled by the outlying 
member of the Hebrides, now known as St. Kilda. 

St. Kilda was formerly called Hirt, Hirta, or Hirtha, and is still 
called Hirta (pronounced " Hirst ") by the inhabitants. 

The name ** Hirta " appears on Mercator's Terrestrial Globe of 
1541;* on a map, dated 1546, in the Lafreri Atlas (Plate V.); on 
Mercator's Europa of 1554 (Plate VII.), and on several later maps. 
It is given by Fordun ' as Irte and Hirth ; by Boethius" as Hirtha ; by 
G. Buchanan,^ as Hirta ; by Bishop Lesley * as Hirtha ; and by 
Camden * as Hyrtha. 

The island first appears under its modern name as *• St. Kylder," 
on Map 7 (Scotia) in Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis, I573> but it is not 
shown on Mercator's'' British Islands, of 1 564, from which the last- 
mentioned map in Ortelius is, apparently, principally derived. 

Martin* derives the name Hirta from the Irish ler, which in that 
language signifies " west," and the name St. Kilda " from one Kilder 
who lived there." 

Captain Thomas" says that Hirta is a contraction of the Gaelic h-Iar- 
tir^ meaning west land, and that a native of the island is called 
Klartach (pronounced "Hirstach"). He also conjedures that the 
Dachuli or Danchuli of several of the early editions of Ptolemy 
(beginning with that of 15 13) possibly represents Sanchule^ afterwards 
modified into St. Kilda. 

Macaulay ^" derives the more modern form of the name from the 

' Les Spheres Terrestre et Celeste de G. Mercator, i J4 1 . 
* Scotichrotticon. Lib. I., cap. vi., and Lib. II., cap. x, 

Raemdoncic, St. Nicholas, 1875. 

' Scoter urn Historia, 1527. 
* Rerum Scoticarum Historic. 

Lib. I., cap. xli. 

* De Origine, Meritus, etc., Scotorum, Rome, 1578, p. 36, 

* Britannia, 1610, p. 2i6. 

' Anglia, Scotia et Hiberniie nova Descripiio. Duisburg, 1 564. 

* Martin, fVestern Islands of Scotland, ed. 17 16, p. 280. See also Voyage to St. Kilda, ed. 
1698, p. 14. 

' Proceedings 0/ Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1875, vol. x., p. 706. 
'" History of St. Kilda, ed. 1764, p. lo^ et seq. 

W I 

Antonio Zeno's Western Voyage to Icaria. 8.; 

North British Gille-Dee [i.e.j " Servants of God"), corrupted first into 
KeledeSy and afterwards learnedly turned into Colides or Cultores Dei^ 
whence Cuidee. This corresponds fairly with Captain Thomas's con- 
jedlure. There is no saint in the calendar called St. Kilda. 

Besides the slight resemblance between the old name of St. Kilda, 
I-har-tir and Icaria, and the approximate correspondence in position 
of the Zenian Icaria, with the Hirta of the map of 1546 in the Lafreri 
Atlas (Plate V.), and of Mercator's Europa of 1554 (Plate VII.), there 
is also a certain resemblance between Zeno's account of the unwilling- 
ness of the Icarians to allow strangers to land, and of a similar objedion 
which, until quite recently, prevailed among the St. Kildians. The 
latter have traditions of an ancient invasion, and of more recent visits 
by sailors, who misbehaved in various ways, which may sufficiently 
account for their strong prejudices against strangers. They have the 
reputation of being kind and hospitable to castaways.' " They will not 
admit of any Number [of strangers] exceeding Ten, and those too must 
be Unarmed, for else the Inhabitants will oppose them with all their 
might; but if any Number of them, not exceeding that above-said, come 
Peaceably, and with good designs, they may expedl Water and Fire 
Gratis^ and what else the place affords at the easiest rates in the World." 
The resemblance is intensified by the correspondence of the number ten 
given in the above passage with the number of strangers admitted to 
Icaria according to the Zenian narrative.'^ These resemblances, if they 
are worth anything, are, of course, in favour of the probability of the 
real existence, at some time, of the alleged letters of Antonio Zeno. 

Bordone, however, gives an account" of a part of South America 
the inhabitants of which are unlike the rest of their neighbours, because 
they do not wish any foreigners to settle there j and if, by chance, any 
foreigners should be driven there by tempest and wish to land, the in- 
habitants, he says, make the greatest resistance with arms in their hands. 

Turning again to Zeno's narrative, we find it stated that Zichmni, 
being repulsed by the inhospitable Icarians, took his departure, with a 
fair wind, and sailed six days westward. The wind then shifted to the 
south-west, and he ran before it until, after four days, he discovered 
land. This land appears, from the Zeno map, to have been the south- 
western point of Greenland. 

' A voyage of St. Kilda, Martin, ed. 1698, p. 130. See also St. Kilda and the St. Kildians, 
Connell, 1887, p, 19. 

' Annals, folio 55, and supra, p. 20. ' Isolario, 1528, folio xi*". 








T6e Foyag3S of the Brothers Zeni, 

There the explorers " found a most excellent country and a still 
better harbour," ^ and saw in the distance an adive volcano, " which 
gave them hope that they would find some people in that island "(I) 
There is no volcano in Greenland, adive or extind, at the present 
time, and there is no authentic record of the former existence of any. 
Yet Major, coupling the mention of Nicolo's volcano with this of 
Antonio's, aftually claims^ that they "afFord twofold testimony to the 
existence at that time of a volcano in the south of Greenland, of which 
we know nothing at the present day, etc." " As if two fi(ftions, by the 
same author, could make one fa<St ! 

The entire absence of mention of any volcano in Greenland by 
Icelandic or Scandinavian writers, ia the more noticeable as records of 
more than fifty eruptions of the Icelandic volcanoes between the years 
900 and 1783 A.D. have been preserved.** 

To the harbour Zichmni gave the name 7r/«, and to the head- 
land hard by that of Capo di Trin. His soldiers found in the 
neighbourhood a number of half savage inhabitants, of omall stature 
and very timid, dwelling in caves. 

Bordone* describes certain dwarfs, a cubit long, perfidious, iniquit- 
ous, pusillanimous and full of fear, who inhabited subterranean caves. 
Olaus Magnus^ both mentions these dwarfs, and figures them in his 
book and on his map, but he describes them as being plucky. From 
these two authors Zeno unquestionably derived his troglodyte dwarfs. 

The abundance of birds' eggs, and their use for food by sailors, 
which we find mentioned in the Zeno narrative, are also described 
by Olaus Magnus ^ as occurring *' in Aquilone." 

At this delegable 7r///, Zichmni determined to found a settle- 
ment. But some of his people wished to go home, so he retained 
only the row-boats and such of the people as were willing to stay, and 
sent the rest away in the ships, under the coinmand of Antonio Zeno. 
After a voyage of twenty-five days Antonio reached Neome. There 
he took in fresh stores, and after three days reached Frisland. This 
winds up the story of the alleged travels. 

' Here even the superlative degree is not strong enough to satisfy Zeno. 

- Major, Voyages of the Zeni, p. Ixxxvi. 

' Olafsen and Povelsen, Travels in Iceland (translation), London, 1805, p. 139, etc. 
Stewart Mackenzie, Iceland, Edinburgh, 181 1, pp. 248-254. Pennant, Arilic Zoology, 1792, 
vol. i., p. 331. 

* Isolario,\^i%, folio v\ ' De Gent. Sept., lib. 2, cap. xi. " Ibid., lib. 19, cap. xxxvii. 




REMARKS {/olios S7^-S^% 

IICOLO ZENO, the younger, here gives us an Extradl 
from a third letter from Antonio, apparently in reply 
to one from his brother Carlo. In it [supra^ p. 22) 
Antonio says that he has written a separate book, in 
which he has " described the countries, the monstrous 
frshes, the customs and laws of Frislanda, of Iceland, of 
Shetland, of the Kingdom of Norway, of Estotiland, 
and of Drogio"; he has also written a life of his brother " Nicolo, 
and the discoveries made by him, and matters relating to Grolanda ^ " 
[Nicolo's Greenland], also the life and exploits of Zichmni, in which 
he has " described the discovery of Greenland on both sides, and the 
city which he [Zichmni] founded." 

All these letters — viz.., the letter of Nicolo to Antonio [supra^ pp. 
7-10), that from Nicolo to Carlo [supra^ pp. 10-14), ^^at from 
Antonio to Carlo, containing the story of the Frisland fisherman 
[supra J pp. 15-18), Antonio's second letter to Carlo, containing the 
story of the abortive search for Estotiland, and the accounts of Icaria 
and Western Greenland [supra., pp. 18-22), and Antonio's third letter 
to Carlo (f «/>r^, pp. 22, 23) — together with the book which Antonio 
had written, strangely and unfortunately enough, fell into the hands of 
Nicolo Zeno, the younger, when he was a boy, and he himself tells us 
what he did with these precious family documents. 

^ This is the only time that the name " Grolanda " occurs in the text. In the map it is 
represented by " Crolandia." 

g2 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

First, he says, that they had come unfortunately to harm, he knew 
not howj but, immediately aftenvards, he tells us that he himself, in his 
boyhood and ignorance, had torn them in pieces and sent them all 
to ruin {le squarciai e mandei tutte d male). He could hardly have 
described their utter destruction more forcibly. This is perhaps a 
specimen of the candeur which Humboldt finds in the Zeno story. 
Arrived at a riper age, Zeno regretted the mischief he had done, and 
he goes on to say, that " v hatever he had been able to obtain relating 
the said matter" or " of th said materials" he " had put in order in the 
above narrative;" which, by the way, was not published till he had 
reached the age of forty-three. His story shows us that, as was to be 
expeded, it was very little indeed that he was able to recover in middle- 
age of documents torn to pieces in his childhood. His own account 
leaves but one chance of escape from the fatal conclusion that he had 
no original material at all to found his story upon, and that is that he 
does not say that he destroyed "all the letters" which he has just 
mentioned; but only " the book and many other writings on the same 
subjed" {suproy p. 23). The account which he gives of the preparation 
of the " Carta da Navegar " {supra, p. 8) is more fully referred to 
further on in the chapter on that map. 

In other parts of his book Nicolo Zeno, the younger, mentions the 
laudable motives which led Nicolo Zeno, the traveller, to embark 
on his travels, viz., " a great desire to see the world, and to travel and 
make himself acquainted with the various customs and languages of 
mankind, so that upon occasion he might be better able to serve his 
country and acquire for himself fame and honour " {supra, p. 7), and 
the similar motives of Antonio which led him to join his brother in 
Frisland {supra, p. 10). Olaus Magnus has an almost parallel passage in 
the introdudtion to the Opera Breve, 1539 : "for who is more fit to be 
promoted in Kingdoms and Nations than he who has himself seen the 
customs and cities of many men ? " 

The compiler winds up his narrative by stating his own motives 
for recording those travels, viz., the gratification of the curiosity of a 
public thirsting for information on the subjeft of new geographical 
discoveries, and the glorification of the high spirit and great enterprise 
of his ancestors. 

t •' 




[HE only personal name mentioned in Zeno's narrative 
(except those of the two travellers, and of the members 
of their family referred to in the preliminary genea- 
logical sketch) is that of Zichmni. He was the 
" certain chieftain " who rescued the shipwrecked 
Nicolo and his men from the hostile inhabitants of 
Frisland, and who spoke Latin. He was a great lord 
and possessed certain islands called Porlanda, near to Frislanda on the 
south, being the richest and most populous in all those parts. Besides 
owning these little islands, he was lord of the Duchy of Sorano, or 
Sorant, lying over against Scotland [supra^ p. 8). He was a valiant man 
and specially famous for naval exploits. He had, the year before Nicolo 
met him, gained a vidtory over the King of Norway (who was Lord of 
the island), and had come to attempt the conquest of Frislanda {supra^ 
p. 9). Antonio Zeno describes him as " a prince certainly as worthy 
of immortal memory as any who had ever lived in the world, on account 
of his great valour and many good qualities" {supra^ p. 22). 

Notwithstanding the powerful position and great fame attributed 
by Zeno to Zichmni, his name was unknown to historians, until Marco 
Barbaro mentioned him in his manuscript Discendenze Patrizie (i 536 ?) 
as " Zicno, King of Frisland," and said that, by his order, Antonio Zeno 
went to Estotiland in North America, in 1390. This complete public 
ignorance of a man stated to be so eminent as this Zichmni was so 
extraordinary, that it became necessary for the believers in the Zeno 
story to identify him with some person known in authentic history if 

■ 1 ■, 




»>. i 



94 T/ie Voyafres of the Brothers Zeni. 

Zeno's story of his life and exploits was to continue to receive any 
credence at all. This identification was initiated by John Reinhold 
Forster, who conjedlured^ tliat Zichmni was Henry Sinclair, Earl of 
Orkney. His "conjedure" was grounded mainly upon the faft that 
Sinclair was " invested with the Orkneys " by Hakon, King of Norway, 
in 1379, the year before Nicolo's alleged arrival in Frislandaj and, 
partly also, upon the rather distant resemblance between the names 
" Sinclair" and " Zichmni." Forster's suggestion was eagerly seized 
upon by Maltebrun, Major, and others. Zurla, however, rejeds it.** 

There are several objections which seem fatal to Forster's theory. 
In the first place, after Zurla had proved that Nicolo Zeno, the traveller, 
could not have left Venice on his last voyage until 1389, or 1390, the 
coincidence of dates, upon which Forster's conjedlure is avowedly 
founded, disappeared altogether. In the second place, in 1389 there 
was no King of Norway; for Queen Margaret, '* the Semiramis of the 
Noith," then ruled over the three Scandinavian kingdoms. Thirdly, 
Henry Sinclair in 1379 took a true and due oath of fidelity to Hakon, 
then King of Norway and Sweden,^ and, in 1388, as a Norwegian 
Councillor of State, he signed the A6t by A^hich Eric of Poraerania was 
acknowledged true heir to the Crown of Norway.* He could hardly 
therefore have been, at the dates mentioned, p. rebel. And, lastly, in 
spite of Major's ingenious word distortions, there is no real resemblance 
between the names Zichmni and Sinclair. Henry Sinclair died, accord- 
ing to Burke, in 1400, but the date is not certain. In 140 1, the then 
lord of the Orkneys was attacking Ulster." The Henry Sinclair with 
whom we are dealing was certainly dead in 1404, as it was his son, also 
named Henry, then Earl of Orkney, who was captured while convoying 
the son of Robert III. of Scotland to France in that year.* 

It has been playfully stated that " in philology all consonants are 
interchangeable, and vowels don't count." Major seems to have 
anticipated this liberal rule, though, wide as it is, it is not wide enough 
to satisfy his own theory of " Venetian transmutation." " It is requisite," 
he says,' " to follow atridly the narrative and see what names of places 
on the route tally, not in form, but in sounds with those which have 
been written down," because a Venetian, hearing names uttered by a 

' Northern f^oyages, p. 181. * Di Marco Polo, etc., vol. ii., p. 49. 

' Torfoeus, Orcades, p. 176. * Pontanus, Rerum Danicarum Hisf., p. 515. 

* Chronicon Ada dt Usk (1377 — 1404). Murray, London, 1876, pp. 61 and 184. 

' Fordun, Scotichronicon, lib. 15, cap. xviii. ; and Buchanan, Scot, Hist., lib. 10, cap. xiii. 

' f^oyages of the Zeni, pp. ix, xv, xxi, etc. 



northerner, would giv^ to the sound a different form in writing them 
down. By this process " Sinclair " becomes " Zichmni." But is it 
possible to believe that two Venetian nobles, educated, or at least able 
to write their own language, should have been holding high office, the 
one for four or five, the other for fourteen years, under a man whose 
name, " Sinclair," was not only of Latin origin but was frequently used 
in its Latin form, "de Sando Claro,"^ without being able to approach 
nearer to the true form than " the fearful and wonderful bejugglement" 
(as Fiske calls it ''), Zichmni ? Surely this is in' -edible. 

There is nothing, in what is known as to the personal history of this 
Henry Sinclair, to show that he was ever in Iceland or Greenland, or 
that he ever undertook any such voyages, explorations, or colonization 
as are alleged to have been made by Zichmni. If he had done so, it is 
impossible that he would have been able to keep secret discoveries so 
notable, or the foundation of his city in Greenland, all of which must 
have been known to every one of his homesick men who returned with 
Antonio Zeno [supra^ p. 21). 

Nicol6 Zeno, the younger, attributes to Nicolo Zeno, the traveller, 
the statement {supra^ p. 8) that Zichmni "addressed our people in Latin, 
and asked them who they were and whence they came ; and when he 
learned that they came from Italy, and that they were men of the same 
country, he was exceedingly rejoiced." Zichmni was, therefore, accord- 
ing to one reading of the narrative, which Major adopts, a Venetian, 
and not a Scotchman. Major disposes of this difficulty, in his easy 
way, by a footnote t'^ " A blunder introduced by N. Zeno, Junior." 

The meaning of the passage, however, is obscure ; for although the 
cause of Zichmni's great rejoicing may have been the fad that Zeno 
and his companions were Italians from Italy, it is difficult to see any 
reason for such joy on that account. There is more than a suspicion 
of a resemblance to that part of the story of Aguilar, already referred 
to, in which he meets his countrymen and inquires of them in Spanish 
whether they are Christians, and, on their replying that they are 
Spaniards, weeps for joy and begs them to render thanks to God, who, 
of His goodness, had delivered him from the hands of infidels and 
wicked men and placed him among Christians and those of his own 
nation. There was reason for Aguilar's rejoicing, and it looks as if 


^ . 

A t 


* Pontanus also writes it "Sincler" (p. 596) and "Senckler" (p. 521). 
' Fiske, Discovery of America, vol. i., p. 238. 

Voyages of the Zeni, p. 5, n. 

it I 


Zeno, the 

The Voyages 0/ the Brothers Zeni. 

younger, in borrowing the incident, had failed to appreciate 
the full meaning of the words. 

Under the date 1389, it is recorded by Pontanus that, at that time, 
Gronlandiat Islandia^ IVestenora (the Westmanna Isles), Helgelandia^ 
Feroa and Findtnarchia were the private properties [proprite] of the 
Sovereigns, and that they had been for a long time, both by custom and 
by royal edift, frequented only by royal ships. That this edidt and 
custom had not been allowed to become obsolete, is shown by the fadl 
that, in the year mentioned, certain merchants, who had been driven 
upon Greenland, were only excused the penalties incurred by visj^ing 
that coast upon their proving that it was by necessity only, and because 
they were driven by the force of the winds and by the masses of ice 
floating on the water, that they offended against the edidl.^ 

Without indulging in wild speculations, it is reasonable to suggest 
that both the name and proceedings of Zichmni far more closely re- 
semble those of the Vitalian pirate, Wichmannus, than those of Sinclair. 

Wichmannus, Stortebekerus, and Wichboldus, with their tarry 
ruffians, e Balthico mare submoti varie hue et illucy dispersi longe 
lateque ntaria pervolitabant^ until they were successfully attacked and 
slain in 1401. These Vitalian pirates began their depredations in the 
year 1388,® and carried them on for many years afterwards. 

Again, is it credible that Henry Sinclair, a loyal subjedl as he is 
shown to have been, should have attacked, in a hostile manner, the 
Shetlands, the Faroes, and Iceland, all of which were the property of 
his sovereign queen, and were not in rebellion against her? These 
doings are much more like the proceedings of Wichmann, who " with 
armed ships infested the shores and ports of Germany, France, Spain, 
Britain, Norway and Denmark."* 

The identity of Zichmni with Wichmann would (if their alleged 
voyages really did take place) also account for the total suppression for 
so many years of the real nature of the occupations oi the two Zeni 
brothers, of which their brother Carlo, proved to have been an honour- 
able man by his many years' public services, could hardly have approved. 

Moreover the Italian language has neither the letter "W" (the 
initial of Wichmann's name), nor its earlier equivalent, and therefore 
the Zeni brothers would have had to find some other letter to take its 
place on paper. 

• Pontanus, Rerum Danicarum Hist., 163 1, p. 521. 
' Jiid., p. 520. 

* liU., p. S33- 

* /<J/V/., p. 533- 



If, therefore, Zeno*s Zichmni ever had a living original, it seems, 
on the grounds of date, doings, and form of name, far more probable 
that Wichmann, the pirate, should have been that original, rather than 
Henry Sinclair. 

For the above reasons we concur with Zurla's and Zarhtmann's 
conclusions that Forster's opinion that Zichmni might have been Henry 
Sinclair, Earl of "the Orkneys," is altogether destitute of foundation ; ^ 
and we rejedt Major's later and more positive view that " it will be now 
seen how Zichmni, Lord of Porlanda, is Sinclair, Lord of the Orkneys."'* 

In conclusion, as to this subjed, we may notice that, although the 
Zeno narrative nowhere suggests that Zichmni reached either Estotiland 
or Drogeo, but distindlly states that he failed to find them, the story, 
after filtering through the pens of Forster, Maltebrun, and Major, has 
produced a claim" that " Henry, as a civilized man, in the modern sense 
of civilization, was the one and only discoverer of America . . . destined 
to bulk more and more largely to the fiiture Americans, as their typical 
hero primaeval," and so on. It is strange that this claim should be put 
forward with pride and satisfaction by one of Sinclair's name. The 
claim is grounded upon the supposed identity of Zichmni with Henry 
Sinclair. The proof of this would involve the conviftion of Sinclair of 
grave and disgraceful crimes ; for, if he had done what Zichmni is said 
to have done, in despite of his oaths of fealty, he must have been a 
perjured rebel and traitor, a hypocrite and an impostor. But, as such 
damaging charges can only rest upon the rotten foundations of the 
Zeno story and Forster's guess, there is no reason to believe that Henry 
Sinclair was guilty of any such proceedings. 

Zichmni has also been identified by BredsdorfF* as Simon, or Sigmund, 
son of Bui, and nephew of the well-known Sigmund Bresterson, the 
hero of the Foereyinga Saga ; by Krarup," as Henry de Siggens, Marshall 
of the Duke of Holstein ; while Beauvois thinks* that the name Zicno, 
given by Marco Barbaro'' for Zichmni, was a misreading for the 
Scandinavian title ^^ Thegn" ^\otA. 

* t 

-; I 



' Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc, 1835, ^o'- ^-t P- *"• 

« Voyages of the Zeni, p. xxi. 

' Caithness Events, by Thomas Sinclair, Wick, 1894. 

* Gr^nlands Historiske Mindesmaerker. 

' Zeniernes Reiser til Norden et Tolknings Forsog. 

" Les Colonies Europeenes du Markland et de I'Escociland in Comfte rendu du Congris des 
Americanistes. Luxembourg, 1877, vol. i., p. 200. 

' Discendenze Patrizie. 




[LTHOUGH the map, dated 1380, was, no doubt, 
" merely corroborative detail intended to give artistic 
verisimilitude to the bald and unconvincing narrative"* 
of 1 558, the ingenious compiler has managed to intro- 
duce so many discrepancies that the two documents 
cannot, by any means, be made to correspond. It 
has been seen {supra^ p. 8) that the younger Zeno's 
story was, that it had seemed good to him to draw out a copy of a navi- 
gating chart of the northern parts which he once found he had among 
the ancient things in his house, which, although it was all rotten and 
many years old, he had succeeded in doing tolerably well, etc. 

So long as this story was credited; so long as a savant, like Humboldt, 
was able to make no more effedive criticism than to say,- that in the 
Zeno narrative could be found " detailed descriptions of objects of 
which nothing in Europe could have given the author the idea ; " so 
long as a geographer, like Major, felt constrained to say of the narrative 
and map,^ that they " presented geographical information very far in 
advance not only of what was known by geographers in the fourteenth 
century, when the narrative was first written, but greatly in advance also 
of the geography of the sixteenth century, when it was published" — so 
long the map, necessarily, remained a marvel and a miracle to those who 
believed in its authenticity, and a puzzle and inextricable tangle to those 
who were less credulous. 

The position should be somewhat altered now, however, as, of late 
years, many old maps have been re-discovered, or brought to notice, and 

The Mikado, W. S. Gilbert. 

Voyages of the Zeni, p. iv. 

' Examen Critique, Tom. II., p. 122. 

Zeno*s " Carta da Navegar.** 99 

some of them throw a clear light upon the real origin of the Zeno 
map. Anyone caring to take the trouble, may now lay upon the table 
before him maps, or copies of maps, of earlier date than 1558 (the date 
of the Zeno publication), which yet contain the whole of the materials 
of the Zeno map, with some notable exceptions, e.g. : the Monastery of 
St. Thomas in Engroveland, Icaria, Eatotiland, Drogeo, and Trin. 

These maps are of various nationalities — Danish, Swedish, Portu- 
guese, Spanish (Catalan) and Italian. In Appendix IV., at the end of 
this book, the names upon some of them are tabulated and compared with 
those on the Zeno map ; but it will be well to consider the maps referred 
to one by one, and to observe how they have been utilized by Zeno, and 
why they, or similar maps, must be pronounced to have been the sources 
of Zeno's "Carta da Navegar," published in 1558, and not the results 
of the pretended fourteenth century cartography of Antonio Zeno. 

Some of the principal supposed evidences that the geographical know- 
ledge of Nicol6 Zeno, the younger, was so far in advance of that of his 
age, were, the western extension and the form of Greenland, upon the 
" Carta da Navegar." Where did he get his knowledge of its shape and of 
the names which he has put upon it if not from Antonio Zeno's map ? 

Admiral Zarhtmann saw,^ in the University Library of Copenhagen, 
a very old manuscript map showing Greenland, the original of which, 
he believed, " had served as a model to Bordone for his outline, and to 
Zeno for his names." This map was unfortunately lost when Zarhtmann 
wrote in 1833, and Major takes occasion '^ to give vent to some very 
unhandsome sneers and insinuations against the Admiral, grounded upon 
" the non-appearance of this phantom of a map." Its loss, however, 
has been, in great measure, compensated for by the results of the 
diligence and good fortune of Baron Nordenskjold, who has found not 
only one, but four maps of the fifteenth century, which give a form 
and extension to Greenland, similar to those given by Zeno, and which 
together contain all the Zeno names upon Greenland, with the excep- 
tions of " S. Tomas Zenobitim " and " Chin prom." 

The first of these maps, now generally known as the " Zamoiski " 
map, was found by Baron Nordenskjold, in the year 1888, in a Latin 
Codex of Ptolemy's Geography y of about 1467, which is in the Zamoisky 
Majorat Library at Warsaw. This map is described and reproduced 
in the Baron's Facsimile Atlas^ and, by his permission, is here given 

' "Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. of London ^ 1835, vol. v., p. 1 1 4. * Voyages of the Zeni, p, Iviii and lix. 

' Nordenskjold's Facsimile Atlas, pp. 55, 58, 95, n., and Plate XXX. therein. 


p I' 

'i ' 



T/ie Voyages of the Brothers Ztni. 

on a smaller scale (Plate II.). Professor Storm* sees the original of the 
Zamoif^i map in the map (1425 to 1427) by Claudius Clavus or 
Nicolaus Niger, a Danish geographer, which he reproduces with a 
facsimile of tlie MS. tables. 

The principal difference between Clavus' map and Zeno's map is the 
turning back of the western extremity of the coast of " Gronlandia 
provincia " of the Clavus map, to'vards the north and north-east, so 
that on Zeno's map Greenland becomes a peninsula. Most of the names 
also are added on the latter map; many of them appear, however, on the 
text accompanying the Clavus map, though not upon the map itself. 

Nordenskjdld has suggested, and Storm and Dahlgrcn have shown,'^ 
that several of the names on the Zeno and Zamoiski maps are old 
Danish ordinal numbers, and that others are of Scandinavian origin, 
though distorted in the copying by foreign scribes. 

The other three maps, of similar type, found by Nordenskjdld have 
also been reproduced by him in facsimile." They are the following : 

1. A Map of North Europe and Greenland. The original is in a 
manuscript Ptolemy of the fifteenth century in the Biblioteca Nazionale, 
Florence (Sec. XV., ^). 

2. A Map of Scandinavia and Greenland. The original is in a manu- 
script of Christ Ensenius' Descriptio Cicladum aliarutnque insularumy in 
the Biblioteca Laurenziana, Florence (Plut. XXIX., Cod. 25, Sec. XV.). 

3. A Map of Scandinavia and Greenland. The original is in a 
manuscript Ptolemy of the fifteenth century, In the Biblioteca Lauren- 
ziana, Florence (Plut. XXX., Cod. 3). 

These three maps were first noticed by Professor F. R. von Wieser of 
Innsbruck, in an article on Nordenskjold's Facsitr. He Atlas. The first and 
second are oblong in shape ; the third is fan-shaped, like the Zamoiski 
map. They are referred to in the table in Appendix IV. as " Florence, 
No. I," " Florence, No. 2," and " Florence, No. 3," respedively. 

It will be seen from that table (Appendix IV.) that the Zamoiski 
and the three Florence maps contain a good many of the names which 
occur on Greenland and Iceland in the Zeno map, with some variations 
in spelling. 

Another map, modelled on the same lines as the Clavus map, except 

' Den Datiske Geograf Claudius Clavus eller Nicolaus Niger y Stockholm, 1891 ; and figure 
opposite p. 59, supra. 

* Nordenskjold, Facsimile Atlas, p. 56 ; Storm, Om Zeniernes Reiser, and Claudius Clavus. 
' Bidrag till Nordens Aldsta Kartographi, Stockholm, 1802. 



Zems " Carta da Navegar.'* 


as to Greenland, is the " Engronelant Norvegie et Gottie, Tab. Mod.," 
which appears in the Donis edition of Ptolemy^ Ulm, 1482 (Plate III.). 
On this map, Greenland is not extended far to the west and south, as 
in the Zamoiski and the three Florence maps ; but, on its Greenland 
and Iceland many of the Zenian names appear, with fresh variations in 
spelling. This is the earliest printed map of Greenland. It was drawn 
by Nicolaus Donis, a Benedidline monk of the Monastery of Reichen- 
bach, in Bavaria. It is repeated, in substance, in the subsequent 
editions of Ptolemy of i486, 1507, 1508, 15 13, 1520, 1522, 1525, 
153s, and 1541.^ 

Here, then, we have five different maps (four of them in manuscript, 
and the other printed in no less than ten editions of /'/o/(?;w^,between 1482 
and 1 541), from which all the Zenian names on Greenland and Iceland 
ma) have been copied, except " Chin prom" and " S. Tomas Zenobitim," 
which we do not find. The absence of this last name, taken in con- 
junction with the fadls that no such monastery as that described by 
Zeno had ever been heard of before his story was published, and 
that no traces of it, or its neighbouring volcano, though diligently 
searched for, have ever been found since, strongly confirms the con- 
clusion that those parts of the narrative relating to the two visits by the 
brothers Zeni to Greenland are entirely fictitious. It has been suggested 
by several authors, and even by Maltebrun,^ a supporter of Zeno, that 
the details of the description of Greenland may have been borrowed 
from accounts of the volcanoes and hot springs which adtually did and 
do exist in Iceland. Zeno, the younger, may possibly have been misled 
by Gastaldi's map of " Schonlandia Nova" (Plate VI.), in the first Italian 
edition oi Ptolemy y published in Venice in 1548, which was the latest 
edition when Zeno wrote. On this Gastaldi places the names " Holen " 
and " Skalholt," both on Iceland, which he marks " Islandia " in small 
letters and thvle in capitals, and also on Greenland, which he calls 
ISLANDIA. On Greenland he also shows mountains and a large lake, 
close to Holen. Munster, also, in his editions of Ptolemy y 1 540, and 
1542 and 1545, places the name "Islandia" on Greenland (Typus 

Of the nineteen names on Iceland on the Zeno map, including the 
misplaced Shetlands, twelve are represented on the Zamoiski and three 

* Maps of the same type, but without detail, appear in Schedei's Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493, 
folio ccc, and in Bordone's Isolario, 1528, fo!io vi. See also figure opposite p. j, sufra. 
'' Precis de la Geographie, 1832, vol. i., p. 20 1, 

■• \ 





The Voyagts of the Brothers Zeni, 

Florence maps. Of the remaining seven names, one is supplied by 
Donis, 1482, three by Mercator in his " Europa," 1 554, and all seven by 
Olaus Magnus, 1539. Of the name *• Vestrabord," Zarhtmann says,' 
" We shall search in vain for this name in all the existing maps, it is 
not even to be found in the one annexed to the translation of Olaus 
Magnus' work, published in 1567; it is nowhere to be found but on 
the chart of the Zeni I " But it does actually appear in the same form 
upon the Olaus Magnus map of 1539, and as " Westrabord " on Mer- 
cator 's " Europa," 1554 (see Plates IV. and VII.). 

The outline of Islanda on the Zeno map corresponds generally to that 
of the same island on the Olaus Magnus map of 1 5 39, but Zeno has made 
a strange variation, by converting the ice-noes shown on Olaus' map, off 
the eastern end of Iceland into islands. He has, in fad, imported the 
Shetland Isles into the immediate vicinity of Iceland, though this is but 
a trifling feat compared with his importation of Icaria into the North 
Atlantic from the Greek Archipelago. Hence we find seven islands : 
Minant (Mainland), Bres (Bressay), Talas (Yelli), Danbert (Hamn"), 
Brons (E. and W. Barras), Iscant (Unst), and Trans (St. Ronans), 
grouped with or forming part of Iceland. There can be no clearer 
proof than this huge blunder, that the compiler of the Zeno map was 
working by guesswork, and had no real information on the subjedl, on 
which, nevertheless, he was affedling to instruft the public. And yet, 
it will be seen, on reference to the table of the various identifications 
(Appendix V.), that Eggers* and Lelewel have adually taken the trouble 
to identify these bogus islands with parts of modern Iceland. Lelewel, 
it is true, iays of them : "^ Mimant seule de la carte de Zeno doit 
etre consideree comme urte tie reelle ; let autres sont plutot /ormees par 
les courants supposes des fleuves" 

In his Verrazano the Explorer ^ De Costa refers * incidentally to the 
Zeno map, and claims to have proved that Bordone must have been 
familiar with the Zeno map in 1521, and that this "overturns the 
theory that that map was a forgery of the period of 1558." He bases 
his argument on the form of Bordone's " Terra de Lavoratore "* \^ folio vi], 
and on the style of letters forming the word " Islanda"" on the map on 
folio I of the Isolario, Curiously enough, the style of the letters on 

' Proc. Roy. Geog. Sec. Lend., vol. v., 1835, p. 127, n. 

" Zurla, Dissertazione, p. 91, and Di Marco Polo, vol. ii., p. 55. 

" Geog. du Moyen ^ge, 1852, suppl., p. 95. 

* Verrazano the Explorer, by B. F. De Costa, New York, 1880, pp. 47 and 63, n. 

' See tailpiece on p. 39, lupra. • See tailpiece on p. 23, supra. 

Zenos ^^ Carta da Navegar'' lOJ 

Iceland is the same also in the Florence maps No. i and No. 2 above 
referred to. Dc Costa's contention is ingenious but not convincing, 
and prohnbly he would himself abandon it in the face of the evidence 
which w.* now possess. 

We have now to seek for sources from which the younger Zeno can 
have got the forms of the Scandinavian, Danish and Frisian coasts, and the 
names upon them. These clearly do not come from the maps already 
referred to in this chapter, for they do not correspond, either in outline, 
orientation, or nomenclature, with the same parts on the Zeno map. 

It was Zarhtmann who suggested,' in 1833, that the map (of which 
no copy was then known to exist) by Olaus Magnus, published in 
Venice in 1539, might very well have contained some information as to 
the general outline of Greenland. This conjedlure brought upon his head 
another tirade from Major, for venturing to make such an " insinuation." 
However, Zarhtmann has proved to be right, though not so much as to 
the outline of Greenland as with regard to other portions of the Zeno map. 

For in 1886 Dr. Oscar Brenner* discovered, in the State Library 
of Munich, a perfeft copy of the Olaus Magnus map of 1539 (Plate 
IV.), which turned out to be an entirely different map from that in 
Ficklers' translation of Olaus Magnus' work printed in Basle in 1567," 
with which Major confidently assumed it to have been identical. Baron 
Nordenskjold, also, writing in 1881, said of the map of 1539 :* " it is 
given unaltered in the 1567 Basel edition of Olaus Magnus," and he 
gives a reproduction of the Basel map. It is, however, much larger and 
fuller than either the 1567 map or the still smaller map which illustrates 
the Historia de Gentibus SeptentrionalibuSy by Olaus Magnus, published 
in Rome in 1555. A reduced facsimile of the north-western portion 
of the map of 1539 will be found on Plate IV. at the end of this book. 
In all three of the Olaus Magnus maps the orientation of the Penin- 
sular of Norway and Sweden is much improved as compared with any 
earlier map, and Zeno's map corresponds with them in this respedl. 
This is another point on which the Zenian cartography has been con- 
sidered to have been so much in advance of fourteenth and even of 
sixteenth century knowledge. 

Now, out of the nineteen names on Norway on the Zeno map 

' Zarhtmann in Jonr. Roy. Geeg. Sec. 0/ London, vol. v., 1835, pp. 143 and 144. 

'^ Die dchte Karte des Olaus Magnus vom Jahre 1539. Christiania, 1886. 

^ Major, Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, Hakluyt Society, 1873, p. Ivii. 

* Voyage of the Vega, London, i88i, vol. i., p. 53, n. 





1 04 T/te Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

twelve appear on the 1539 map of Olaus Magnus. Some of them have 
been distorted, as usual, by Zeno, but not so badly as in the case of 
the names borrowed from the Zamoiski and Florence maps, for they 
are very clearly written on the Olaus Magnus map. Eight of the same 
twelve names, with one other, occur also on Mercator's " Europa," 1554 
(see Plate VII.). There remain still six names unaccounted for ; five of 
these will be found on the map of Tramezini, published in Rome in 
1558 (see Plate VIII.). The only name on the Norway of the Zeno 
map for which we are unable to account, is, therefore, the "Raceueit"* 
of the "Carta da Navegar," 1558, and of the revised editions in 
Ruscelli, 1 56 1, and Moletius, 1562. 

But Zeno is indebted to Tramezini for more than these names. He 
does not follow the 1539 map of Olaus Magnus in his drawing of Dania 
(Denmark); probably because there are not so many coast names upon 
it as upon Tramezini's map. The Zeno map did not appear till De- 
cember in the year 1558, or later, so that there may have been plenty 
of time for the ingenious Zeno and the skilled wood-engraver Marcolini, 
during the earlier part of that year, to introduce this little improvement 
upon the "Carta da Navegar" of " mccclxxx."(!) 

Zurla refers" to a "certain" map of Scandinavia, printed in 1562, 
and compares the names upon it with those on the Zeno map. The 
names which Zurla mentions are precisely those upon the Camocius 
map, printed in Rome, 1562, and there -^an be no reasonable doubt 
that it is that map to which he refers. The Camocius map is, however, 
only a later edition of Tramezini's map of 1558 (Plate VIII.). Zurla, 
apparently, was not aware of the existence of the earlier edition, as he 
claims that the map of 15^2 confirms the Zeno map of 1558. 

Professor Storm (who had heard of, but had not seen, the Tramezini 
map), in speaking of the Camocius map, says,^ that the Danish peninsula 
" has here, for the first time on any map, got the right diredion towards 
the north, and that, similarly, the southern parts of Norway and Sweden 
get the right form." A comparison of the Tramezini map (Plate VIII.) 
with the Zeno map (Plate XI.) will make it e^Ment, either that the 
Dania of the one is copied from the other, or that both are copied from 
a common original. 

' Zurla identifies this with " Rasvaag" on Hitteroe. Dissert., p. 140, and Di Marco Polo, 
vol. ii., p. 90. 

- Zurla Dissert.^ p. 137 et seq. ; Di Marco Polo, vol. ii., pp. 89 et seq. 

^ Om Zeniernes reiser, p. 8. Storm reproduces the Camocius map as his Plate II. 

Zems ''^ Carta da Navegar." 105 

All the names on " Dania " and its littoral islands on the Zeno map, 
are to be found on the Tramezini map, though with some notable varia- 
tions in spelling. That the Tramezini map is really earlier than the 
Zeno map may be still further judged by the faft that the names on 
the former map are intelligible, while many of those on the latter map 
are so distorted and disfigured as to be unrecognizable (Appendix IV). 

We have now to consider the origin of that most interesting and 
most mysterious island, the " Frisland " of the Zeno map and the 
" Frislanda " of the narrative. 

We have already dealt, in an earlier section, with the occurrence 
of the name in literature, and claim to have shown that the name, as 
applied to an island in the North Atlantic, occurs in history or litera- 
ture, for the first time, in the Zeno narrative. It is not so, however, 
with regard to cartography. 

The name Frisland, as applied to an island,* is not introduced for 
the first time by Nicolo Zeno, the younger, as is stated by BredsdorfF.^ 
The first suggestion of any name at all resembling it is found, as 
far as we know, upon the Edrisi maps, 11 54 (viz., "Tabula Rotunda 
Rogeriana," and "Tabula Itineraria Rogeriana"*), on each of which 
appears a considerable island to the north of England and Ireland, 
marked " Resland.'' 

Next, upon the oval diagram known as the " Imago Mundi,"* from 
the Poly crony con^ of Ranulfus de Hyggeden, 1360, an island called 
" Wrisla[n]d" is shown, with "Noravega," "Islanda" and "Tile." There 
is no corresponding name, however, in Hyggeden's text. Lelewel 
considers" that Resland and Wrisla['\]d are the " Frislanda" of later maps. 

Zurla says '' that the elliptical island, west of Norway, on/olio 8 of 
Andrea Bianco's map of 1436, is marked Frisland. But, upon careful 
reference to the photograph of the original map, published by Ongania 

* Frisland on the continent of Europe was known to the Scandinavians. " I Rinar 
qvislum liggr Frisland norclr til hafs," Icelandic MS. twelfth century. " In regione ea, quae Rheni 
brachiis cingitur, est Frislandia, ad Septentrionalium maris oram sita," Rafn. Antiq. Americ, 
1837, p. 288. 

" Gnpnland's Historiske mindesmarker, 1845, ^°'' '■'•» P- 53°- 

' Small copies of both these maps are in the atlas of Lelewels, Geog. du Moyen Age, Bruxelles, 
1852, Plate X., 39 ; Plates XL, XII., 41. 

* Geog. du Moyen Age, atlas, Plate XXV. 

" Translated by Trevisa, Vycarye of Barkleye, and published by Caxton, in 1482; by 
Wynkyn de Worde, in 1495 ; and by Peter do Treves, in 1527. In none of these is the map 
reproduced ; the last-named edition is the one to which we have referred. 

* Geog. du Moyen Age, vol. iv., p. loi, n. 

' Dissertazione, 1808, p. 36 ; Di Marco Polo, vol. ii., p. 13. 


N. i' 

I i< 

pi. ,' 

• ■ 


1 06 

Fig. I. Partof Andrea 
BiANCo's Map of 
1436. (From On- 
gania's photograph.) 

TAe Voyages 0/ the Brothers Zeni. 

of Venice, in 1879 (a small portion of which is 
here reproduced as Fig. i), it will be seen that the 
name is really " Stilanda." 

Zurla^ sees the Frisland of the Zeni in the 
" Ixilandia" of the Era Mauro map, 1457-9 (Plate 
I.), because it has upon it the name " Nodiford," 
which he identifies with Zeno's "Andefort." 

Humboldt,^ Jomard,"' Lelewel,*and Kretschmer° 
have all misread the name " Stillanda " on the La 
Cosa map of 1500 as " Frislanda ;" and all these 

savants have reproduced the 
latter name in place of the 
former on their copies of that 
important map. In none of 
their reprodudlions, however, 
is it pretended that the names 
are given in facsimile. 

Upoi reference to the La 
Cosa map (now the property 
of the Spanish Government, 
and preserved in the Naval 
Museum at Madrid), or to the 
full-sized facsimile of it,** it 
will be seen (Fig. 2) that the 
. first letter of the name " Stil- 
landa " (misread, as above 
stated, qs " Frislanda ") is not 
an " F," but an « S." It is 
entirely disconnefted from 
the following letter and has 
no cross-stroke. The second 
letter is " t," as will be seen 
on comparing it with many 
other undoubted examples 
of that letter in the same 
handwriting upon the map. 

Fig. a. Part of Juan de la Cosa's Map of 1500 

(From Vallejo and Traynor's facsimi'..) 

' Zurla, // Mappamondo di Fra Mauro, Venice, 1806, pp. 29 and 102. 
° Humboldt, Examen Critique. ' Jomurd, Les Monuments de la Geographie,Vz.T\s, 1855-62. 
* Lelewei, Geog. du Moyen Age, atlas. ' Kretschmer, Die Entdeckung Amerika's. 

Vallejo and Ttzynor, full-stzed facsimile, Madrid,! 892 

Zenos " Carta da Navegar." 107 

On further examination, it will be found that the letter "r", in the 
same handwriting, is formed in an entirely different way '"rom the letter 
" t." The third letter is, of course, " i " in either word. If the fourth 
letter were a long " s", it would have a turn to the right at its upper 
extremity, as ail the other long " ss " have : it has no such turn, but is 
perfectly straight, like the letter " 1 " in other parts of the map. The 
other five letters are the same in both cases. Nevertheless the ease with 
which " Stillanda," or " Stilanda," may be read at first sight as Fris- 
landa, is illustrated by Zurla's error as to the same word on the Bianco 

Fig. 3. Part of the Atlas Catalan de Charles V., Roi de France, 1375. 
(From Delisle's reproduftion in Documents Giographiques.) 

map of 1436. We have known the same mistake to be made in reading 
the same word " Stillanda" as " Frislanda," both on the Catalane map, 
1375 (P^g* 3)>^ ^"^ °" ^'^^ Frederici d'Ancone map, 1497 (Fig. 4).** 

It is true that, on the La Cosa map there appears, besides Stillanda, 
an island, vaguely indicated by broken outlines only, and not coloured 
as all the other islands are. This island has been entitled by Hum- 

' Santarem, Mas (Brit. Mus. Tab., 1850, A), Plate XVIII.; Delisle's Documents Gh- 
graphiques, Paris, 1883 (Brit. Mus. S., 35, 5). 
^ Santarem, Atlas, Plate LXXIV. 




T/te Foyages of the Brothers Zeni. 



boldt, Lelewel, and Kretschmer on their respeftive reprodudlions 
" Estelanda ; " but on the original the name, which has been altered 
and partially erased, reads obscurely. It contains too many letters 
for " Estelanda." It might be " j Ua de Sialelanda," in which case 
it would probably represent the island which appears as " Sialanda," 
in a nearly corresponding position, on the Pizigani map (13^7).^ 
Jomard reads the name " Isla de Estelanda," and, in his reproduction 

Fig. 4. Part of the Fredrici d'Ancone Map, 1497. 
(From Santarem's reproduftion.) 

of the map, endows the island with a firm outline and a distind: colour, 
neither of which does it possess on the original map. 

The assumed fadl that Christopher Columbus was actually acquainted 
with the name " Frislanda " as that of an island in the North Sea, has 
been made much of by Major •^ and other supporters of Zeno, as proof 
of the adtual existence of an island known by that name, and as inde- 
pendent evidence in favour of the authenticity of the Zeno documents. 
One half of " .' evidence of this knowledge by Columbus rests upon 

' Jomard, Monuments de la Geographic, Map X. Photograph (from the original map in 
the National Library, Parma) by F. Odorici, Parma, 1873 \J^- M. S. 202 (3*)]. 
' Major's Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, p. xviii. 

The " Carta da Navegar. 


the supposed occurrence of the name of the island on this map of Juan 
de la Cosa, his pilot and companion on his second voyage (1493-6): 
the other half, upon the obscure passage dealt with above,* which occurs 
both in the discredited Historie of the Admiral, attributed to his son 
Ferdinand Columbus, and in Las Casas' Historia de las Indias. There 
is no other evidence. We have now shown that the name Frislanda 
does not occur on the La Cosa map ; also, that the reference to Fris- 
landa in the Historie of the Admiral does not occur in any writing by 
him and first appears in a passage written by Las Casas in his Historia 
de las Indias. It follows, therefore, that all evidence of Columbus's 
knowledge of any such island as Frislaud falls to the ground. 

" Frislanda " having been eliminated from the La Cosa map, we have 
yet to seek for its first appearance. This we find on the Cantino 
map of 1502. As to this map, Harrisse writes:^ '* Alberto Cantino, 
who was the envoy (orator) of Hercules d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, to 
the Court of Portugal, kept his master apprised of the discoveries 
accomplished beyond the seas under the Portuguese and Spanish f v_,i. 
The duke having expressed a desire to obtain a map illustrating those 
voyages, Cantino ordered it from a cartographer living in Lisbon, and 
whom we expedt to have been an Italian artist." Harrisse adds, in a note, 
" our opinion is that there w^re then, in Portugal, several Italian artists 
who made maps, not as cartographers, but as copyists and miniaturists." 

Upon this Cantino map appears an island " Frislanda," due north 
of Scotland, and in a position nearly corresponding with the roughly- 
indicated " de Sialelanda " of the La Cosa map. From whatever 
original this part of the Cantino map was copied, it seems highly 
probable that the penman (one of the copyist and miniaturist school 
referred to by Harrisse) has converted the familiar " Stillanda " into 
the novel form of " Frislanda." This is the first occurrence that we 
have been able to find of an island called " Frislanda" on any map, 
and its appearance here seems to have been due to the very easy and 
natural clerical error mentioned above. We do not again find the 
name, in this form, on any other map of which the date is known 
until we find it on the Zeno map of 1558. 

' Supra, pp. 64-68. 

" Harrisse, Discovery of North America, London, 1892, p. 422. 

There is a facsimile (not 
photographic) of a portion of the map in Harrisse's Les Corte Real, etc., Paris, 1883. The 
original map is in the Biblioteca Estense, Modeiia. By the courtesy of Cavaliere Caputo, the 
Librarian, we have been able to verify the name " Frislanda " from a photograph, which ht 
has been good enough to have taken for us, of a portion of the original map. 

■, I 

>} i 



Fig. 5. From an Italian Portolano, of about 1508, in the British Museum 

[MS. Egerton 2803, fol. 8"]. 

i ri 


■:i w 

i\ \ 


'1 [ 


5 »= 

ft -^ 
















a ^ 









Zenos " Carta da Navegar!' 

1 1 1 

The name "Insula de Uresland " occurs on a map of c, 1505, 
reproduced by Kunstmann.' There are no names on the island, other 
than the principal name, on any of the above-mentioned maps, except 
upon the Ixilanda of the Fra Mauro map (Plate I.). 

There is no sign of " Frisland" either in the text or in the maps of 
Bordone (1528), Ziegler (1532), Grynaeus (1532), Schoner (1533), 
Mercator (i53t>, 15+ij I554)> Olaus Magnus (1539), nor in any of 
the editions of Ptolemy published before 1561. 

In an Italian Portolano, of the Genoese school, preserved in the 
British Museum [MS. Egerton 2803], there are two maps {^folios i *' and S**) 
showing an island called " Fis- 
landa," which, no doubt, repre- 
sents Iceland. Neither map 
shows any details upon the 
island. The map on folio S'"'^ 
is reproduced, on page iio 
(Fig. 5), for the first time. The 
map ow folio i"" is a map of the 
world, and shows Fislanda in a 
corresponding position. The 


> ymtk'tCClArjUki Wiibt Mttt f inn<i*'4»> nvhiuiiit Am] 

Fig. 6. 

From Portolano in British Museum. 
[MS. Egerton 2803.] 

Portolano cannot be later in 
date than 1508, as will be seen from the extradl (here reproduced in 
facsimile as Fig. 6) from the explanation of the Tables for finding 
the time of the New Moon, on the last folio of the Portolano. The 
Tables are calculated for 1508 and subsequent years. They were, of 
course, intended for fiiture use. 

The first map which we find giving details of an island at all corre- 
sponding to those on Zeno's Frisland is a Catalan map of the fifteenth 
century, preserved in the Bibliotcca Ambrosiana, at Milan, part of 
which is reproduced here (Fig. 7) from a facsimile given by Nor- 
denskjold.^ On this map the island is called " Fixlanda," and contains 
twenty-seven names, twenty-one of which can be identified with those 

' Entdeckung Amerika's, Berlin, 1859, Blatt 2 (Brit. Mus. Tab. 1850 a). 

'' Although it does not stridly belong to our subjeA, it may be of interest to point out that 
this map is remarkable as being the cailiest to show definite outlines of the coast of the most 
northern parts of the eastern coasts of North America, with names. It shows terra de 
Labrador and Terra de los Bachalaos. It is, at least, three years earlier in date than the atlas 
of Vesconte de Maiolo, or Maggiolo, construifted in Naples in 151 1, which hitherto has been 
considered to be the earliest Italian Portolano showing such details (See Harrisse's, The Dis- 
covery of North America, p. 496). 

' Bidrag till Nordens Aldsta Kartograji, Plate V. 

1 1 

I 4 

\ i 



• « 











63 -GV 




a 1 






49 -o 

48 -o 



••i — • 

Fig. 8. Part of a Chart by Mattheus Prunes, i JJJ, in the Biblioteca Comunale 

AT Siena. 
(From Kretschmer's Entdeckung Amerika's, Atlas Tafel IV., No. 5.) 

Zenos " Carta da Navegar^ 113 

on the Zcnian Frislanda. Of the remaining six two are duplicateii of 
some of those identified. (See Appendix IV.) 

Dr. Kretschmer * gives a copy of a portion of a map by Mattheus 
Prunes, dated 1553, the original of which is in the Biblioteca Comunale 
at Siena, on which the representation of " Fixlanda " corresponds 
closely to that on the Milan map just mentioned. A rcprodudtion 
from Kretschmer's Atlas is given on page 112 (Fig. 8), but without 
colours. Of the twenty-three names which appear upon the island on 
Kretschmer's reproduction of this Siena map eighteen can be identified 
with those on the Frisland of Zeno. A portion of " Estilanda " 
(Shetland) also appears on the copy, and " ilia Porlanda " and " ille 
neome " are shown in relative positions nearly corresponding with those 
of" Estland," " Podanda," and " Neome," on the Zeno map. 

It seems probable, from the occurrence of Portuguese words upon 
the Milan and Siena maps just mentioned, that some of the details 
have been obtained from Portuguese originals. These words are not 
the names of places, but denote physical features. Thus, for instance, 
we have Esprayoy meaning " land left dry by the ebbing of the tide," 
which occurs twice on each map, and is distorted on the Zeno map 
into Spagia ; aqua^ "water "; sabrius and sabius (Ibini on the Zeno 
map) iox sabroso or saibrosOy "gravelly"; cotnpa^ for campo^ "field or 
open land," or, perhaps, an abbreviation for compascuo^ " pasture." 
This suggests that Bondendea porti of the Zeno map may be simply 
Bondadoio porto^ " a good harbour," but only the word porti appears 
on the two earlier maps. The practice of noting upon maps the 
physical features of the coast, and even the occurrence of remarkable 
fishes, trees, etc., was common in the fifteenth and sixteenth 

The Catalan type of Frisland, which differs from the Zenian type in 
many respedts, occurs on many manuscript maps of later date than 1558." 


' Die Enldeckung Jmerikas, Berlin, 1892, Atlas, Taf. IV., No. 5. 

° Dr. Kretschmer also reproduces {Die Entdeckung Jmerika's, At\ns, Taf. IV., No. j) a 
seiflion of a map by Jaume Olives, of Mallorca, the original of which is in the National Library 
at Florence. It contains details similar to those in the Siena map. Kretschmer assigns to it the 
date 1 5 14, Uzielli and Amat di San Filippo {Studij Biograf. e Bibliograf,, and ed., 1882), read 
the figures 1 564, and Desimoni 1 504. As all the known codices containing maps bv Jaume 
Olives range between 1557 and 1566, Uzielli-Amat are probably right. Zurla(D/w?r/., p. 142, 
and Di Marco Polo, 1 8 1 8, vol. ii., p. 92) refers to a map by Bartolonieo Olives, dated June 1 5th, 
1559, which shows an island called PVixlanda, and gives some other of the Zenian names with 
variations in spelling. The rendering "Frixlanda" occurs in several later manuscript maps, 
two of which will be found reproduced in Nordenskjold's Bidrag till Hardens Aldsta Kartografi. 




1 1 4 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

Wc now come to the large map of Frisland from the Lafreri Atlas * 
(Plate IX.). It is, as many of the Lafreri maps are, undated. It is 
full of pictorial details of moimtains, towns, buildings, trees and 
cultivated and inclosed lands. The maps composing this fine Atlas^ 
were engraved at various times by different engravei- b.'twecn the years 
1546 and 1572. In some cases the same map was produced more 
than once, at different dates and by different hands. It is, therefore, 
difficult to determine the exad date of the Lafreri map of Frisland. 
As will appear a little further on, we have given reasons to show that 
Nicolo Zeno, the younger, was the originator of his hybrid Frisland. 
The larger, though otherwise nearly identical, Lafreri map of that island 
must, therefore, have been derived either from the woodcut " Carta da 
Navegar," or from a draft map, which Zeno must, necessarily, have 
prepared, probably on a larger scale, before the woodcut map coild 
nave been executed. In either case, the complete absence of evidence 
of any public knowledge of Frisland before 155H, coupled with 
Ruscelli's diredl reference to Zeno's work of 155H as the origin of his 
" Nvova Tavola Seticntrionale," edited by Zeno himself, in the Venice 
Ptolemy of 1561, renders it extremely improbable that the larger 
Lafreri map was executed before 1561 or 1562. 

It is not proposed to follow in detail the various attempts to 
identify the " Frislanda " of the Zeno map with some lost, or existing 
land. The conclusions of different writers have been curiously various 
on this point. 

Terra-Rossa believed* that Frislanda, Porlanda, Grislanda, and 
Islanda were at one time united portions of a single land, parts of 
which had been submerged. 

De I'lsle," O'Reilly/ Van Keulen,' Pingre and Borda," Zurla,' Malte- 
brun,® and others, believed Frisland to have been submerged by some 
convulsion of nature, and most of them believed it to be represented 
by " the Sunken Land of Buss," more particularly referred to below. 

Forster" identified it partly with Fara, Fera, or F"erasland, a small 

' There are two copies of this map in the Brit. Mus., one without signature (s. 10,2.70"), 
from which our Plate is taken, the other ( i.i 56) inscribed, " Petro de Nobilibus formis." 
■^ Riflessioni Gttografiche, 1686, pp. 2j6, 251, etc. 
' Hemisphere Occidental, 1720, in Atlas Nouveau, etc. Amsterdam, c. 1733. 

* Greenland and the Adjacent Seas, etc., p. 1 1. 

' Nieuwe IVassende Zee Caart van de Noord Oceaen, etc. Amsterdam, 1745. 
° Voyage fait par ordre du Roi en 1771 et \ll%, vol. ii., p. 360. 
' Dissertazione, pp. 79 et seq. Di Marco Polo, vol. ii., pp. 44, 48. 

• Precis de la Geographie, ed. 1 832-35, vol. i., p. 200. » Northern Voyages, pp. 201-202. 


Zenos " Carta da Navegar." 1 1 5 

island off the cast coast of Hoy, in the Orkneys ; partly with the Faroes 
aiui partly with the Hebridea; baron Walckenaer ' with North and 
West Ireland; Irminger" with Iceland. 

Luigi Bossi believed ' that the name Frislanda was a crtruption of 
Fixlandciy which he held to have been a Teutonic word signifying 
" the land of fish," or " the land abounding in fish," and that it w - 
given originally, not only to Iceland, but to the Orkneys, the Shetlands, 
rhe Fi'iroes, etc. — in short, that it signifies a maritime region rather than 
a single island ; but he thought that the island marked Fixlanda, or 
Frixlanda, in several fifteenth and sixteenth century maps, was Iceland. 
Steenstrup* had a similar, but more comprehensive, theory ; for he says 
that Grislanda was a mistake of writing, or rather of reading, for 
Wrislandii, which is, in its turn, the same name as Frislanda and 
Reslanda, the name Island (Iceland) distorted by the Arabs. 

Buache" v/as the first to suggest in 1784 that the original of the 
" Frislanda " of the Zeno map must have been the Faroes. Buache 
was followed by Von Eggers," Maltebrun,' Zarhtmann," Major," and 
others, whose conclusions, although differing widely on many other 
points, agreed upon this identification, which may be regarded as being 
now popularly accepted. Since the re-discovery of the maps of an 
earlier date than that of Zeno the question has, however, become 
varied, and now seems to be : What is the " Fixlanda " or " Frixlanda " 
of such maps as the Milan (Catalan) fifteenth century map, and the 
Siena (Mattheus Prunes) map of 1553, above referred to? Clearly it 
represents the same island as Zeno's Frisland. Does it represent 
Iceland or the Faroes ? 

In spite of all the ingenuity which has been lavished upon the 
subject, the only names on Zeno's Frisland which have been shown 
to resemble any of those, either ancient or modern, upon the Faroes, 
are the seven which are found upon the Olaus Magnus map of 1539, and 

' Biographic Universelle, vol. lii.. Art, Zeno, Nicolas et Antoine. 

" Journal of Roy. Geogr. Soc, vol. xlix., 1879, p. 398. 

' yita di Cristoforo Colombo, Milan, 181 8, pp. 86-7, or the French translation of the same, 
Paris, 1824, pp. 108-9. 

* Zeniernes Reise i Norden, 1883; and l^s Voyages des Frirc Zeni dans le Nord, '884, in 
Compte rendu du Congres des /Imericanistes, Copenhagen, 1884, pp. 150-189. [B. M. Ac. 
6 2 20. J 

" Memoire sur fisle Frislande, in L'Histoire de l' Academic des Sciences, Paris, 1787. 

° Ueber die fVahre lage des alien Oslgrbnlands, Kiel, 1794. 

' Precis de la Geogr., ed., 1832-35, vol. i., p. 200. 

" Journ. Roy. Geogr. Sec, vol. v., 1835, p. 105. 

' Jbid., vol. xliii,, 1873, p. 156. 

It M 


■— fi 


The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

f\ I 


on Mercator's Europa, 1554 (v/«., Fare, or Farre Insula ; Monachus, 
or Monaco ; Sudero ; Nordero ; Dumo, or Duino ; Faren, or Farre, 
and Streme). Of the thirty-three names remaining on Zeno's Frisland, 
some, which are also found on earlier maps of Fixlanda, certainly indicate 
physical features only, and are not the names of places. As for the 
Frislandic names still unaccounted for, the identifications, by Irminger 
and Steenstrup, with Icelandic names, are, on the grounds of resemblance 
in form and meaning, preferable to any which have been suggested by 
Buache, Eggers, or others who have believed Frisland to represent the 
Faroes only. It will be seen by reference to Appendix V. that, with the 
exception of the seven names mentioned above, the identifications of 
Frislandic with Farensian names are not justified by any resemblance 
of form ; by reference to the maps of Frisland and of the Faroes, 
that the identifications are not justified by correspondence in position ; 
and, by reference to the narrative, that the story will not apply to a 
group of islands small and detached like the Faroes. The shape, size, 
and unity of Zeno's Frisland has no resemblance whatever to the 
a<ftual Faroes. In those respedls it is much more like the Fixlanda of 
the fifteenth century maps, and the actual Iceland. The identifications 
are, in fa6l, guesses founded on Buache's hypothesis that Frisland repre- 
sented the Faroes. The chief reason for this supposition seems to have 
been the fadl thit the latitudes of the two groups of islands appear, 
at first sight, to correspond closely. On Zeno's map Frisland lies 
between 61'^ and 65° N. Lat. The Faroes adually lie between 61° 
20', and 62° 25' N. Lat. But Zeno is all abroad in his latitudes, 
which are generally very incorredly given as to distindly recognizable 
places. The following table gives some examples : 





Between 67° 30' and 

N. Lat. 63" 30' — 66° 

71° 30' N. Lat. 


Contanis (Caithness or 

61° 0' N. Lat. 

N. Lat. 58° 10' to 

Mainland, Orkneys) 

58° 40'. 

N. point of Denmark 

63" 40' N. Lat. 

N. Lat. 57° 35'. 

S. point of Norway 

64° 10' N. Lat. 

N. Lat. 58° 0'. 

Trondo (Trondhjem) 

69° 0' N. Lat. 

N. Lat. 62° 40'. 

S. point of Greenland 

65-50' N. Lat. 

N. Lat. 60° 0'. 

It is chvious, therefore, that no faith can be placed in the accuracy 

Zenos " Carta da Navegar. 


of Zeno's latitudes. The maps which, it is contended, have formed 
his models are also incorreft in this respe<St — some more, some less, than 
the " Carta da Navegar." The coincidence of the assigned position of 
Frisland on Zeno's map with the real position of the Faroes, close as it 
is, must therefore be abandoned as a support to the theory of their 
identity. There is really no evidence in favour of the suggestion 
that the large and compact Frisland is the same as the small scattered 
group of the Faroes, except the presence on Frisland of the seven 
Farensian names above referred to. 

Now let us compare Zeno's Frisland with the fifteenth-century 
Fixlanda and with the adual Iceland. All three are large and compad: 
islands. Many of the maps showing Fixlanda do not give us the means 
of fixing itf. latitude ; but Prunes places it between 59°and 63° N . latitude, 
which nearly touches, on the north, the aftual latitude of the South of 
Iceland. But it has been seen that the assigned latitudes of localities in 
the North Atlantic on early maps are not to be relied upon, so it will 
be well to compare the names on Fixlanda with those on Iceland (see 
Appendix IV.). It will be noticed that (putting aside the seven 
Farensian names already mentioned, none of which appear on Fixlanda) 
there are several important names on Frisland which correspond far 
more closely with Icelandic names than with any upon the Faroes. 
For instance, Zeno's Porlanda is to be found, as Portolanda, on 
Descellier's map of 1546,* on Diego Homem's map of ISSS,** and (as 
Portland) on modern maps. Zeno's Ocibar is Orebakke, or the Orbaca 
of Homem's map above mentioned. Sanestol appears as Sonosilo on 
Descellier's map of 154.6; C. Vidil is Vadil or Veidileisa; Andefort 
is Anarfiora ; Rodea (Rovea in Ruscelli) is Roverhavn ; C. Cunala, 
which appears as " Gamola " on the Catalan fifteenth century map, and 
as *'Grimola" on the Prunes, 1553, map, is *'Gamaloia" of 
Descellier's map, 1546; Abde is Hopdi (cape or headland) of Thor- 
laksen's map of Iceland ; ^ and Pigiu, or Piglu, is Siglu of the same 
map ; Sorand is Strand ; and Aniesis is Arnaes Syssel. Some of these 
identifications are Irminger's or Steenstrup's : the others have not, it is 
believed, been suggested before. 

On the whole, it may be seen that the fifteenth century Fixlanda is 
a fair representation of Iceland, and that it does not resemble the Faroes 
in any resped: whatever. 

' Kretschmer's Entdeckung Amerikas, Tafel XVII. - Brit. Mus. [Add. MSS. 5415, A.] 
' Mercator's Atlas. Duisburg, 1595 


.X m\ 

f : 





The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, 



On neither of the maps earlier in date than 1558, which have been 
referred to as shewing Fixlanda, is Iceland also shown ; nor does it 
appear on two similar maps, reproduced by Nordenskjold ^ ; but, on a 
third map,'^ undated, but of the beginning of the sixteenth century, Frix- 
landa appears as a small island, without detail, close to a large island, 
called in the legend on the map "Thile," which is here presumably 
Iceland. The faft that Fixlanda, or Frixlanda,^ appears with Iceland 
upon the same map is no proof that they are not intended to represent 
the same original, as the repetition of the same island, twice or more 
in different places on the same map, either under the same or different 
names, was quite in accordance with the nradtice of the cartographers 
of the time. For instance, in Fra Maiiro's map, Iceland appears at 
least thrice : first as an island, " Ixilandia " ; secondly, on Finland, 
as " Islant, in which place dwell bad men who are not Christians " ^ ; 
thirdly, on Datia (Denmark), as " Isola Islandia " ; and, perhaps, a 
fourth time, as " Isola di giaccia," literally " the Island of Ice." 

The truth of the matter seems to be that Zeno, in compiling his 
map, was led to choose the Island of Fixlanda (probably on account 
of the resemblance of its name to that of Frisia or Continental Frislanda, 
which Nicolo Zeno, the elder, may, very likely, have visited on his re- 
corded voyage in 1 385) as a convenient held for the fictitious exploits of 
his forbears and as a central starting-point for their alleged explorations, 
and to borrow from it a number of names. Then, finding, on Olaus 
Magnus' and Mercator's maps, the Faroes, in about the same position as 
Fixlanda, and not knowing exactly what either of them really repre- 
sented, he, for the purpose of adding both mystery and vraisemblance 
to his produdlion, combined the two, and imported the Farensian names 
on to Fixlanda (which is Iceland), and so constructed his enigmatic 
Frislanda, just as he has combined the Shetlands with Iceland in order 
to make his warlike Islanda. 

It may be concluded from the above ^ that Fixlanda, or Frixlanda, 
really represents Iceland ; and, as many of the names on Zeno's Frislanda 
have been borrowed from it, and some of the few remaining undoubtedly 
taken from the Faroes, Zeno's Frislanda cannot be said to represent 

' Bidrag till Nordens Aldsta Kartografi, Plates VII. and VIII. 

^ Ibid., Plate VI. The legend referring to Thile, on this map, is only partly reproduced 
by Nordenskjuld. 

" The form Fnxlanda docs not appear, as far as we know, in any map da'^ed earlier than 1558. 
* " Islant in questo luogo habitano mali homeni e non sono Christiani." 
' See also Appendices IV. and V. 

r / 

Zends " Carta da Navegar." 119 

either Iceland or the Faroes, but it is an ingenious combination of both, 
and never had any real or independent existence. 

A striking example of the malign influence upon geographical 
knowledge of the unfortunate acceptance, by cartographers, of the Zeno 
compilation as a genuine map, will be seen on comparing the portions of 
Mercator's " Europa," 1 554, and of his " Weltkarte," 1569, reproduced 
in Plates VII. and XIII. in the Appendix. The names " Nordero," 
" Sudero," " Monaco," " Streme," and other names corredly placed 
upon the " Farre Insule," in the earlier map, are transferred to the 
fldiitious " Frislant " of the later one, which is also disfigured by the 
presence of the bogus " Estotilant," * Drogeo " and " Icaria." 

We have already shown how impossible it is to reconcile the identi- 
fication of the Faroes with the Frisland of the Zeno narrative. The 
description of the island " larger than Ireland" (or Iceland, as Major 
prefers to read it^), through which Zichmni marched his victorious 
army " by land," in no way suits the Faroe Islands. Admiral Irminger 
has seen this difficulty whidh, combined with others pointed out by 
him, has led him to identify Frisland with Iceland.' The paper which 
follows that of Irminger, in the same publication as that in which 
Irminger's note appears, J i a reply by Major,^ insisting upon the identity 
of Frisland with the Faroes. 

There is little to be said about the Estland of the Zeno map. The 
name is one well recognized for the Shetland Isles ; and except for the 
theft of the seven islands transferred by Zeno to the coast of Iceland, 
which has been '.eferred to before, there is little objedtion to be made 
to this detail upon the map. Out of the fifteen namec on Estland on 
the Zeno map, we find six on the Olaus Magnus map, 1539, ^^^ ^^^^ 
of the same six on Mercator's " Europa," 1554. 

The large map of Estland (Plate X.), in the I afreri Atlas^ corre- 
sponds, as to outline and nomenclature,with the Estland of the Zeno map. 
Its history is probably similar to that of the Lafreri map of Frisland 
(see p. 114). 

Icaria is on a different footing from all the foregoing Zenian 
countries and islands. The mendacity and impudence of the youiiger 
Zeno in importing this island from the Eastern Mediterranean into the 
North Atlantic, and in making the descendants of " Ic-^rus," the son 

> Voyages of the Zem Brothers, Hakluyt Society, 1873, p. 6, n. 
^ Journal 0/ R'"'. Geog. Soc. of London, 1879, vol. xlix., p. 398. 
' Ibid., p. 4 » 2. 


i ' i H 




V -l 



T/ie Foyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

of " Daedalus, king of Scotland," living at the end of the fourteenth 
century, hereditary kings of the island at that time, and in introducing 
the old classical legend into his narrative, would be incredible, if the 
narrative itself were not a silent and uncontrovertible witness. 

We have seen already (p. 86) that J. R. Forster and R. H. Major 
identified Icaria with Kerry, and that Zurla considered it to be Newfound- 
land. To these opinions may be added those of Baron Walckenaer, who 
thought ^ that Icaria was the Isle of Skye, and of Count Miniscalchi 
Erizzo, who conjeftured ^ that it was the Sunken Land of Buss. 

But, though this part of the narrative cannot be treated seriously, we 
may, nevertheless, consider from what maps, extant when Zeno the 
younger wrote, he may have borrowed the " Icaria " of his map. On 
many old maps, there will be found, to the north of Scotland, a large 
island called Hirtha, or Hirta. It so appears "' on Mercator's Terrestrial 
Globe of 1 541, and on the Italian map of 1546, the northern portion 
of which latter is reproduced in our Plate V. It also appears, but 
placed more to the west, on Mercator's " Europa," 1554 (Plate VIII.), 
and on later maps. It first occurs, under the name of " St. Kylder," 
on map 7 (Scotia) in the 1573 edition of Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis. 

On the large map of Olaus Magnus, 1539, the same island seems 
to be represented by " Tile," which bears inscriptions stating that the 
Lord of the Islands dwells there, and that it has more than 30,000 
inhabitants. The phrase Hie habitat Dominus insularum in this in- 
scription suggests some confusion with the Regalis Domus of the 
Ptolemy of 1511, which probably represents the name of Cortereal 
misunderstood and literally translated. 

In the little explanatory pamphlet which was issued with the map 
Olaus Magnus explains thus : * 

" Some call this island Tyle, and some contend that it is Iceland ; 
but I find that Procopius has more truly described the island Scandiana 
under the name of Tyle. Nevertheless in this Tyle is the residence of 
the Governor [Presidente) of the Orcades, and this island has aoout 
30,000 men inhabiting it, who would not change their condition for 
the happiness of other regions." 

The latter part of this passage suggests that it may have been the 

' Biographie Universelle, vol. lii., Art. Zeno, Nicolas ft Antoine. 

- Le Scoperte Jrliche, 1855, p. 117, 

^ Raemdonck, Les Spheres Terreitre et caleste de Gerard Mercator, St. Nicholas, 1 875. 

* Opera Breve, under D. f. 


Zeno's " Carta da Navegar' 


source of the passages in the Zeno text : ^ " they [the Icarians] were 
contented with the state which God had given them, and would neither 
aher their laws nor admit any stranger," and : " they being all prepared 
rather to abandon life than to relax in any way the use of their laws." 
Another possible, but less probable, source may be the passage in 
Bordone, referred to above on page 89. 

In his larger work of 1555,'' Olaus Magnus identifies Iceland with 
the " Ultima Thule " of the Ancients. He clearly cannot mean the 
" Tile " of his map to be identical with Iceland, as he also shows the 
latter island, though in a very different form and with much detail, in 
another part of his map. Another origin for his " Tile " must there- 
fore be sought, and it will, we think, be found in " Hirta," or St. Kilda. 

Estotilanda and Drogeo of the Zeno map are upon a less satisfedtory 
footing than any other part of it. If we accept the younger Zeno's 
account of the origin of the map as absolutely true, his travelled ancestor 
must have drawn these portions of his map from a descriptiori by the 
Frisland fisherman ; for Antonio Zeno himself never visited either of 
these countries. A map drawn from verbal description cannot be 
regarded as in any way reliable. We regard the whole of the Zeno 
map as a concodtion by the younger Zeno and his publisher, Marcolini, 
in or before the year 1558, from materials to be found in various maps 
then existing, and it will be seen that the originals of Estotiland and 
Drogeo are not wanting. 

In many maps of the first quarter of the sixteenth century, botii 
manuscript and printed, will be found certain islands, often undefined 
as to their western boundaries, which were intended to represent 
Labrador (either under the names of " Terra Corterealis," " Regalis 
Domus" or " Terra laboratoris"), or Newfoundland. As examples of 
such manuscript maps, we may instance the Cantino map of 1502, the 
King map of the same date,' and the Portuguese map of 1505 
reproduced by Kunstmann.* As examples of such printed maps, we 
may cite the heart-shaped map of the world in the Sylvanus Ptolemy^ 
151 1, the " Orbis typus universalis" of the 151 3 edition of Ptolemy y 
and the " Tipus orbis universalis" of Apianui^ 1520. Any one of 
these maps might have served, as we believe some of them did serve, to 

' Folio 55 V, and supra, p. 19. 
* De Gentibus Sept en., p. 62. 

" Notice sur une Mappemonde Portugaise Anonyme de 1502. 
le Dr. E. T. Hamy, Paris, 1887. 

' Kunstmann, Entdeckung Amerika's, Tafel II. 


[The " King " Map.] Par 

I . 


I , 


The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

^' I 



provide the compiler of the Zeno map with the types of his Estotiland 
and Drogeo. It would suffice, for his purpose, that the parts copied 
belonged, or were reputed to belong, to the newly-discovered continent 
of America, with which he wished to conned his ancestors' alleged 
travels. Very little was known about the northern parts of America, 
even in the younger Zeno's time, and the fa<ft that he chose for his 
descriptive text accounts of quite different part; of America was not 
only unknown, but probably a matter of indifference to him. So far 
as to the cartographical origins of Estotiland and Drogeo. 

The names '* Estotiland" and "Drogeo" do not appear, in those 
forms at any rate, before they are seen in Zeno's text and map. 

The firstsuggestion of a meaning for •* Estotiland " occurs on a 
curious map by H. P. Resen,^ dated 1605, and reproduced in the 9th 
Part of the Meddelelser om Gr^nlandy where the name, which is placed 
upon the Scandinavian " Helleland," is followed by the legend. Forte 
Esto{es) Tilandy seu Tyle vel ultima Tule [quemadmodum putavit nauta 
Hi span us qui hue delatus nomen illud loco primum indidit). 

Several other derivations of the name Estotiland, and identifications 
of the country have been attempted, but they are all based upon the 
merest guesswork. Thus Baron Walckenaer believed^ Estotiland to be 
the Estland of the Zeni, which he held to be the northern part of 
Scotland ; Forster ^ identified it with Newfoundland, or Winland of the 
Scandinavians; Zurla* identified it with Labrador; Lelewel" thought 
that it was Cape Breton or Anticosti; Maltebrun thought® it was 
Newfoundland, and derived the name from East-out-land ; Beauvois' 
considered tbpt it was Newfoundland, the name being the result of 
a clerical error for Escoci /and [Lznd of the Scots), and believed that this 
was a name imported by the apocryphal Irish immigrants, Ireland 
having been called Scocia during the middle ages ; he further con- 
sidered that Estotiland was identical with Zeno's Icaria. Most of these 
conjeAures seem to have been founded upon the position of Estotiland 
on Zeno's map ; but the description in the text is so entirely inapplicable 

* Indica'io Gronlandia (jf vicinarum regionum, versus Septentrionem et Occidentem, ex antiqua 
quadam mappa rudi modo delineata, ante aliquos centenos annos ab Islandts quibus tunc erat is/a 
terra notissima et nauticis nostri temporis observationibus. 

- Biographie Universale, vol. lii., Art. Zeno, Nicolas et Antoine. 
•' Northern Voyages, p. 204. 

* Dissertazione, etc., p. 108. Di Marco Polo, vol. ii., p. 71. 
^ Geographie du Moyen Age, vol. iv., p. 104. 

" Precis de la Geographie, ed. 1832-35, vol. t., p. 202. 

^ La Decouverte du Nouveau Monde par les Irlandais, in Compte Rendu du Congris des 
Americanisles. Nancy, 1875. 

Zenos " Carta da Navegar" 123 

to the north-eastern part of North America that it is impossible to 
accept them. It has also been suggested that the name is derived from 
Scocia, or from Sutherland or Sotherlandia, as it is written on some old 
maps (see Plate V.), and that the voyagers never went further west than 
Kerry in Ireland. Who is to decide when such dodors disagree ? 

Considering the other falsities, plagiarisms, and proved inventions 
of Zeno's work, it is hardly unreasonable to conjeAure that the origin 
in the name Estotiland is the motto " Esto fldelis usque ad mortem," 
written upon the Scotia of the Olaus Magnus map of 1539, ^^ ^^^t 
Ax letters of which, with the termination " land " added, would make 
" Estofiland." Such an impudent concodion would be quite in 
accordance with the younger Zeno's meaiod. 

Drogeo, which appears for the first time in Zeno's work, has also 
been the subjedt of some widely different identifications, but does not 
seem to have attracted so much attention as Estotiland. It is identified 
by J. R. Forster ^ with Florida j by Zurla ^ with Canada, New England, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Florida; by Walckenaer '^ with the 
southern part of Ireland, or alternatively with a distrift near Drogheda ; 
by Lelewel* and Maltebrun" with Nova Scotia and New England; 
and by Mercator® and Ortelius'' with the almost equally obscure '* Dus 

( y\ 



' Northern Voyages, p. 205. 

" Dissertazione, etc., p. 117. Di Marco Polo, vol. ii., p. 76. 

* Biographic Universelle, vol. lii., Art. Zeno, Nicolas et Antoine. 

* Geog, du Moyen Age, vol. iv., p. 105. 

' Precis de la Geog., ed. 1832-35, vol. i., p. 20 J. 
« See our Plate XIII. 
'• See our Plate XIV. 

* We are indebted to Mr. G. R. F. Prowse for nearly all the material for the following 
note. The earliest dated map to give the word " Cirnes" is that of Des Liens (1541), now at 
Dresden (see Harrisse's John Cabot, 1896), but the name must have been in use some years 
before this as the map in the Biblioteca Riccardiana at Florence (see Kretschmer's Atlas, Plate 
XXXIII.), on which " do Cirnez " appears, cannot have been much later than 1534. The name 
appears in many forms and disguises, e.g., "Cirnes" (Des Liens, 1541), "de loscives" (Cabot, 
1544), "d'arnes" (?) (Vallard, 1547), "I dossir.ies" (Freire, I547),"y° des arenes" (Descellier, 
1550), "diacernnes" (.') (Le Testu, No. 2, 1553), "I dos Sirnis" (Homo, 1559), "Sirenes" 
(Simon, 1580), "Drogeo Dus Cirnes Gallis" (Mercator, 1569; Ortelius, 1570; Judasis, 1593), 
"Orballanda alijs Dus Cirnes" (Dee, 1580), "Comes" (Lok, 1582), "dus cirnes" (D'Anania, 
1582), "I dos Ames" (Nicolas, 1602), "lisle dorcines" (Devaulx, 1613), "y des Syrnes" 
(Mathoniere or Postello, 1621), "dosserades" Q) (D. de Rctis, 1676). A map, dated 1553, in 
the French Ministry of Marine, Paris, gives " I. dos cirnis" ai.d "Sablom." There is no word 
similar to " dus cirnes " in English, French, Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese which will bear a 
reasonable interpretation such as would serve for the name of an island. Mr. G. R. F. Prowse 
considers that the rendering "y" des arenes," in Descellier's map, 1550 (B. M. Add. MSS., 
24065) [see Judge D. W. Prowse's Newfoundland, p. 40], carries most n'eight. He suggests that 



1 24 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

In Rascicotti's map of America, and the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans, 1583,^ Drogeo appears as an island with the legend " Drogeo 
de Francesi." This is probably an interpretation of Mercator's " Dus 
Cirnes Gallis." On the Mollineux Globe," 1592, there appears on the 
Continent of America "Nova Francia Drogeo"; and, on the coast of 
Labrador, on a map in Dudley's Arcano del Mare^ occur " La Costa 
di Dragoa " and " Dragoa." It is believed that these are the only 
instances in which the name appears except as that of an island. 

We are unable to point to an origin for the name Drogeo. The only 
suggestion we are able to make is that Zeno may have borrowed it 
from some form of Boca del Drago, the strait between Trinidad and 
Paria, to the neighbourhood of which some of the descriptions in 
Zeno's text apply, as has been shown above. 

In our Appendix IV. will be found a Table on which the 150 
names on Zeno's map of 1558 are compared with corresponding 
names upon earlier or contemporary maps. In our Appendix V. is a 
Table showing the attempted identifications of the same 150 names 
with those of real localities, by various commentators upon Zeno's 
map ^r\A book. We call special attention to these Appendices as they 
contain, in a small compass and convenient form, much detail which 
it would have been difficult to introduce into the body of this treatise. 

Sirenes and Cir(e)nes may be misreadings of " arenes." The representations of the island, with 
sandbanks adjoining it, and the meaning of the French arene^ viz., sand, support this suggestion. 
The Sevillian maps of Ribero at Weimar and in the Borgian Library, show an " y* de la saualos " 
near Cape Porcupine, Labrador, where, according to the Newfoundland Pilot (p. 3), is to be found 
" the only sandy beach of any extent as far as Nain." There is no direifb evidence of any kind 
to justify the association of the two islands; though other cartographical evidence seems to 
indicate that one of the primary explorations of Labrador was made in this neighbourhood. It 
is quite permissible to suppose that the survey of this voyage was not coordinated with those that 
followed in some groups of maps, but placed in a detached position off the coast. Mr. Miller 
Christy suggests that the island is probably "Sable Island," sable and arene being convertible 
terms in French. In 1 5 1 8, Baron de Lery attempted to found a French settlement on Sable 
Island, and it is about this time that the name Dus Cirnes first occurs. It therefore seems pro- 
bable that " Dus Cirnes " is a distorted form of " des arenes," otherwise " Sable Island," but the 
question must as yet remain in the realm of conjeAure. Mercator does not appear to have had 
any real grounds for connedting the " y" des arenes" or "Cirnes" with the Drogeo of Zeno. 

' Americe et Proximarum regionum ora descriptio. Venice. Reproduced in Miiller's Re- 
markable Maps, etc., Amsterdam, 1894, Part I., No. 12. 

'^ See tailpiece on p. 84, supra. 

' Dudley, Arcano del Mare, 1661. 

J (\ ' 


V--^^^-'^-^^- -ir^^ ;..';".. ■^'^-^ 





IROM the earliest times of cartography, the chart of 
the Atlantic Ocean has been encumbered with many 
mythical or problematical islands, such as Antilla, Isle 
Verde, Brazil, St. Brandan, and the Island of the 
Seven Cities, not to mention the numerous islands of 
queer, and often geometrical, shapes, which were 
apparently introduced by the cartographer to fill 
vacant spaces, or for the sake of artistic effeft, but were not considered 
worthy of names. Those which are named are found in widely 
different positions on different maps. Some, as, for instarv':e, " Brazil," 
may sometimes be found in duplicate upon the same map. Some of 
these phantom islands probably had their origin in legend, others in 
misreading or misunderstanding on the part of the copyist, and some 
in the perverse ingenuity of the map-makers, but others may have been 
the result of the honest reports of mariners who had been deceived into 
a belief that they h^ en land where no land was, or had been mis- 
taken as to their true ^ osition — both natural errors. 

All such phantom islands are, as a class, akin to the Zenian 
Islands, but only two of ther'. concern the Zenian story, viz., the " Island 
of St. Brand; in," and " the Island of Buss." The history of the island of 
St. Brandan begins in the eleventh century : that of ** Buss," at th** '•nd 
of the sixteenth century. The connedion between " Saint Brandan " 
and the Zeno story is indiredt, and lies in the identification of the 
modern St. Kilda or Hirta with it, as has been suggested.^ 

' C. H. C. in Jthetiteum, February 6, 1892, p. 183. 



\ m 



The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni, 

I 1 

The connexion of Buss Island with the Zeno subjed is far more 
close and dircd, although its history does not begin until nearly two 
hundred years after the date assigned to the alleged travels of the brothers 
Zcni, nor until twenty years after the publication of the younger Zeno's 
compilation. It is found on several later maps in close proximity to 
the Zenian Frisland ; and, as has been already mentioned, it has been 
supposed, by some believers in the authenticity of the Zeno story, to 
have been the Island Frisland itself, or the remains of it. It would, 
therefore, scarcely be right to pass over it altogether without mention. 

The so-called island was first heard of on the return of Frobisher's 
third expedition to the north, in 1 578. A brief notice of its alleged dis- 
covery appeared in Best's True Discourse^ in 1578, but a fuller account 
may be found in Hakluyt's Principal Navigations^ ^589, p. 635, 
following the account, by Thomas Ellis, of Frobisher's third voyage : 

"The Report of Thomas Wiars, passenger in the Emanuel, other- 
wise called the Busse of Bridgewater, wherein lames Leeche was 
Master, one of the shippes in the last voyage of Master Martin Fro- 
bisher, 1578. concerning the discouverie of a great Island in their way 
homeward the 1 2 of September. 

" The Busse of Bridgewater, was left in Bears Sounde at Meta 
incognita^ the second day of September behinde the Fleete, in some 
distresse, through much windf: ryding neare the Lee Shoare, and forced 
there to ride it out upon the hazard of her cables and ankers, which 
were all aground but two. The thirde of September being fayre 
weather, and the Wind North northwest she set sayle, and departed 
thence and fell with Frisland^ on the 8. day of September, at 6. of the 
clocke at night, and then they set off to the Southwest poynt of Fris- 
landy the winde being at East, and East southeast, but that night the 
winde veared Southerly, and shifted oftentimes that night : but on the 
tenth day in the morning, the wind at west northwest fayre weather, 
they steered southeast, and by south, and continued that course untill 
the 12. day of September, wlien about 11. a clocke before noone, they 
descryed a lande, which was from them about five leagues, and the 
Southermost part of it was Southeast by East from them, and the 
Northermost next. North Northeast, or Northeast. The Master ac- 
compted that Frisland^ the Southeast poynt of it, was from him at that 

' A True Discourse of the late Voyage of Discoverie for finding of a Passage to Cathaya by 
the Ncrth-fVeast under the conduit of Martin Frotisher, General. [By George Best.] London, 
1578, 4to, p. 59. 

The Island of Buit and oth ^'-intom Islands of the Atlantic, 127 

instant, when hec first descrycd th.» newc Island, North west, by North, 
50. leagues. They accoutit this Island to be 25. leagues long, and the 
longest way of it Southeast, and Northwest. The Southcrne part of it 
is in the latitude of 57. degrees and i. second part, or thereabout. They 
continued in sight of it, from the 12. day at 11. of the clocke, till the 
1 3 day three of the clocke in the after noone, when they left it : and 
the last part they saw of it, bare from them. Northwest by North. 
There appeared two h?rboroughs upon that Coast : the greatest of them 
seven leagues to the Northwardes of the Southermost poynt, the other 
but foure leagues. There was verie much yce neere the same lande, 
and also twentie or thirtie leagues from it, for they were not cleare of 
yce, till the 15. day of September, after noone. They plied their 
voyage homewards, and fell with the west part of Ireland about Galway^ 
and had the first sight of it on the 25. day of September." 

This account is repeated on the 1 599-1600 edition of Hakluyt 
(vol. iii., p. 44). In the second, and fuller, description of the voyage, 
in the same volume (p. 75), the name of the captain of " the Emmanuel 
of Bridgewater" is stated to have been "Newton," and (on page 93) 
the supposed discovery is briefly recorded, thus : 

" The Busse of Bridgewater^ as she came homeward, to the 
Southeastward of Friseland^ discovered a great Island in the latitude of 
57 degrees and a halfe, which was never yet found before, and sailed 
three dayes alongst the coast, the land seeming to be fruitfull, full of 
woods, and a Champion Country." 

This is identical with Best's notice, save for the addition of the 
degrees of latitude, which Best omits, and some slight variations in spelling. 

Soon after this report was published the island began to appear 
on maps, sometimes in company with Frisland (as in Emery Mollineux's 
"Terrestrial Globe," 1592, in the " Orbis terrarum typus " of Peter 
Plancius, 1594, and in the "Tabula nautica" in the Descriptio ac 
delineatio geographica DeteSiionis Freti^ describing Hudson's voyage of 
1 6 10), sometimes alone (as in Anderson's Iceland^ and Seller's English 
Pilot^)y sometimes as itientical with Frisland (as in Guillaume De I'lsle's 
" Hemisphere Occidental " 1720). 

James Hall, in his second voyage in 1605,^ "looked to have scene 

* Beschryving van Tsland Groenland en de Straat Davis. Johan Anderson. 4to. Am- 
sterdam, 1750. 

' 'The English Pilot ... by John Seller, Hydrographer to the King, Fourth Book, London, 
1673 (?), folio, p. 5. [Brit. Mus. 1804, b. 7.] 

^ Purchas his Pilgrimes, 1625, vol. iii., p. 81 5. 

. / 


^ \\ 



The Voyaget of the Brothers Zeni, 



Busse Hand, but [he says] I doc verily suppose the same to V placed 
in a wrong Latitude in the Marine Charts." In the following year, 
viz., on the ist of July, 1606, he " saw land about eight leagues off, with 
a great banke of Ice lying ofF South-west. . . . This land [I c s,';ys'] I 
did suppose to be Busse Hand ; it lying more to the westwar then it 
is placed in the Marine Charts." The next day, July .'"^d, he says, 
" We were in a great current setting South South-west. Th^ which I did 
suppose to set betwecne Busse Hand and Fr> /•/and over with America." 

About 1670, or a little after, a srr> rimg development in the 
cartographical appearance of Buss Island took place. In the two maps 
reproduced below (Plates XVI. and XVITI, which are • kf;n from the 
first edition of Seller's English Pilot (c. 1673), •'nd in several later 
maps by Seller, the island appears with a defined sh .pe, and bears the 
names of harbours, points, and mountains. The expi? nation of this 
growth will be found partly in the account of an alleged visit to the 
island by Captain Shepherd of the '* Golden Lion," in the text prefixed 
to the English Pilots and, partly, in any authentic list of the names of the 
first " Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into 
Hudson's Bay," commonly known as the " Hudson's Bay Company." 

The account from the English Pilot is as follows : 

" This Island lieth in the Latitude of 58° 39'. It bears W. by N. 
half a point northerly from the Mizenhead in Ireland^ distant about 
296 leagues. 

" This Island was first discovered in Sir Martin Frobisher's thirH 
and last voyage to the North-West, in the year 1578, by one of his 
vessels that strai'd from his Fleet on their Homeward-bound Passage, 
who accidentally discovered it, and called it after the name of the Vessel, 
which was the Buss of Bridgewatcr^ and therefore they called it Buss 
Island. They judged it to be about 25 leagues long ; lying the longest 
way S.E. and N.W. They found two Harbours in it ; and according to 
the account they give of it, that the greatest of them is about seven 
leagues to the Northward of the Southermost point of ths Island, called 
Rupert's Harbour ; and the other four leagues to the Northwest of 
that called Shaftsburys Harbour ; there are two small Harbours that 
lie ofF the East point of the Island." 

" This Island was further discovered by Captain Thomas Shepherd^ 
in the Golden Lion^ of Dunkirk^ in the year 1671, at the charge of 
Monsieur Kiel^ Spawlding and Kicquerts Lords of that Town : the said 

' Purchas his Pilgrimes, 1625, vol. iii., p. 82a. 

The Island of Buss and other Phantom 1st 'ds of the Atlantic. 129 

Captain Shepherd brought home the map of the Island that is here 
annexed' ; and reports that the /siand ITords store of Whales casie to 
be Btruck, Sea horse, Seal and Codd in abundance; and supposes that 
two voyages may be made in a year, the sea is clear from Ice unless in 
September, the Land low and level to the Southward and some Hills and 
Mountains in the N.W. End. The Variation was here, in. the year 
1 67 1, 9 degrees West. There lieth a Bank about 12 Leagues to the 
Southward of the Island that hath good store of Fish upon it, and is 
about 15 Leagues in length lying chiefly N.N.W. and S.S.E. having 40 
fathom and 36 fathom Water upon it. 

" This Island has several times been seen by Captain Gillam, in his 
Passages to and from the North West." 

In the text prefixed to the Atlas Maritimus of Seller, it is stated " 
that, in the year 1667, a design was renewed and undertaken for the 
discovery of the " North West Passage and for setling a Trade with the 
Indians in those Parts, by several of the Nobility of England^ and divers 
Merchants of note belonging to the City of London^ who fitted out two 
small Vessels for that purpose, the one called the Nonsuch Ketchy 
Captain Zach, iah Gillam Commander, the other the Eaglet Ketchy 
Captain Staniard Commander; the latter whereof being by Stormy 
Weather beaten back, returned home without success ; but the other 
proceeding on her Voyage made the Land of Buss, lying between Iseland 
and Groenland ; passed through Hudsons St r aits ^ then into ^affins 
[? Hudsons] Bay." Further on, the position of Buss is described : 
"South-westward from Iseland^ about 140 leagues, lyeth an Island 
called Buss i in the latitude of 57 degrees 35 minutes, not yet fully 
discovered, but only as it hath been accidentally seen by some, who 
upon other Discoveries have occasionally passed tnose Seas, as Captain 
Gillam in his first voyage to the North- West Passage had soundings 
near unto it." 

In the voyage last spoken of, Gillam wintered in Hudson's Bay, at 
Rupert's River, where he built a stone fort. Fort Charles, which was the 
first European settlement on the bay. On his return to England, Prince 
Rupert, one of his patrons, with others " of the Nobility of England 
and divers Merchants of note," some of whose names appear below, 
applied for and obtained, the Charter of the Hudson's Bay Company, 
which was signed on the 2nd of May, 1670. 

• See our Plate XVI. 

" yitlas Marilimus or Sea Atlas, 

By John Seller. London, 1675, p. 1 1. 

130 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

Below is a table comparing the names on Seller's maps with those 
of the Patentees under the Charter of the Company, and of some other 
persons mentioned in the account of Shepherd's alleged visit to the island. 

?\ ' 







Griffith's Mount. 
Kirke Point. 
Arlington Harbour. 
Point Cartret. 
Albemarle Point. 

6. Shepherd's Island. 

7. Munden Island. 

8. Bence Point. 

9. Warren Bay. 
I o. Cape Hayes. 

1 1 . Hanersford Bay.' 

12. Craven Point. 

13. Rupert's Harbour. 

14. Shaftesbury Harbour. 

15. Point Carew. 

16. Kicks Bay. 

17. Viner's Point. 

18. Robinson Bay. 

1 9. Duke of Yorkes Satid. 












Sir John Griffith, Kt. 

John Kirke. 

Henry, Lord Arlington. 

Sir Philip Carteret, Kt. 

Christopher, Duke of Albemarle. 

Captain Thomas Sheplierd. 

(?) John Fenn. 

James Hayes. 

(?) Sir Edward Hangerford. 
William, Earl of Craven. 
Prince Rupert. 

Anthony, Lord Ashley (created Earl of 
Shaftesbury in April, 1672). 

(?) M. Kicquert, of Dunkirk, 
Sir Robert Viner. 
Sir John Robinson. 

James, Duke of York (afterwards King 
James II.). 

No more seems to have been seen or reported of the phantom 
island, and within fifty years it was considered by some to have been 
submerged. Even as late as the middle of the present century we find 
it written of as "the Sunken land of Buss;"'"* and, as has been noticed 
above, it was supposed by some to be identical with the lost Frislanda 
of the Zeni. 

In 1776, Lieutenant Richard Pickersgill, of H.M.S. "Lion," who 
was sent into Davis's Strait on much more important business, sought 
for the lost Island of Buss, and, on the 29th of May, struck soundings on 
a bank at 320 to 330 fathoms, in N. lat. 57°, W. long. 24° 24', which 
he supposed might he the remains of it." So sanguine was this gentle- 
man that he wrote in an anonymous pamphlet* which was not published 
until 1783, after his death : " If the situation of Friesland is determined, 

' " Hungerford Bay " in a map in the Mas Maritimus. 

- O'Reilly, Greenland, London, 1818, p. 11; Miniscalchi Erizzo, Le Scoperte Artiche, 
Venezia, 1855, p. 117; De I'lsle, " Hemisphere Occidental" (1720), first edition of the map 
in the Nouveau Atlas, Amsterdam. In later editions of the map, the legend "Isle de Bus 
cidevant Frislande," and ull other indications of the island, are omitted entirely. 

' Barrow, Voyages into the Arilic Regions, 18 18, p. 321. 

* Voyages for the discovery o/aNorth-fVest Passage. By a Sea officer. London, 1782, p. 37. 

/ .V 

The Island of Buss and other Phantom Islands of the Atlantic, 131 

that of Buss Island will follow of course : and if this isle is such as it is 
described, it must H^ preferable to Newfoundland for its fishery, nor 
is it to be concluded that the cold will be so excessive as might be at 
first imagined, since it is surrounded on all sides by the ocean. — Besides, 
our ships bound to the north might winter there, and it might prove a 
nursery for hardy seamen." But alas ! neither of these valuable islands 
has ever been re-discovered, and we may now safely conclude that they 
never will be. 

It will be observed that no one of those who have said that they 
had seen Buss Island has ever stated that he has landed upon it. It has 
been searched for in vain, since the date of its last alleged appearance, 
by such men as Ross,^ Parry ,^ and Graah," and the sea wherein it was 
said to lie has been sailed over by hundreds of ships. 

To those who believed that such an island as Buss was actually 
seen, and did actually exist between 1578 and 1673, the only possible 
explanation of its undoubted non-existence a few years after the last 
named date was its submergence : hence the " Sunken land of Buss " 
believed in by Anderson, Van Keulen, De I'lsle, Zurla, Pingre, O'Reilly, 
Erizzo, and many others.^ But, without doubting the good faith of the 
crew of the " Emmanuel," or of James Hall and his companions, there are 
good reasons to suppose that there never was any such island as " Buss." 

It is a matter of common experience to those who have been at sea, 
and even to those who have lived by the sea-shore, that something which 
seems to be land appears, at times, in the distance, where no land can 
possibly be ; and the illusion is often so strong that it is difHcult for the 
speftator to persuade himself that his eyes are the dupes of common 
atmospheric conditions. This phantom land may appear in any latitude, 
but the deceptive appearance seems to be most common, or at any rate 
most commonly noted, in northern latitudes. It will be well to quote 
a few instances of such delusive appearances. 

The legendary island of St. Brandan was frequently seen by the 
inhabitants of the Canary Islands, according to their genuine belief, at 
distances varying from 15 to 100 leagues.' It is shown on Martin 
Behaim's globe, of 1492, about 40° west of Ferro, and is also laid 

' Voyage of Discovery . ..for the Purpose of Exploring Baffin's Bay. Ix)ndon, i8i9,pp.25-26. 

• Journal of a Voyage for the Discovery of a North- fVest Passage . , . in the years 1819-ao. 
London, 1821, pp. 4-5. 

' Narrative of an Expedition to the East Coast of Greenland . . . translated from the 
Danish. London, 1837, p. 20. 

* See page 1 14, supra, notes 4 to 11. 

' Washington Irving, Columbus , 1828, vol. iv., p. 317. 




|! ' Ci 



132 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

down on many maps of the sixteenth century. It was repeatedly seen, 
and by various persons, always in the same place and form ; and, in 
1526, an expedition under the command of Fernando de Troya and 
Fernando Alvarez wao sent in search of it. In 1570, Alonzo de 
Espinosa, Governor of the Island of Ferro, embodied in an official 
report the evidence of more than 100 witnesses, several of them 
persons of the highest respedability, who deposed that they had seen 
the unknown island, about forty leagues north-west of Ferro : that they 
had contemplated it with calmness and certainty, and had seen the sun 
set behind one of the points.^ On this and other evidence, an expedi* 
tion under Fernando de Villalobos, Rcgidor of the Island of Palma, 
was sent in the same year, 1570, to find the phantom island. In 
1605, a ship, commanded by Caspar Perez de Acosta, wa^ des- 
patched on the same errand. In 1721, a fourth expedition, under 
Don Caspar Dominguez, was sent \/ith the same objed ; but all these 
searches were fruitless. In 1759, a Franciscan monk related that he 
had seen " St. Brandan's Isle " trom the Island of Comera ; that it 
appeared to consist of two lofty n ountains, with a deep valley between ; 
and that, looked at through a telescope, the valley seemed to be filled 
with trees. He summoned the curate, Antonio Joseph Manrique, and 
upwards of forty other persons, all of whon beheld it plainly.^ 

The Island is laid down on a French map of 1 704 as one of the 
Canary Islands, and Cautier^ in his Observations on Natural History,** 
published in 1755, places it 5° west of Ferro, in 29° north latitude. 
Father Feyjoo* attributes these appearances of the Island of St. Brandan, 
which have been so numerous and so well authenticated as not to admit 
of doubt, to atmospherical deceptions.® 

A king of Portugal is said to have made a conditional cession of it to 
a certain person " w hen it should be found " j and. v/hen the Crown of 
Portugal ceded its right over the Canaries to the Castilians, the Treaty 
included the island of St. Brandan, as " the island which had not yet 
been found."** A similar belief in the reality of the island existed also 
in Ireland. 

'I L 

p. VI. 

' See Washington Irving, Columbus, 1828, vol. iv., p. yii,. 
- See Irving, I&U., p. 329. 
^ Fide Irving, I/>iJ., p. 329. 

* Theatro Critico Universale discirsos varios, Madrid, 4to, vol. iv., p. 10. 
^ See Irving, Op. cit., p. 331. 
Si. Brandan a Medieval Legend of the Sea. By Thomas Wright (Percy Society), 1844, 

The Island of Buss and other Phantom Islands of the Atlantic, 133 

James Hall, on his voyage in 1605, referred to above,^ had an ex- 
perience which shows how, even at close quarters, cloud masses may 
be mistaken for land. It is recorded in Purchas His Pilgrimes thus : ^ 
" The fift [of June, 1605] ^^ ^^ mornin^^, being very faire weather, with 
the winde at East South-east, our course Noich North-west, some of our 
people supposed they had scene the Land : our Captaine and I v/ent 
aboord the Pinnasse, when after an houre of our being there wee did 
see the supposed Land to be an hasie fogge, which came on vs so fast 
that wee could scarce see one another. But the Lion being very nigh 
unto vs, and it being very calme, we laid the Pinnasse aboord of her, and 
so the Captaine and I went aboord of them." Again, he says, " on the 
ninth day about foure a clocke . . . some of our people would not be 
perswaded but they did see Land, and therefore I stood in North and by 
East and North North-east, till about three a clocke in the afternoone, 
when wee met with a huge Hand of Ice. ..." The account does not 
give the latitude in which these mistakes occurred ; but, on the 4th of 
June, at noon, Hall's latitude was N. lat. 59° 50', only about z" from 
the position assigned to the Island of Buss by its first observers. 

GafFarel, in his chapter entitled Les ties fantastiques de P Ocean 
Atlantique^ writes thus:' ^^ Nous avons encore a enregistrer d^autres 
ileSj dont fexistence est tout aussi prohlematique^ mais auxquelles on 
croyait au moyen-dge^ avant la date ofjicielle de la decouverte de 
I' Amirique. Un recit quelconque de voyage^ mime invraisemblable^ 
se repandait-ily quelque marin prendait- il pour une terre la trompeuse 
apparence d'un nuage a V horizon^ il annonqait au retour sa pretendue 
decouverte. Aussitot les cartographes se mettaient a Voeuvre. Associant 
leurs desirs a des confuses notions^ ils creaient quelque terre nouvelle^ qui 
ne disparaissait des cartes quapres des decouvertes bien authentiques." 

In The Tour of the French Traveller^ M. de la Boullaye le GouZy 
in Ireland^ in a.d. 1644^ similar experience*; are related : * When he 
was approaching the coast of Ireland, between Wicklow and Dublin, 
on the 14th of May, 1644, "certain vapours arose from the sea, 
which appeared like land two or three leagues off, with trees and cattle 

'' I 


' Ante, p. 1 25. 

' Purchas his Pilgrimes, 1625, vol. iii., p. 816. 

' Histoire de la Decouverte de rAmerijue. Paris, 1892, vol. i., p. 122. 

* The Tour of the French Traveller M. de la Boullaye le Gouz, in Ireland, in A.D. 1644., 
Edited by T. Crofton Croker (London, 1837), pp. 3 and 4. See also the original work, Les 
Voyages ef Observations du Sieur de la Boullaye-le-Gouz, gentilhomme Angevin. Paris, 410, 16^2, 
PP- 434-435- 


i ( 


134. . The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

thereon." He then narrates that he sought information aboi t this 
land from a Dutch pilot residing in Dublin, who replied : " You are 
not the first who has erred in the supposition of these things. The 
most expert navigators are often deceived by them. That which to us 
appears land is only a dense vapour, which cannot be raised higher in 
consequence of the season and the absence of the sun. Those apparent 
trees and animals are a part of that miasma, which colledts in so:ie 
places more than in others. When very young, I was on board a Dutch 
vessel off the coast of Greenland, in 61° of latitude, when we perceived 
an island of this sort. We sounded, without touching the bottom. 
Finding sufficient water, our Captain wished to approach nearer, but we 
were astonished that, all at once, it disappeared. Having a different 
direftion, we met the same appearance again. The Captain, desiring to 
know what it was, ordered them to turn half a mile backwards and 
forwards to observe it ; and, after having traversed many times without 
finding any real land, there arose so furious a tempest that we expedled 
to perish ; and, a calm afterwards coming on, we asked the Captain why 
he had surveyed this island. He told us that he had heard say that, 
near the Pole, there are many islands, some floating, some not, that are 
seen from a distance and are hard to be approached, which, they say, 
is owing to the witches who inhabit them and destroy by storms the 
vessels of those who obstinately seek to land upon themj that all 
he had heard reported and [had] read were but fables ; that he now 
knew that these floating islands proceeded from the vapours raised, and 
afterwards attracted by the planets, which vapours the wind dispersed 
on approaching nearer; and that tempests usually followed these 

The Clerk of the " California " writes ^ as follows : 
"The twenty-ninth [June, 1746] was a clear beautiful Day, with 
Sunshine and little Wind; in the Morning we had a Fog Bank 
E.N.E. much resembling Land, several of them arose in other Parts of 
the Horizon in the Afternoon. These Banks will stagger a good 
Judgment to discern in Places where Land may be expeded, whether 
they be Fog Banks or the real Land, especially as such Banks will often 
from he Sun's Refleftion appear white in Spots, resembling Snow on the 
Mountains so usual in these Parts. To distinguish whether it be a Fog 

' An Account of a Voyage for the Discovery of the North fVest Passage . . . in the years 
1746, 1747, l>y the Ship « California," Capt, Francis Smith. By the Cleric of the « California." 
London, 1748, vol. i., pp. 13-14. 

/ ,i^ 


The Island of Bufs and other Phantom Islands of the Atlantic. 135 

Bank, or Land, you carefully observe whether there is any Alteration of 
the Form, or Shifting of the Outlines, which, if there is, as it is not the 
Property of Land to Change the Form, you know it to be one oi these 

Dodor Scoresby also gives many instances of the deceptive appear- 
ances produced by atmospheric efFeds in the neighbourhood of Green- 
land. On one occasion, he saw Home's Foieland, which was easily 
recognizable by its peculiar form, from a distance of 160 miles, which 
it would have been impossible to see in an ordinary state of the atmo- 
sphere, even from a mast-head 100 feet high. The land was seen on 
several consecutive days, " and ^ on the 23rd [of July, 182 1] it remained 
visible for tweniy-four hours together. . . . In my journal of this day, I 
find I have observed, that my doubts about the reality of the land were 
now entirely removed, since, with a telescope, from the mast head, * hills, 
dells, patches of snow, and masses of naked rock, could be satisfadorily 
traced, during twenty-four hours successively.' This extraordinary 
effedl of refradlion, therefore, I conceive to be fully established." 

Later on, he says:** " On the 19th of June [1822] . . . the strong 
adtion of the sun's rays soon produced such an unequal density in the 
atmosphere, that some of the most extraordinary phenomena to which 
this circumstance gives rise vere exhibited. The land, to appearance, 
was suddenly brought fifteen or twenty miles nearer us ; its boldness and 
clearness, as seen from the deck, being superior to what its elevation and 
the distindlness had previously been, as seen from the mast-head." 

Elsewhere, he says : ^ " Hummocks of ice assumed the forms of 
castles, obelisks, and spires; and the land presented extraordinary 
features. In some places, the distant ice was so extremely irregular, 
and appeared so full of pinnacles, that it resembled a forest of naked 
trees : in others it had the charadler of an extensive city, crowded with 
churches, castles, and public edifices. The land was equally under the 
influence of this singular mirage." 

Again, he says:* "The 8th of July [1822] was a fine clear day, 
with brilliant sunshine. Some land to the northward being seen for 
the first time, I attempted to carry on my survey ; but the whole coast 
was found to be so disfigured by refi-a^ftion, that I could not recognize 
a single mountain or headland." 

' Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale Fishery. By W. Scoresby, Jun. Edinburgh, 
1823, pp. 106-108. 

• Ibid., p. 117. ' Ibid., pp. 96, 97. * Ibid., p. 143. 

; i 

t I'll 



n \ 




T/ie Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

In another work Dr. Scoresby writes : ^ " A cloud bearing some 
resemblance to the cumulus, sometimes appears near the horizon ; this, 
when partly intercepted by the horizon, has an appearance so very 
similar to that of the mountains of Spitzbergen, that it is often mistaken 
for land." 

To give another instance of the deceptive appearances in the 
northern latitudes, we may quote Captain William Barron:^ "This 
year [about 1850] was noted for the prevalence of dense fogs, which 
impeded our progress. Once we had a fog which lasted six days ; and, 
knowing we were some distance from the South lowland, '^n the west 
side, north of Cape Hooper, the officer whose watch it was on deck 
called down the cabin that the vessel was close to the land. The ship 
was immediately put about and the boat lowered. We could not 
account for being so near, as by our calculation we ought to be forty 
miles from it. Taking a gun with me, I pulled towards the supposed 
land, and found it to be a large sconce of heavy ice, covered with 
gravel, sand, and large stones, some of which would weigh upwards of 
a ton. This piece of ice must have been attached to the land under a 
perpendicular cliff. . . . This large piece of ice (or as it might be 
termed, a floating island) was about one mile in circumference and 
twenty-four feet thick." 

The French Admiral de Langle writes as follows: ^ " Before the nature 
of the great submarine valleys was understood, many Captains may have 
been misled by the varied aspeds which the sea assumes under different 
effedts of light, and alarmed by meeting banks of sea-weed, shoals of 
fish, wrecks, or floating ice. Who does not know how the different 
tints of the sea often take the appearance of sandbanks and deceive the 
vigilance of the most experienced ? One may explain the small 
number of uncharted rocks [vigies] of which the position might have 
been verified on the spot, by the timidity with which the navigator 
approaches objeds, the appearance of which is such as to make him 
doubtful of his own safety." 

Fridtjof Nansen, on his recent journey, found that the so-called 
Franz Josef Land is in fad: " cut up into innumerable small islands, 

' Account of the Ar5lic Regions. By William Scoresby,Jun., F.R.S.E. Edinburgh, 1820, 
8vo, vol. i., p. 419. 

^ Old Whaling "Days. Hull, 1895, pp. 122, 123. 

' Translated from Rapports sur les Hauts-fonds t/ les Vigies de lOcean Atlantique. entre 
f Europe el I'Amerique du Nord. Par le Contre-Amiral Vicomte de Langle. Extrait du Bulletin 
de la Soc. Geographique, Juillet, 1865. Paris, 1865. 


The Island of Bun and other Phantom Islands of the Atlantic. 137 

without any continuous and extensive mass of land"; and that Payer's 
Dove Glacier, the whole northern part of Wilczek Land, Braun Island, 
and Hoffman Island, and, perhaps, Freeden Island, had no existence. 
Nan sen writes:^ "I pondered for a long time over the question hov/ 
such a mistake could have crept into a map by such a man as Payer — 
an experienced topographer, whose maps, as a rule, bear the stamp of 
great accuracy and care, and a Polar traveller for whose ability I have 
always entertained a high resped. I examined his account of his 
voyage, and there I found that he expressly mentions that during the 
time he was coasting along this Dove Glacier he had a great deal of 
fog, which quite concealed the land ahead. But one day (it was April 
7th, 1874)5 he says \New Lands within the ArEiic Circle^ by J. Payer, 
vol. ii., p. 129]: * At this latitude (81° 23) it seemed as if Wilczek 
Land suddenly terminated, but when the sun scattered the driving 
mists we saw the glittering ranges of its enormous glaciers — the Dove 
Glaciers — shining down on us. Towards the North-east we could trace 
land trending to a Cape lying in the grey distance : Cape Buda-I'esth, 
as it was afterwards called. The pror.pedl thus opened to us of a vast 
glacier land conflided with the general impression we had formed of 
the resemblance between the newly discovered region and Spitzbergen ; 
for glaciers of such extraordinary magnitude presuppose the existence 
of a country stretching far into the interior.' 

" I [Nansenj have often thought over this description, and I cannot 
find in Payer's book any other information that throws light upon the 
mystery. Although, according to this, it would appear as if they had 
had clear weather that day, there must, nevertheless, have been fog- 
banks lying over Hvidtenland, uniting it with Wilczek Land to the 
south, and stretching northwards towards Crown-Prince RudolPs 
Land. The sun shining on these fog-banks must have glittered so that 
they were taken for glaciers along a continuous coast. 1 can ail the 
more easily understand this mistake as I was myself on the point of 
filing into it. As before related,'' if the weather had not cleaied on 
the evening of June nth, enabling us to discern the sound between 
Northbrook Island and Peter Head (Alexandra Land), we should have 
remained under the impression that we had here continuous land, and 
should have represented it as such in mapping this region." 

Other instances of the deception of experienced navigators by 

' Farthest North. Westminster, 1897, vol. ii., pp. 474-476. 
' Op. cit., pp. 442, 443. 






i I 


The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 


I I 

I I 

delusive appearances might br* cited, but enough have been given to 
show the great probability that such mistakes may account for some of 
the erroneous reports of the existence of land in the North Atlantic 
where no land was. But other sources of error existed. 

In the first place, before the middle of the eighteenth century,' 
navigators had no means of calculating the longitude, except by dead 
reckoning — ^a very rough and ready nietliod, which was liable to be 
rendered valueless by strong currents, or baffling winds. In the second 
place, they had no means of accurately ascertaining the direction in 
which they were proceeding ; for, though they had the compass, the 
variation was little urderstood, as, indeed, it is not fully even at the 
present day. This variation would, of course, be more marked and 
more puzzling in the higher latitudes. The me^hods of ascertaining 
the latitude, given fair weather, were fairly accurate; but it will be 
seen, on reference to any good nodern map of the North Atlantic, that 
liny navigator in those seas who found land between 55° and 70° north 
latitude, and had no means of determining his longituae, might be on 
the coasts of Labrador, Baffin's Land, Greenland, Iceland, Scotland, or 
Norway, without being able, at the time, to fix precisely his true 
j,osition, even if he had been able to keep, by the compass, a record 
of his apparent course. 

It has been suggested, and with great probability, that, just as 
Frobisher mistool; the southern part of Greenland for the fi(3:itious 
Island of Frislanrl, so Wiars and his companions might have mistaken 
some part of Greenland, or even of Iceland, for an island which, ac- 
cording to their honest belief, they thought they had just discovered. 

Then, on the hypothesis of submergence, it is known and admitted 
that the positions of Buss and Frisland lie within ph area of depression — 
that is, an area which, in recent geologic times, has had a tendency to 
sink to a lower level. But the subsidence is very gradual, and it is 
impossible that any sudden convulsion of nature, strong enough to 
cause this engulphment of Frishnd, an islanr^ ^' as large as Ir land, ' or 
of Buss, an island stated to have been seventy-five mile; long, should 
have occurred, since the year 1400. in the case of Frisland. or since 
the year 1675, in the case of Bviss, without being noticed and recorded 
in Europe. 

' In 1 7 14, the British Govern.Tient offered a reward for methods of determining longitude at 
sea. Harrison produced his first chronometer in 1735 ; his second, in 1739 ; his third, in 1749 ; 
and his fourth, whicn won him the reward, a rew years later. 

Tht Island of Buss and other Phantom Islands of the Atlantic. 139 

The case of the Island of Buss stands upon a somewhat different 
footing from that of Frisland ; for, though it may safely be concluded 
that no such island as Busr has existed in historic times, the reports of 
its existence may, very probably, have been founded on the statements 
either of those who really had seen land, but had mistaken their position 
at the time, or of those who had actually seen either ice-floes or fog- 
banks, and had mistaken them for firm land. 

Shepherd's account of Buss must, however, be considered to be as 
entirely fictitious and mendacious as the account of Frisland by the 
younger Zeno. 

Note. — For a full and concise summary of the subjcft of the Island of Buss, see 
Appendix B. On Busse Island, by \iT. Miller Christy, in Gosch's Danish Ariiic Expeditions, 
1 605- 1 620, Hakluyt Society, 1897 Vol. I., pp. 164-202. 


^ if 


(From D'Anania's Universal Fabrica del Mondo, Venice, 1582.) 






I \i 

li^ .i 

• vi 

1 ' 



(From Olaus Magnus's llistoria de Gentibus SepUnlrionalibus, i555> ?• 8.) 


Part III. 



,- ,-„. .11-- i-' --'t ' ^-» -e= 

P*' w 

» ) 




iVv ^y' 


it l' 


L ' S 


(From Torfoeus, Gronlandia Antiqua, Havnia;, 171 5.) 

1< II 


lOTWITHSTANDING all that has been written 
during the past three centuries, by Terra- 
Rossa, Zurla, Major, and others, in defence of 
Nicole Zeno, the younger, that writer has con- 
tinued before the public up to the present time 
in the position of a defendant ; and it is right 
that he should have done so. He published a 
book purporting to relate genuine history.^ illus- 
trated by a map claiming to present authentic 
cartography. Yet, within fifty years of the publication of these docu- 
ments, practical mariners had proved that the map was (to say the leas^) 
largely incorreft j while, later, it was discovered that both the book and 
map contained matter which was, partly, untrue and misleading ^w^hethcr 
intentionally or not), and partly inexplicable. 

We are now in a position to convidl Nicolo Zeno, the younger, on 
new and what appears to be clear evidence, of the perpetration of a 
contemptible literary fraud — one of the most successful and obnoxious 
on record. 

That a deception of the kind should have caused great perplexity, 
and should therefore have given rise to an enormous amount of dis- 
cussion, was inevitable. The fraud was sufficiently ingenious to deceive 
many, even amongst those who might be regarded as authorities. Thus 
Major, one of the most able and staunch of the defenders of the in- 
tegrity of Zeno the younger, speaks ^ of the account of the alleged 
travels in the North as "having been, in conjunction with the map which 
accompanies it, the cause of a vast amount of error and misconception, 

' Voyages of the Zeni, Preface, p. ii. 


\ W ttJ 





14,4 The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 

and the subjed of so much discredit as to have been justly condemned 
as *■ false ' and * a tissue of ii<Aion.' " He complains/ " that this unlucky 
document has met with almost as injurious treatment* from its advocates 
as from its enemies ; since, from failing to detect the real solution of 
that which perplexed them, even friendly critics have been compelled 
to resort to random speculations, which have only *made confusion 
worse confounded.' " 

Of all the critics of Zeno, whether favourable or adverse, there 
is not one (except, perhaps, the egregious Terra-Rossa) who does not 
recognize the difficulties of reconciling some of the statements in the 
text and some portions of the map with each other, or with known 
fads. Indeed, all the defences of Zeno resolve themselves into en- 
deavours to explain or corred his misstatements, and to suggest some- 
thing consistent with truth which he might have meant to convey — " to 
track the causes of such misconceptions and to free the document, if 
possible, from the discredit under which it laboured," as Major says.^ 

It is interesting to observe to what pitiful shifts the defenders of Zeno 
have been sometimes driven, and how they have unwittingly destroyed 
each other's work. Thus Zurla, in trying to explain the suppression for 
-, hundred and fifty years of the precious manuscript history of the 
Zeno travels and discoveries, cites ^ the well-known modesty and retiring 
nature of the Venetian nobility; while Major, again and again, strives* to 
account for the younger Zeno's inaccuracies by charging him with the use 
of " bombast," " grandiloquence," " ignorance," " misreading," " unin- 
telligent interference," " inflated language," or " exaggeration employed 
only for the glorification of the occasion." Surely this last expression 
is only a somewhat elaborate euphemism for mendacity ! Then, again, 
the identifications of the Zenian localities by the supporters of Zeno 
are often ridiculously inconsistent the one with the other. 

Those who have upheld the good faith of Nicolo Zeno have put 
forward the following principal arguments or excuses : 

I. That Nicolo Zeno, the younger, as a nobleman with a reputa- 
tion for learning and belonging to a highly distinguished family, had 
no temptation to glorify himself or his family by the concodion of a 
false story, and that no motive can be shown for an imposture by him. 

* Voyages of the Zeni, p. iii. " Ibid. Preface, p. ii. 
' Dissertazione, pp. 34 and 35, and D/ Marco Polo, vol. ii., p. 12. 

* Voyages of the Zeni, pp. xxii, xxvi, xxviii, xxx. 


Summary and Conclusions, 145 

2. That he has given evidence of his good faith by his frank acknow- 
ledgment of the difficulties under which his work was prepared and of his 
share in creating those difficulties by the mutilation of the family papers, 
and by his admission that, in writing the story and drawing the map, 
he had had to make the best he could out of very imperfeA materials, 

3. That such errors and misstatements as appear in his story were 
due to his having misreac' or misunderstood such parts of the family 
papers as he was able to recover when at last he realized their value. 

4. That the strange names which appear are the result of the un- 
familiarity of the travellers and the compiler (all of them Venetians) 
with the forms and sounds of Northern names and words. 

5. That, amongst much which is puzzling, there are certainly 
many things in the story that are true in themselves, though distorted 
or misapplied through want of knowledge on the part of the compiler. 

6. That the story was accepted at the time of its publication as 
genuine, and was so treated by many later v^riters. 

7. That the map was adopted by Mercator, Ortelius, and many 
other leading geographers, wh(j embodied its materials in their maps. 

8. That, even had Nicolo Zeno been so dishonourable as to put 
foi-ward as genuine a false story and map, there did not exist elsewhere 
in Europe, in his day, materials for the work which he produced, and 
that he must, therefore, have possessed some special sources, such as the 
family papers and the old map from which he alleged that he had 
derived his information. 

of a 

As to the first of these arguments, it may be answered that mendacity 
is, unfortunately, not confined to any particular class of society ; that a 
reputation for learning was as easily acquired on very slight grounds by a 
rich and powerful man in the sixteenth century, as has been the case in 
later times ; and that the motives for the perpetration of many un- 
doubted literary fi-auds and forgeries have been very slight, and, appar- 
ently, inadequate. 

Very little is known of the private charader of Nicolo Zeno the 
younger ; and, though it is just and fair to take into account, as pre- 
sumptive evidence in his favour, the improbability that a man of his 
position would have published his book and map with the deliberate 
intention of committing a fraud on the public, such evidence is not 
only not conclusive, but is liable to be upset by positive evidence and 
to be outweighed by greater probabilities on the other side. 


I < 


The Voyages of the Brother' Zeni, 



K"" * 

The circumstances conneded with the literary frauds perpetrated 
by Annius of Viterbo had several points in common with the case now 
under consideration. His Commentaria super Diversorum AuEiorum^ 
first published in Rome in 14.98, contained pretended works of Manetho, 
Berosus, and others, which he alleged were copied from fragments of 
manuscripts, some of which he had found at Mantua, and others of 
which he had obtained from Arme.iia. The genuineness of the work 
was quickly suspeAed, but the high rank which Annius held at the 
Roman Court, and his previously irreproachable charafter, induced 
many to believe in his assertions. Some pronounced the whole of the 
fragments to be forgeries ; others took the oppo-i.e view and obstinately 
contended for their authenticity ; a third party declared that, though 
the fragments were forgeries, Annius had published them in good faith, 
and that his credulity had been imposed upon ; while a fourth opinion 
was that the materials were partly authentic, but that their editor had 
introduced errors through trying to give an undue importance to his 
work. So far the circumstances are nearly parallel with those surround- 
ing the work of Nicolo Zeno. The book of Annius is now thoroughly 
discredited, but where was his motive for concodting it? There is no 
apparent motive, unless it be a love of notoriety and mystery. 

The names of Lauder, Chatterton, and Ireland all suggest literary 
frauds founded upon pretended original documents. 

William Lauder published in 1751 his Essay on Milton s Use and 
Imitation of the Moderns in his " Paradise Lost" in which he charged 
Milton with plagiarizing Grotius and others ; and, in order to make out 
his case, interpolated passages of his own in his quotations from Grotius' 
Adamus Exsul^ and other works. The fraud was immediately detected 
by Bishop Douglas, who exposed it in his Vindication of Milton from 
Lauder s Charge of Plagiarism^ 1751. Lauder afterwards made a 
written confession, which was dilated by Dr. Johnson. 

Thomas Chatterton, in 1 768, when only sixteen, published his De- 
scription of the Friars passing over the Old Bridge^ and, soon after, the 
Rowley PoemSy which he professed to have derived from ancient manu- 
scripts found in the muniment room of St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, of 
which church his father had formerly been sexton. The fraud was, 
however, after achieving a certain measure of success, soon detected 
and exposed. Chatterton died in 1770. 

William Henry Ireland, born in 177; , forged various legal docu- 
ments under the seal of Shakespeare, and some dramatic works which he 

Summary and Conclusions. 147 

pretended to have found at Stratford-on-Avon. One of these dramas, 
Vortigern^ was purchased by Sheridan and performed at Drury Lane 
Theatre before the fraud was discovered. Ireland afterwards published, in 
1805, a shan.eless an 1 impenitent written confession. He died in 1835. 

Fidlitious travels have been, perhaps, the most plentiful subjeds of 
literary impostures, so much so that " travellers' tales " have become 
proverbially the objecSs of suspicion. 

In some cases, the reports of travellers have been unjustly suspefted. 
Thus many of Tavenuer's allegations * were for a long time considered 
to be fiditious, but were afterwards proved to be true. For many years, 
some of James Bruce's statements^ were generally disbelieved, and it 
was not until the expedition to Abyssinia, in 1868, that the strangest 
of them were confirmed. P 1 Chaillu suffered as Bruce did.^ His 
fads were openly disputed, and he was given the lie in the public 
ledture room ; but subsequent investigations confirmed his statements 
and established his truthfulness. 

The late Dr. Robert Brown, referring to Leo Africanus, writes*: 
" If we find that he is worthy of general confidence on matters which 
can be checked, it is justifiable to assume that he is equally to be trusted 
when his statements cannot be verified." 

This is a reasonable proposition, but is not the converse equally 
true ? What conclusion can be come to as to those travellers' tales which 
subsequent investigations prove to be mainly false, as those of Benjamin 
of Tudela,® Sir John Mandeville,* Psalmanazaar,' Maldonado,^ De Fuca,* 

' Les six Voyages de "Jean Baptiste Tavernier. Paris, 1676, a vols., 4to. Translation by 
Dr. V. Ball. London and New York, 1889, 2 vols. Svo. 

' Travels to discover the Source of the Nile, 1768 1 773, by James Bruce of Kinnaird, F.R.S. 
5 vols. 4to. London, 1790. 

* Adventures in Equatorial Africa, by Paul B. du Chaillu. London, i86i. Svo. 

* The History and Description of Africa, written by Leo Africanus, translated into English 
by John Pory, and edited by Dr. Robert Brown. Hakluyt Society, 1896. 

' Itinerarium, published in many editions and various languages. His travels were alleged 
to have taken place between 1 160 and 1 173. 

° The Book of John Maundevile, Knight of Ingelonde. [Brit. Mus. Bib. Reg, 17 cxxxviii.] 
Printed in many editions and several languages. The date of his alleged travels was between 
1322 and 1356. 

' An 'iistorical and Geographical Description of Formosa. London, 1704; and Memoirs of 
• * • • commonly known by the name of George Psalmanazar . . . written by himself. London, 


" Amoretti, Viaggio dal Mare Atiantico al Pacifico per la via del Nordovest, etc. Milan, 

1 8 1 1 . Barrow's Chronological History of Voyages into the Arilic Regions. London, 1 8 1 8, p. 1 25, 

and Appendix II. Burney, Colleiiion of Voyages, vol. v., p. 165. 

° Michael Lok in Purchas his Pilgrimes, vol. iii., p. 849. Burney, Colleiiion of Voyages, 

vol. ii., p. no. 



iCT""'"'*'"n"ITOiiii<n ''«! r|-l •■ 


The Voyages of the Brothers Zeni. 




and Nicolo Zeno ? There can be but one which is reasonable, namely, 
that the demonstrable falsehoods they contain taint the whole ' 'orks 
of the authors, and justify the conclusion that they are altogether 
unreliable from cover to cover — -fahus in uno, falsus in omnibus. In 
ordinary life, a man deteded in a lie never fully regains credit : and a 
literary lie is the worst of lies, as it is generally more far-reaching and 
long-enduring than a verbal falsehood. 

Other writers, such as Bernard O'Reilly ^ come into a less objeftion- 
able, but still not admirable category. Theii -^counts of the countries 
described by them may have been in the uiain corredt, but they are dis- 
credited by the authors' fraudulent claims to have been themselves the 
a6lual travellers and observers; the truth being that they were only 
plagiarists, or, at the best, compilers from the works or reports of others. 

As a<^ual exploration of the world's surface has extended, it has 
become increasingly difficult to use travels as the foundation for literary 
impostures; but, even so lately as 1875, a fid:itious work on New 
Guinea^ achieved some success. As it contained marvellous accounts 
of things huge and new, and was brightly and cleverly written, it would 
probably have longer continued to be seriously accepted, had it not 
happened that H.M.S. " Basilisk " was exploring that island at the time. 
On her return, the imposture was exposed, and the book has never been 
defended against Captain Moresby's destrudlive criticism.^ 

Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (171 9), though never intended ';o deceive, 
was, nevertheless, accepted for some years as a genuine accou 1 of the 
a«3:ual adventures of a real man. Dean Swift's Gullivers Travels (1726) 
and Raspe's Travels oj" Baron Munchausen (j''85) were simply vehicles 
for satire. Imaginary travels have also been constantly and legitimately 
used as the foundations for stirring, and even instrudive, romances. 

Most fiftitious works of travel purport to describe the adventures 
and observations of the authors themselves. Zeno is singular in this 
resped: : he only pretends to describe the travels of other persons ; but 
he adopts the favourit° device of other literary impostors, aid professes 
to found h\ book upon fragments of ancient documents marvellously 
rescued from oblivion. 

As to the second argument in favour of Zeno (viz., that his frank 

' Greenland, the Adjacent Seas, and the North- West Passage. London, 1818. 

- IVanderings in New Guinea, by Captain J. A. Lawson. London, 1875. 

" Discoveries in New Guinea, by Captain John Moresby. London, 1876, pp. 321-327. 


Summary and Conclusions. 149 

admissions as to the defedive sources of his narrative give evidence of 
his good faith) : this is a fair view to take on one side. But, on the other 
hand, it m?y be contended, with equal reason and justice, that this 
apparent candour i. evidence of the caution and astuteness of a dishonest 
compiler. Zeno must surely have foreseen that, sooner or later, the 
flaws in his story would be discovered, and that explanations would be 
required. His admissions, in that case, would serve to shield him from 
serious blame and his memory from shame, by suggesting that, as his 
sources of information were defedlive or misleading, any errors or 
misstatements were not altogether his fault. 

It will be well in this connexion to distinguish between the different 
component parts of the narrative, and to estimate their several values as 
evidence, accepting, fm this purpose, Zeno's own account of them. 

First, there are the letters of Nicolo Zeno, the knight and traveller, 
to his brother Antonio, in Venice. 

Secondly, the letters of Antonio to his brother Carlo, which also 
contain mention of the alleged Book by Antonio, giving accounts of 
the countries, the monstrous fishes, the customs and laws of Frisland, 
Island, Estliind, the Kingdom of Norway, Estotiland, and Drogeo, and 
the life of Nicolo Zeno, the traveller, and the separate Life and adts of 
Zichmni, the Prince of Immortal Memory, which works Nicolo, the 
younger, asserts that he destroyed, and which are, certainly, not forth- 

Thirdly, there is t'le story told by the fisherman of Frisland to 
Zichmni and Antonio Zenoj and, 

Fourthly, the preliminary remarks and conneding links supplied 
by the compiler Nicolo Zeno, t!ie younger. 

Of these, the letters included under the first two heads would 
furnish good documentary evidence, were it not for the fadls that the 
original letters are not in e^i'stence j that no person has ever seen, or 
even been said to have seen, those originals; and that we have only the 
unsupported statement of Nicolo Zeno to show that they ever existed. 
Even if his statement be accepted, the story which he puts forward is, 
avowedly, compiled from the remaining fragments of those mutilated 
letters (the books having been utterly lost), colleded many years after 
the letters themselves had been torn in pieces. These considerations 
reduce to a minimum the value of the evidence afforded by those parts 
of the narrative drawn from the letters, 

The story of the Frisland fisherman, which comes to us through 





> lis 

^i It 


i«fl|jfeHHl« .l»fi!WSM«»« 


1 1, 



I ; 


150 The Voyages of the Brothers Ztni. 

Antonio Zeno's letters, not only shares the weakness of the letters 
themselves as evidence, but is open to the further objedions that, even 
had the letters been genuine, the story was itself mere hearsay; and that 
the truth of it failed, according to Antonio's own account, to stand the 
test of experiment. 

The portions of the narrative supplied by Nicolo Zeno,the younger, 
consist, in part, of family history (in which he would not be likely to go 
far astray), and, in part, of his own personal history so far as it afFeds 
the story of the letters, of Antonio's lost book, and of the rotten old 
map. This is diredt evidence, and is the best in kind offered by Nicolo 
Zeno, the younger ; but even this is tainf ^d, as its value depends upon 
his credibility; and, as in that other part of his story relating to Icaria, 
the compiler has undoubtedly put forward fidion as fadt, and his veracity 
is, consequently, not to be relied upon. 

The best of the evidence before us is, therefore, of that very incon- 
clusive kind which requires strong corroboration from independent and 
untainted sources before it can be credited. Not only is it without any 
such corroboration, but the story is, in many points, contradided by 
all human knowledge and experience, and is at variance with fads now 
well established. 

How strange it is, moreover, that those valuable documents of the 
Zeno family should have lain unnoticed for 150 years or so! Some 
(and th jse the most important) were, according to the compiler, addressed 
to the great Carlo Zeno, whose descendants were living as late as 1653. 
How, then, did the books, the letters, and the map come to be in the 
possession, and at the mercy, of the boy Nicolo, a descendant of An- 
tonio, in the third or fourth decade of the sixteenth century ? His 
father Catarino only died in 1557, and, if any one in Antonio's line 
had possessed them it would have been the father, not the son. And 
what, it may be asked, suddenly informed Nicolo of the value of the 
documents ? May it not have been the discovery of America and the 
world-wide and increasing interest excited by accounts of it ? 

It is to be noted that Nicolo Zeno's book was published in the year 
following his father's death. Why was it not published before ? If 
t^e date of Barbaro's Discendenze Patrizie [viz.^ 1536), is corred, the 
contents of the allecred documents must have been known then. Nicolo 
was then twenty-one years of age. Why should he have delayed twenty- 
two years more before giving to the public the story of his ancestors' 
travels, so curious and valuable — if true? It seems probable that it 


Summary and Conclusions. 1 5 1 

was only on the death of his father that he felt himself fully at liberty, 
in conjundlion with his able coadjutor, the skilful wood-engraver and 
publisher Marcolini, to carry out the idea of concoding a book which 
should refledl credit upon the Zeno family and upon the Stati of 
Venice, and at the same time detrad: from the fame of Columbus, a 
native of the rival state of Genoa. The dates of Catarino Zeno's death, 
and of the publication of his son's book, are certainly significant. 

The third excuse (i;/2r., that the errors and misstatements of the 
compiler were due to his misreading or misunderstanding of the family 
documents), though it may proted him to some extent, does not tend 
to confirm his alleged reputation for learning. But the fad that it has 
been put forward on his behalf proves how wisely provident was his 
" candour " in depreciating his own work, and how well it has served, 
not only to disarm his opponents, but to bring him adherents. 

The fourth excuse {viz.^ that Venetians would be unfamiliar with 
the forms and soimds of Northern M'ords, and that the strange Zenian 
names are the result of a tempts by Venetians to write down such 
words) may contain a certa n amount of truth; but, in attempting to 
give pradical illustrations of its working Major has certainly overstepped 
the bounds of probability. Such a transmutation as that, for example, 
from Norderdahl to Bondendon ^ puts too great a tax on the imagination 
of most healthy-minded mortals. It must be remembered also that 
Nicolo and Antonio Zeno, the travellers, were not mere clowns, b»."^ 
gentlemen educated at least so well as to be able to write, and that they 
were supposed to be in constant and intimate personal communication 
with their alleged employer. One of them (Antonio) was with the 
strangely-named Zichmni for fourteen years, and is alleged to have 
written his life; yet Major, who, following Forster, believed Zichmni 
to be identical with Henry Sinclair, is quite content with the theory 
that his Captain -general, right hand man and biographer, could get no 
closer to the proper spelling of " Sinclair " than " Zichmni " ! 

The fifth argument [viz.^ that there is much distorted truth in the 
narrative) is undeniably true ; but it is quite worthless as a defence of 
Zeno, if it can be shown, as has been done, whence the true portions 
have been derived, and that they have been misapplied in such a way 

' Major, Voyages of the Brothers Zeiii, p. xvi. 


> ill 

152 The Voyages of Jie Brothers Zeni. 

that, in the narrative, they no longer represent the truth. Professor 
Garfarel, a staunch adherent of Zeno, has said : ' 

On a encore pretendu que ce voyage fut invent'e par un Vinetien 
jaloux de Genes^ et desireux de rabaisser la gloire du genois Colomb. 
On n^y trouve pourtant aucune recrimination^ ni meme aucune allusion 
contre Colomb. Les pays decrits par Nicolo et Antonio Zeno ne pre~ 
sentent aucune analogic avec les descriptions du navigateur genois. 
Rien pourta"t neut .'te ^lus facile, si la revelation eut ite j^ octjyhe et 
di->'i/^r nni i i7c, ■. /.■ ^ut dy intr duire i ; description tres reconnaisable 
par bxemple d'Hitpty-'Qla^ do Cuba ou de toute autre Antille. Or rien 
dans la re. :ti.n vf ri isemble^ de pres ou de loin^ aux terres signalers 
par Colomb. L, invent <■■'' de la relation^ quel quil soit^ aurait Hone 
bier mal execute son dessein si reellement il avait cherche a decrier 
Colombo et voulu le presenter comme le plagiaire des Zeni. 

This, however, is precisely what Zeno has done, though GafFarel 
shows clearly in the foregoing passage that he had not discovered that 


The sixth and seventh arguments {vi%.^ that the story and map were 
accepted as genuine by many writers and cartographers of Zeno's own 
and later times, and embodied by them in their books and maps), prove 
nothing except that such writers and geographers were not sufficiently 
cautious, and were too eager to put new matter into their books and 
upon their maps without testing its authenticity. It is to be noted, in 
connedlion with this, that the geographers to whose judgment Terra- 
Rossa and Zurla app al, show upon their maps, almost without excep- 
tion, the huge Southern Continent, covering a sixth part of the surface 
of the globe, which, as is now well known, never existed in historic 
times — if ever. There was, perhaps, some excuse for Ruscelli, Mole- 
tius, Mercator, and Ortelius, and other geographers of the second half 
of the sixteenth century, for accepting as genuine the narrative and 
map on the faith of a man of Nicolo Zeno's position ; indeed, it would 
have been difficult, if not impossible, for them at once to test his 
accuracy. It may be added that an adverse critic of a Member of the 
Council of Ten, in Venice, in the middle of the sixteenth century, 
would have been a remarkably bold, not to say foolhardy, man. There 
was less excuse for Terra-Rossa at the end of the seventeenth cencury, 
and scarcely any for Zurla and his successors in the nineteenth century, 

* Gaffarel, Histoire de la Decouverte de FAmerique. Paris, 1892, vol. i-i P- 373. 


Summary and Conclusions. 153 

unless some indulgence may be allowed to the Venetians among their 
number, on the ground of patriotic feeling and the natural bias a*^ ing 
fron it. 

The eighth i gument [viz.., that Nicolo Zeno must have had me 
genuine materials, otherwise unknown, upon which to found his history 
and geography) would be well-nigh unanswerable could it be shown to 
oe founded on faft; but, as appears above, there adually existed in 
Venice, early in the sixteenth century, books and maps, easily accessible 
to any man with a fev/ ducats in his pocket, from which Nicolo Zeno 
could have derived all the more prominent portions of both text and 
map. These materials have been pointed out, and the pages of the books, 
and the titles of the maps in which they ^ "1 be found, given above. 

As to the sources of Zeno's text, it hae . ec hown that the pseudo- 
American portions are parts of originr ace its of the voyages of 
Columbus, Vespucci and others, or of • n> drawn diredly from those 
accounts; and, as to the northern portit • , that they are from Olaus 
Magnus and other published books r-^lating to the Northern Regions, 
all of them earlier in date than 1558. TK^se works have not generally 
been copied exadlly by Nicolo Zeno in his Annals ; but their influence 
upon his own narrative is quite unmistakable, and even the wording of 
certain passages which he has taken from them may be recognized in 
places. The materials are drr.wn from many sources, and are cun- 
ningly interwoven so as to form the plausible and specious story 
which is embodied in the Annals. The work has, perhaps, deserved 
some portion of the success which it has achieved on account of its 
ingenuity alone. 

As to the sources of the " Carta da Navegar," they are to be found 
in at least eleven maps of different dates, ranging between 1457 and 
1558, and of Italian, Catalan, Scandinavian (published in Venice), 
German and Flemish origin. These maps are of such various forms 
and of such difTerenf charadfers that it is impossible that they could 
all have been copied rrom any one map. Several of them also contain 
names corredly and intelligibly formed and written, which, when they 
appear on the Zeno map, are so distorted and misspelt that they repre- 
sent no recognizable localities. Besides this, the alleged "Carta da 
Navegar" of Nicolo and Antonio Zeno, though presented as dating 
from the year 1380, was utterly unknown throughout the whole of 
the fifteenth century, and during the sixteenth century, until 1558. 

I 5 1 


'( I i. 


154 The Voyages of the Brothers Zen't. 

The original map was not produced to the world even then, and was 
only made known to the public in the form of a woodcut map repre- 
senting an alleged amended copy. The Zenian " Carta da Navegar " 
could not, therefore, have been the original of the other maps men- 
tioned, nor even have had a common origin with them, but they, or 
similar early maps, must have been the originals from which the Zenian 
map was compiled. In the face of these fadts, this great argument of 
Humboldt,' so confidently quoted by Major '': En examinent avec im- 
partialite la relation des Zeni^ on y trouve de la candeur et des de- 
scriptions detaillees d'ohjets dont rien en Europe ne pouvait leur avoir 
donne fidee^ fills tb the ground. It is by far the strongest argument 
ever put forward in favour of Zcno, the younger j but it did not fully 
convince Humboldt himself, for he goes on to say, further on," Mais 
le silence de Era Mauro, geographc vcnitien d'une immense erudition^ 
et I' ignorance parfaite du nom de la Frislande dans les Sagas et les 
annales de I'lslande et de la Norvege sont deux circonstances bien diffi- 
ciles a expliquer. 

It may also be repeated that the alleged Northern Voyages of the 
brothers Zeni are wholly unknown except through the Antials of 
Nicolo Zeno, the younger, either direftiy (from that book itself) or, 
more oltcn, indired:lv through the reprint in the colledion of voyages, 
which is inaccurately attributed to Ramusio. No independent allusion 
to the Zeno voyages is known otherwise to occur in any prior literary 
or historical production, unless in Barbaro's manuscript Discendenze 
Patrizie^ for which Nicolo Zeno may easily have supplied the material 
for the passage relating to Antonio Zeno, either at the assigned, but 
doubtful, date, 1536, or later. 

Moreover, it is nowhere stated, either by Nicolo Zeno himself or 
by any other writer, that the alleged original manuscripts destroyed 
by Nicolo Zeno, or their fragments (marvellously collected years after 
their mutilation) have ever been seen by any eyes but those of the 
compiler of the Annals. 

It also seems extraordinary that, after the compiler had realized the 
extreme value of these fragments, he should not have been careful to 
preserve such precious pieces justijicatives. 

Another suspicious feature in the Zenian narrative is the omission of 
all personal names except those of " Zichmni " and of members of the 

' Examen Critique, I'om. II., p. 122. 
" Examen Critique, Tom. II., p. 124. 

" Voyages of the Zeni, p. ix. 

n of 

Summary and Conclusions. 155 

Zcno family, and of all dates, except the unimportant " 1200 " and the 
important " 1380," which latter has been proved by Zurla (who assumed 
the truth of the story and is one of the younger Zeno's principal 
supporters) to be wrong by at least ten years. 

As to the map, we have shown the sources of every detail, except 
a few of the names in Greenland and Frislanda and the wonderful 
monastery of St. Thomas in Greenland (of the former existence of 
which there is no independent evidence whatever). All the positive 
evidence which we now possess as to the east coast of Greenland 
points to the conclusion that no such monastery as that described by 
Zeno, the younger, can have ever existed anywhere near the place 
assigned to it by the Zeno narrative or map.' The very form of the 
name given on the map, viz.., S. Tomas ZenoUuni^ is suggestive of 
fidion ; for the compiler has given to the first two syllables of the 
Latin c<enobium (Gr. Ko/yojS^ov) the form of his own family name. 
There is no authority whatever for such a transmutation. 

As to the south-westerly extension of Greenland and the com- 
paratively corredl mapping of Denmark, which have been so persistently 
claimed as original features of the Zeno map, it has been shown, without 
a shadow of a doubt, Lliat they have been derived from earlier maps. 

In view of Nicolo Zeno's own statement of the manner in which 
his w ork was compiled, it is somewhat remarkable, notwithstanding the 
ingenuity of the »:omposition, that it should have been so long accepted 
as a genuine account of travels in the fourteenth century. It might 
have been expeded that, after the more glaring falsehoods had been 
detedted, the v/ork would have been discredited, and read only for 
amusement, instead of being regarded as one from which useful geo- 
graphical and historical information might be derived. Zeno has had 
far more than fair-play in this resped. Many notable names have 
appeared among those of his defenders ; though, no doubt, some of 
these latter have been led to treat his work as genuine, because it seemed 
to support their own theories, now broken down, as to the relative 
situations of the ancient Eastern and Western Scandinavian colonies in 
Greenland. But it must be remembered that there is scarcely any limit 
to the gullibility of the public, as evidenced in our own times by the fad 
that, notwithstanding frequent public exposures, the " Spanirh prisoner " 
fraud and the " confidence trick " still find numbers of ready dupes. 

• The place assigned is, in faft, if we follow Zeno's latitudes and longitudes, in the middk 
of the sea. 


j ( 






The Voyagei of the Brothers Zeni. 

11 i 

:' I 

For the reasons adduced in the foregoing pages, and from the 
evidence embodied in the appendices, it may fairly be concKided : 

1. That, though Nicol6 and Antonio Zeno may have sailed into 
the North Sea, and may even have visited the Continental Frislandn, 
Frisia, or Friesiand, and may have written letters to Venice during 
their travels, Nicol6 Zeno, the younger, certainly did not compile his 
narrative from any such letters, but from the published works of Bor- 
done, Olaus Magnus, and other authors indicated above. 

2. That the two accounts of Greenland attributed to Nicol6 and 
Antonio Zeno arc untrue i^s applied to that country, and could not 
have been honestly written by any persons who had visited it. 

3. That there is no evidence that Antonio Zeno ever visited any 
part of America, or any of its islands, as claimed by Marco Barbaro, 
Terra-Rossa, Zurla, Beauvois, and others ; nor, indeed, do the Annals 
themselves state that he did so. 

4. That there is no evidence to show that either Christopher 
Columbus or Juan de la Cosa ever heard of '* Frislanda." 

5. That, in fadl, no such island as Zeno's Frislanda ever existed, 
his map of it having been compounded from earlier maps of Iceland 
and the Faroes. 

6. That Zichmni, if such a man ever existed, was certainly not 
identical with Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney. 

7. That the story that the " Carta da Nr.vegar " was copied from an 
old map found in the archives of the Zeno family is a pure fiction ; and 
that it was, in fadl, concodlcd from several maps, of various dates and 
nationalities, and not from any one map. 

8. That a sufficient motive for the compilation of Zeno's story and 
map is to be found in a desire to conneft, even indiredly, the voyages 
of his ancestors with a discovery of America earlier than that by 
Columbus, in order to gratify the compiler's family pride and his own 
personal vanity, and to pander to that Venetian jealousy of other 
maritime nations (especially of the Genoese) which was so strong 
in the early days of the decadence of the great Venetian Republic, and 
which, later on, appeared so forcibly in the works of Terra-Rossa, 
Zurla, and other Venetian writers. 

9. That however harmless may have been the original motive of 
Nicolo Zeno, the younger, for the cor^ipilation of the narrative and 
map, it ceased to be innocent when he re-edited his map for publica- 


m.'- t 

) „. 

Summary and Conclusions. 157 

tion in Riiscclli's edition of Ptolemy (i 561), whose work was, in Zcno's 
time, accepted as the greatest authority on geography. 

10. That Zeno's work has been one of the most ingenious, most 
successful, and most enduring literary impostures which has ever gulled 
a confiding public. 

We may fitly conclude our indictment by quoting the trade motto 
of Francisco Marcolini, the printer of Zeno's book, which appears both 
at the beginning and the end of that book : 

" Veritas Filia Temporis." 







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[A facsimile of Lok's map, one of the two which illustrate Hakluyt's work, is given in 
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verso of folio 44 of the Commentarii. 

[The additions arc principally derived from the travels of Catcrino Zeno in Persia, in the 
earlier part of the Commentarii, etc.-, Ramusio's Nm>igatioHi et Viaggi, vol. ii. (ed. .574), pp 
65. etc. ; Zurla's Bissertazioni, etc., 1808, cap. a, and Dei Viaggi, etc., di N. et A. Zeni in Di 
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Table comparing the 150 names upon Zcno's "Carta da Navegar" 
of 1558 (see Plate XI.), with corresponding names on the following 

earlier or contemporary maps : 

The Andrea Bianco map, 1448. (Onaania's photograph.) 

The I-ra Mauro map. .457-«459- (Baron rfeath's full-s zed photoRraph ) See Plate ' 
The Zamo,sk. map. .467. (Nordcn,kjold'a F-«m//, ^,/... ^u^^eTe^) l^e plate'll 

he Bibhoteca^ (Nordenskjold's BiJrag till Nordens Aldst'a 
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Uirec maps are referred to in the followina 
Table as " Florence map No. i," «« Florence 
map No. a," and " Florence map No. i " 
respe«ftively. "" 

See Fig. 7, 



fifteenth century map in the Biblioteca 
Nazionale, Florence. 

5. Fifteenth century map in the Biblioteca 

Laurenziana, Florence. 

6. Fiftcnth century map in the Biblioteca 
n p.^^""""^'""". F'°«n«. , respectively. 

7. Fifteenth century Catalan map. (Nordenskjold's iJiVr^ etc Plate V) 

9. The Olaus Magnus map, 1539. Sec Plate IV. " 
.0. Map by Mattheus Prunes. 1553. See Fig. 8. p. 112, supra 
1 1 . Mercator's " Europa," 1 5 54. See Plate Vll ^ 

Tramezim's map {Lafreri Atlas), 1558. See Plate VIII. 
Map of Fnsland {Lafreri Atlas), undated.* See Plate IX 
Map of Estiand {Lafreri Atlas), undated.* See Plate X 
Septentrionalium Partium Nova Tabula in Riwelli*. Pt^i.^.. \t ■ ^ ^ . 

also in Moletius's /'/«/.«»v, Venice , cLT^bxv^A^^^ iffii. Tab. xxxv. ; 

seriem numerorum. See piate XII. ^ ' ' ^'''^"""'" « ^''v.., Secundum 




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Table showing identifications of Zenian localities, by 
various authors, viz. : 

1784-86. FoRSTER, John Reinhold, Hist, of Voyages and Discoveries in the North. 
1784. BuACHE, Memoire sur I' Isle Frislandt in LHist. de l' Academie des Sciences. 
1794. Eggers, H. p. von, Uever die fVahre lage des alien Csf',' lands and Prusskrift oni 
Gronlands Osterbygds sande Beliggenhed. 
ZuRLA, Placido, // Mappamondo di Fra Mauro. 

» » Dissertazione intorno ai viaggi, etc., de N. e A. Zeno. 

» » The same, with slight alterations, in his Bi Marco Polo, vol. ii. 

Walckenaer, Baron, Letter to Dezos de la Roquette, in Michaud's Biorraphie Uni- 

verselle. Article «'N. et A. Zeno," vol. lii. 
Bredsdhrff, J. H., Brodrene Zeno's Reiser, in Gronlands Historiske Mindesmarker. 
Lelewe.., Joachim, Geographic du Moyen Age. 
1855. Erizzo, Miniscalchi, Scoperte Artiche. 
1873. Major, R. H., Voyages of the Venetian Brothers Nicoli and Antonio Zeno, etc. 

1878. Krarup, Retse til Norden al Tolknungs Forsog and Om Zeniernes Reise til Norden 

1879. iRMiNGER, Admiral, Zeno's Frisland is Iceland and not the Faroes, in Journ. Roy Gcof 

6'of., vol. xlix. ■' 6- 

1883. Steenstrup, Japetus, Zeniernes Reiser i Norden, in Arboger for Nord Oldkindighed. 
'^^''■' ^ " . ^ " ^^ Voyages des Frires Zeni dans le Nord, in Compte Rendu du 

Congres des Americanistes, Copenhagen, 1884. 




















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Appendix V. — continued. 



Ztm Map. 

1784. 7. R. firittr. 


FmSLAND ,.. 


Porlanda ... 


C. CunaU ... 


Sudcro Colfo 

{Grimsey, or per- ) 
haps Enkhuysen / 

in the Orkneys 

The Faroes 

1784. Buadt. 




C. Dcria 



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j Frisland ) 
1 [town] / 

89 I Strcmc 

go I Godmec 
91 Spirigc 


93 Anieses 

94 Neomc 

95 Podanda 



Pondontown in Skye 

Stromoc (Faroes) 

( Suderoc, or | 
' Surcona, i.e., the ;- 
( Western Isles ) 

1 794- Eggtri. 

The Faroes 

Munk ou Lc Moine 

Sound between I 
Stromoe and Sandoe ) 


{Sound between I 
Stromoc and Waagoc | 


I. Stachen 


( Group of four 


islands, Norderoe 

Gosti Kladi 





1 8—. Walckinair. 

Wcstmanna Is. , 

The Faroes 


Part of Syderoc 



(Veni) Famian.. 

Sudero fiord 

Sands in Sandoe 

Part of Suderoc 


Frodl hoddi 
Skopunnarvig .. 

\Near Kirkeboe,( 
/ Thorshavn \ 


C. Beari 





Strait in Bordoc 


A rock 


( A place in | 

I Osteroc / 

Strait Toftir .., 

Scor Dimon 

Strait Skaalcvig.. 

I. Suderey 

Strait of Nes ... 

Mainland Shotlands. 

1845. Brididtrff. 

I Gorsoe, near | 
' the Romsdal, j- 
( Norway ) 



N.E, part of Ireland 
,E. part of Ireland 


Bay of Galloway 

f Mouth of the ) 
I Shannon / 



Brandon in Kerry. 

I Belfast or 
( Downpatrick 

On N.E. part of 1 
Ireland I 


Qudnnafjcld ... 
(Vera) Beiniivera 

SuderO fjord ... 


SSrvaag on VaagS 




( Vestm:i. - \ 

I havr. . (;ord ) 

(?) Funding dal I 

Vestmanhavn / 














(Piglu) FuglO ... 
(Isbini) SvinO ... 


f [Doff Nes] 1 
( Tofte og Nais / 


Sur aa Vuig 

Sudero, Qvalbo 

Aa Ncsi 




















Fair Isle 




1. f 



















j^ppendix V, — continued. 


18;!. Lihwil. 



■ 8;;. Erizze. 

1 87 J. Major, 






















The Firoei 

Oravujik (?) 
Kvilbji (Biy) 
W. ofWitterne* 

Sudero Sund 


Troll-hoddi I. ... 
Koltcr I. 

Washes Vtagoc ... 

{Town on the I 
Island Vaagoe j 
I Mujlingur, S. I 
( point of Stromoc ) 


iA fiord near 1 
MikU-dal / 



Deble in Bordoe .., 


{lie Kunoj with 
its town Kuni 

Rutcwik (?) 

A town in Ostroe... 

Tofter in Ostroe ... 

( Stromoc, cspcci- 1 
I ally Thorshavn / 



Mainland, Orkneys 

{Kirkwall, Main 
land Orkneys 

{Groisey, I 
Orkneys / 

The Faroes 
Pentland (?) 

Sudero fjord 

f Sandsbugt in ) 
i Sandoe j 

Lille Dimon ... 

{Store Dimon ) 
and Skuoe | 


1879. IrmingirA 

1884. Sltimlrup. 


I. Swona (.*) ... 






I Budensland 

■; Havnefii 
I Hvalfiord 


Brede Bugt 








Fair Isle 



Corruption of Wrislanda •• Frislandi • 
Resland « IsUnda. Iceland. 

land I 
ord > 
rd S 

Iceland ... 

Westmanna Isles 

Orebakke on the S. ... 

Conical hill on Reykianei (Italian •> cuncalc) 

Suderc Tiefe in continental Friesland 

Steinsolt in Sudere Tiefe 

Bjarnarhafn c: Stykkisholmr 

Norderc Tiefe in continental Friesland ... 

Bondum or Bundum in Nordere Tiefe I 

C(olfo) Bolungur 


Skagen on N.W. point 

C(olfo) Vcidileysa ... 

Arnarfjord. N.W. point of Iceland 


• Hvalvatnsfjordr-pt. (S« 76.) 

I Alancofor Bianco^Hvitabjorns Vandct I 
I » Hunavatn j 

• Hvalvatnsfjordr-pt. {,See 74.) 


SIctta = a field, a plain 

Randancs ... 

Continental Friesland 



























Stccnstrup treats Dolfo Forali at one name. 

•~ ^'•^■''■>x.,<r- 



















Jo--' 5 

Si's, a S fc'S I := g 




•a •« 

8 S . . ._..§.. 

_ fl «> — ^ O 

,• J bC H H en C.(i5 u3 uj : co : 

S.-S1 ; 

•^ J! S 

.| . . B . . . .8 . . ^|m 

** e n ti ^ 

8 § CO Ttj > S 

> fi g G Si? 

E Si S, n H a- " &• J S S u S oT a 
Z H >J aC H Cm ea t/3 <fl aj M cov 


1 1 

-si spS a 

y e > " w 

a u c-g 

S a - 

: Q pa Z > b. S St <A <; b. 




■ u ^ cj b! S oi 1^ ^ cS 










I s g 
S2s^2 ^s-e gals' I 

S li-al S-s 

P C M O " P- 

. c 
* < < V 



\o r-^00 ON O ■■ « tn H- »^vo h*- 00 

N «<^ -^ i^\0 h^OO ON O "" N fn ^ lAtNO 

N M H N 











I I 







(A) Authorities EARLIER THAN 1558. 

II54. Edriti. Tahuli RotuiuU Rogcritni. (i) 

Frum Eilrlii't deicriptlon. Thr originil, engraved on lilvtr fur 
R(i||f r, King uf Sicily, now Imt. Two copiri only of Edrlii'a illullritive 
map art kntiwn {tiifl Lclewfl), one at Oiford, the nthflr in Paril. A 
■mall rcprodiiOlon it givr n in the Allaa to Lflcwpl'a G/or. Ju Moyin 
/III, and A dcurlption In tht teat o( thai work) Vol, I,, Proleiomina 
liv-liivii, and StOlont 5464, 

II54. Edriai. Tabula Itincraria Edrisiana. (t) 

From a MS, Atlal In the Bibliothcqur Nallonale, Parli {lull 

Ltlewcl), Small rtitoration at vtn In Altat to Ltlewd'a G/i£, Jn 

M'jym jlgit Plate! XI, and XIl, Dricription in tht lame work, 

Vol, I., SeOioni 60-64, and Vol. III., pp, 7]-llo. 

1360. Hyggeden, Ranulphua de. Imago Mundi, 

Map illuslrating the MS. PeljiroKicon of Hyg- 

gedcn, (3) 

HcproduOion in Lelewel'i C/a/. <Ai Miym /t[i, Atlai, Plate XXV. 

1367. Pizigani, Francesco and Marco, Map of 

the World. Original in the National Library, 

Parma. (4) 

Faciimile In Jomard'i Monumnu G/trrafhifui, Map X. [Brit. 

Mui. S. II. ■]) alio. Photograph bjr F. Odorlci, Parma, 1873 [Brit. 

Mui, S. 101 (3*)]. 

1375. [Anon.] Atlas Catalan de Charles V., 

Rol de Prance. (The "Catalane" Map,) (5) 

Facaimile In Saniarem't ^i/m [Biit, Mui. Tab. 1850. A,|, Plate 

XIII. 1 and a better one in Jj!'. te'a Dnimtnli G/igra/jiiqiui, Parii, 

1883 (Brit, Mui, S. ];. ;]{ tee alio Fig. ] on p, 107 ufrt, and 

No, 361 

[1437, c] Clavus, Claudius 


Map of the North 

Faclimilel in Storm'i Dm Damti GKgrtit Clandiia Clmmx (infm, No. 
361) and in Nordenikjold'i Ftinmiii jitlai {infra. No. 360). See 
alio p. 58, lupra, 

1436. Bianco, Andrea. Map. Original in Biblioteca 

Marciana, Venice. (7) 

Photograph by Ongania, Venice, 1879. See alio p, 106, lufni, 

fig. 1, 

1448. Bianco, Andrea. Map. Original in Biblio. 

Ambrosiana, Milan. (8) 

Photograph by Ongania, Venice, 1879. 

1457-9. Mauro, Fra. Mappa Mondo. Original in 

R, Biblio. .Marciana di Vene?.ia, (9) 

Futl'lized photograph taken for Baron Heath. Small faciimiles in 

LelewePl Giig, du Mcyin ^gi, and in Zurla'l Mj/paminiio Ji Fra 

Maun, Venice, 1806. See Plate I., infra. 

[14O7, C.j Zamoiskl Map, Original in Biblio. Zamni- 
• skicnsi, Warsaw. (10) 

' Reproduced In Noidenikjuld'i Fanimili Ailai, 1889, and on a 

I reduced icjie in Plate II,, m/rj. 

14 — ? [Anon.] Catalan Map. Original in Biblio. 
I Ambrosiana, Milan. [S. P. II. ;.] (il) 

I Reproduced in Baron Nordenikjold'i JttJr.ig lilt Nurtiini jlltltta 

Kamiraf, Stockholm, 189a, Plata V, See alio Ag, 7, oppoiile 

p. Ill, Mfra. 

14 — ? [Anon.] Mapof NorthEuropeand Crcenland f'lm 
a fifteenth century MS. of Ploltmt, in the Bibli' . 
Nazionalc, Florence, [Sec. xv.' 'JIJ,] (11) 

Reproduced in Nordenikjold'i Bijrtg titi Nirdint Alitla Kariag'tiji, 
Stucknolm, 189a, 

14 — ? [Anon.] Mapof Scandinavia ami L- 'ccniand, original 

in MS. of Christ, Enscnius' Din'iflio Ciclaiiwi 

a/iarumfut iniu/arum, in Biblio, Laurcnziana, 

Florence, [Plut. xtix., Cod. xx/., Sec, xv.] (13) 

Reproduced in Norden.kjuld'i BiJrjg, tie, 

14 — 7 [Anon.] Map of Scandinavia and Greenland, 
from a MS. Ptelemy in Biblio. Laurenziana, 
Florence. [Plut. xxx,. Cod. 3.] {14) 

Reproduced in Nordenikjold'i BiJrag, in. 

148a. Donis, Nicolaus. Engronelant, Norbcgia 

Suetiaque et Gottia Occidentalis. Map from 

the Ploltmiri Cotmografia (edited by Nicolau< 

Donis), Ulm, 148X. (15) 

See Plate III., infra. 

1493. Behaim, Martin, Globe. (i6) 

Faclimilel in Ohillany'l Giuhithi dti Sttfaftrtn Ritlir, Marlin 
Biiaim, Nuremberg, 1853; and, of part, in Lelewel'i GAg. Ju 
AftyiH jigl. 

1493. Schedel, Hartmann. Rcgistrum huius operis 

libri tronicarum cum figuris et ymaginibus ab 

inicio mundi. Schedel, Nuremberg, 1 493. [The 

Nuremberg Chronicle,] (17) 

Map of North Europe on folio ccicix veno. 



Faciimile in Santarem'i Altai, ice No. 299 (Brit. Mui, Tab, 1850. 
A.), Plate LXXIV, See alio p. 108 «•('•<, fig- 4. 

1497. Ancone, Predrici D' (Wolfenbutel). 



Appendix VI. 

1500. Cosa, Juan de la. Map of the World, signed 

and dated thus : — Juan di la Cma la fizo in tl 

Puerto de Santa Maria in arlo de I 500. Original 

in the Naval Museum, Madrid. (19) 

Faclimilet in Jomard't Monumtnti Jt la G/ographii (tAz^\\\,)\ 

of portion! on Humboldt'i Examtn Criiiqiu ; Lelewel'i Gtag. du Mitytn 

jtgi i Stevcnt' Hiiiorical Nuit. Full-sizeJ ficiimile by Villeja and 

Traynor, Madrid, \%^1, See alio p. 106 lufra, fig, a. 

1503. Cantino, Alberto. Carta da Navcgar per le 
Isole novamcn" tr : &c. Original in Biblio. 
Estensc, Modena. (zo) 

Faciimile in Harrisie's L*s Corttrtai, 1883. 

1502. [Anon.] The "King" Map. Original in the 
possession of Dr. E. T. Hamy. (zi) 

Deuribed with reduced facaimiles in Natici lur mi Mafftmnndi 
Pertugaiit Anonymt dt I 501 rutmmtnt de'ioujtrte a Ltnd-a, par le Dr. 
£. T. Hamy, in tiie BuUilin dt Gt'ograpkit ihtorigut 11 drstrifttivef No, 4, 
Paril, 1887, and in Harrisse'l Diicovrry of Norlb America^ 189a. 

[1505, c] [Anon.] Map of the Atlantic, from Kunst- 
mann's Entdeckung Amerika^s, Berlin, 1859 [Brit. 
Mus. Tab. 1850. A.], Atlas. Blatt. II. (22) 

1505 (?). Vespucci, Amerigo. Lcttera di Amerigo 

Vespucci delle isole nuouamente trovate in 

quattro suoi viaggi. Florence, 1505 (.'). [Brit. 

Mus. G. 6535.] (23) 

Facsimile and translation, Quaritch, 1893, 4to. See ittfre^ No. 375. 

1507. Montalboddo, Fracanzio da. Paesi nova- 
mente retrovati ct Novo Mondo da Albcrico Ves- 
putio Florentino intitulato. Vicenza, m,cccccvii, 

1507 (?). Sabellico, Marcantonio. Storia della 
Rcppublica di Vcnezia. (25) 

Haym (Bihiiottca hatiana^ vol, i, p, 9a, n, 6 and 7) mentions editions 
of (?) 1507. '544i '550i '5581 and 1568, 

1507. Ruysch, Johan. Universalior Cogniti Orbis 

Tabula, Map in the Pttlemy (Bencventanus), 
Rome, 1508. (26) 

1508. [Anon.] Italian Portolano of the Genoese 

School, in the British Museum [MS. Egerton 
2803]. (27) 

Contain! two maps showing Fislanda, Scr page 1 10, lupra, 

1508. Madrignano, Archangelo. Itinerarium Portu- 
gallcnsium c Lusitania in Indiam & inde in occi- 
dentcm & demum ad Aquilonem. Milan, 


An inexact translation of No, 24. 

1511. Sylvanus, Bernardus. C. Ptholema:i Liber 

Geographix cum Tabulis &c. Venice, m.d.xi. 

Folio, (29) 

The version of Jacobus Angelui, edited by Bernardus Syivanus of 

Eboli, Twenty-eight double-paged maps, including the modern cordi- 

form map of the world, 

1511. Martyr, Peter. P, Martyris angli Mcdiolanensis 
opera Lcgatio babylonica Occaiii decas Pocmata 
Epigrammata. 1511. (30) 

1513. Eszler, Jac. and Ubelin, Geo. Ptolemy 

Gfofr«^/'/<» (with Supplement). Strasburg, 1513, 

Folio, (3i) 

Twenty-seven ancient and twenty modern maps. The modern 

maps were prepared by Waltzeemiiller (Hylacomylus), and most of 

them engraved as early as 1507. 

1515. Schoner, Johann. Luculcntissima qua;dam 
terra; totius dcscriptio : cum multis utilissimis 
Cosniographiaiiniciis ic. Nuremberg, Stuchsen, 
1515. 4to, (32) 

1516. Giustiniano, Agostino. Psaltcrium Hebrxum 

Grxcum Arabicum et Chaldxum cum tribus 
litinis intcrprctationibus et glossis (by Agostino 
Giustiniano, Bishop of Ncbbio). Milan, i;i6. 

Contains a short life of Christopher Columbus, introduced as a note 
to Psalm xix. 4. 

1517. Montalboddo, Frac. da. Picsi novimcnte 

ritrovati. Vcnctia, mcccccxvii. (34) 

iSai. Martyr, Peter. De nuper sub D. Carolo 
Repertis Insulis simulatq incolarum moribus R. 
Petri Martyris Enchiridion, ice, Basle, mdxxi. 


2535, c. Oliva, Ferdinand Perez de. Manuscript. 
Ferdinandi Perez de Oliva traf^atus manu cc 
hispano sermone scripcus de vita ct gestis D. 
Christophori Colon primi Indiarum Almirantis et 
maris oceanis dominatoris. Dividitur in 9 Enna- 
rationes sive capitula quorum prim. Inc. Cristoval 
Colon ginov^s. nonum et ultimum D. los otros 
dcstos las oyan. Deo gratias. Esta en 4°. (36) 
See Harrisse, Fimand Colombo 1871, p. 151* 

1537-1561. Casas, Bartolom6 de las. Historia 

de las Indias. By Bartolomc delas Casas, Bishop 

ofChiapa. (37) 

Written between the above dates, but known in manuscript only 

until it was printed in Madrid, 1875-6. See No, 311. 

1526. Boethius, He(5tor. Scotorum Historix a 
prima Gentis originc, tec. [Paris], 1526. 
[Brit. Mus. 600, m. IJ.] (38) 

1528. Bordone, Benedetto. Libro de Benedetto 
Bordone nel qual si ragiona de tuttc I'Isole del 
MonHo, &c. Venice, mdxxviii. (39) 

1530. Martyr, Peter. De Orbe Novo Petri Martyris 
ab Angleria Mcdiolanensis ProtonotariJ Ccsaris 
senatoris decades. Alcala, (40) 

1533. Martyr, Peter. De rebus Oceanicis & de Orbe 

novo decades tres &c. Basle, m.d.xxxiii. (41) 

1534. Martyr, Peter, Libro Primo della Historia 

del' Indie occidentale summario de la generale 
Historic de I'lndic Occidentale cavato de Libri 
scritti del Signor Don Pietro Martyre. 1534. 

An Italian summary of the first three decades. 

1535. Oviedo, Gonzalo Hernandez de. 

I vol., fol. 


La His- 


toria general de las Indias. 

The first part only. A second edition, 1547, contained an ad- 
ditional chapter. The whole work was first printed in Madrid, 185a- 
55. 4 vols., fol. 

1535. Villjnovanus, M. (Servetus). Ptolemy's 
Geographia. Lyons, m,d.xxxv. Folio. (44) 
Edited by Michael Villanovanus (Servetus), 

1536 (?). Barbaro, Marco. Disccndenze Patrizie. 

(Manuscript.) (45) 

Quoted by Zuria from a copy then (1808) in the possession of 

Lorenzo Antonio da PonCe, There is a copy in the British Museum 

(MS, Egerton 1155) dated 1679, See No, 175, 

X536. Ziegler, Jacob. Terra; Sanftx- quam Palcstinam 
nominant ; Syri.-c, Arabiae, vEgypti ct Schondiara 
dodissima dcscriptio &c. Authorc Jacobo Zieg- 
Icro, MDxxxvi. (46) 

1537, Grynaeus, Simon. Nowus Orbis Rcgionum 
ac Insularum vctcribus incognitarum &c. 3asle, 
MDXxxvii. Folio. (47) 



\ ,' 

Appendix VI. 


f. ! 


1537- Giustiniano, Agostino. Castigatissimi Annali 
dclla EcccUa ct illustrissima Rcpublica di Genoa 
da fidcli ct approvaci scrlitori per cl Revcrendo 
Monsignore Giustiniano Genoese Vescovo di 
Nebio. Genoa, 1537. (48) 

1538. Mercator [Kaufmann], Gerard. Terrestrial 

Globe of this date. (49) 

Faciimile in Nordenikjbld't FaciimiU Ailai, 1889. 

X539. Magnus, Olaus. Carta Marina et Descriptio 

SeptcntrionaliumTerrarum ac Mirabilium rerum 

in cis contentarum diligcntissime claborata Anno 

Dili 1539 Vencciis libcralitate R"' D. Icronimi 

Quirini Patriarch: Vcnetiai. (;o) 

A unique copy of the original it in the State Library, Munich. 

Reduced facsimile in Brenner'i Dit Jlcbti Kant Jet O.'aui Maitita^ 

1886. Portion reproduced in Plate IV., infra. 

1539. Magnus, Olaus. Opera breve, laquale de- 

monstra, e dichiarc overo da il nindo facile da 
intendere la charta over dclle terre frigidissime di 
Scttcntrionc : oltra il marc Gcrmanico, dove si 
contcngono le cose mirabilissime di quclli pacsi 
fin' a quest' hora non cognosciute, nc da Grcci, nc 
da Latini. Stampata in Vcnetia per Giovan 
Thomaso, del Reame di Ncapoli nel anno de 
Nostro Signore mdxxxix. (;i) 

4to. [Brit. Mua., C, 55. c. 1.] 

1541. Mercator [Kaufmann], Gerard. Terrestrial 
Globe of this date. (52) 

DfKribed and copied in Raemdonck'i Ltt Sfteret Terreilre et Ce'/este^ 
1541, I Sil,deGirarJ Mercator. St Nicholaa, 1875. 

154a. Miinster, Sebastian. Ptolemy's Geographia. 
Basle, M.D.xLii. Folio. ($3) 

The wcond edition of Scbaitian Muntter'i Ptolemy, (ist edition, 

1544. [Zeno, Jacopo.] La Vita del Magnifico M. 

Carlo Zeno, Egrcgio, & Valoroso Capitano della 

Illustrissima Republica Vcnitiana. Compostadal 

Revcrendo Gianiacomo Feltrcnse, Sc tradotta in 

vulgarc. Per Messer Francesco Quirino. In 

Vcnetia, m.u.xliiii. (;.).) 

The author was Jacopo Zeno, Bishop of Feltre and Belluno, a 

grandson of Carlo ^no. The original was in Latin, and was '*:at 

printed in that language in Muraturi's Rtrum Itatkarum Scrifto'ei^ vol. 


[15— ,c.] Desceliers, Pierre. Harlcian pcscclicrs) 
Mappe-Mondc. (Manuscript.) (55) 

[British Museum Add. MSS. 5413.] 

1546. Desceliers, Pierre. Map. " Faiftes k Arqucs 
par Pierre Desceliers, presb" i 546." (56) 

Original belonging to the Earl of Crawford and Balcarrea. Repro- 
duced (imp.:rfe£)ly) by Jomard, and from his Atlas by Krctschmer; also 
(privately) by the owner. 

1546. [Anon.] Britannix Insul.-e qua; nunc Anglix et 

Scotix Rcgna continct, cum Hibernia adjaccntc 

nova descriptio. Romx. 1 Tabs., 1 546. Map 

from Lafreri'i Ath . (57) 

[Brit. Mus., K. 5. I.] See Plate V., i/r/ro. 

1548. Mattiolo, Pietro Andrea. Ptolemy's Geo- 

gralia. Venice, m.d.xlviii. 8vo. (;8) 

Maps by Gastaldi. This is the first edition of Ptolemy in Italian, 

and the last edition published hef(>re the appearance of the Zeno Anna/t 

and Carta da Navegar. Plate VI., infra, is a facsimile of " SchonUndia 

Nova,'* Map 11 in this edition. 

1550. Desceliers, Pierre. Map in the British 
Museum. [MSS. Add. 24,06;.] (59) 

1553. Prunes, Matteus. Map. Original in Biblioteca 

Comunale, Siena. (60) 

Partly reproduced in KretKhmer's Eittdeciung Amerika't, Atlas, 
Tab. IV., No. J. See also Fig. 8, p. ill, ufra. 

1554. Mercator. [Kaufmann.] Map of Europa. 

Duisburg. (61) 

A facsimile from a copy in the Stadtbibliothek lu Breslau, published 
for the Berlin Oeog. Society, by Kuhl. Berlin, 1891. See No. 363, 
also Plate VII., infra. 

1554. Tramezini, Michael. Map of the World. 

Venice, mdliiii. (62) 

Reproduced in Miiller's Remarkabli Maft of the XVth, XI^Illi and 
Xflitk Cenlnriet. Amsterdam, 1894. Part I, No. I. 

1554- Agnese, Battista. Carta Nautichc. (MS.) (63) 

Photograph published by Ongania, Venice. 1881. [Brit. Mus. 
S. 141. 47.J 

IS54- Gomara, F. L. de. Historia de Mexico, con 
el descubrimicnto dcia nucua Espaiia, conquistada 
por el muy illustre y valcroso Principe don Fer- 
nando Cortes, Marques de Salle, Escrita por 
Francisco Lopez de Gomara, clcrigo. En Anvcrs. 
1554. 8vo. (64) 

1555. Magnus, Olaus. Historia de Gentibus septcn- 

trionalibus, carumquc diversis statibus, conditioni- 
bus, moribus, ritibus, supcrstitionibus, disciplinis, 
cxercitiis, regimine, viitu, bellis, strufturis, in- 
strumcntis, ac mincris mctalticis & rebus mira- 
bilibus &c. Avtore Olao Magno Gotho, Archi- 
episcopo Upsalcnsi, Suctia: Sc Gothiae Primate. 
RoM^. M.D.LV, 4to. (65) 

Small map and many plates. See p. 140, tupra. 

I555' Eden, Richard. The Decades of the newe 
worlde or West India, . . . Wrytten in the 
Latinc tounge by Peter Martyr of Angleria, and 
translated into Englysshe by Rychardc Eden. 
London. 1555. 410. (66) 

1558. Homem, Diego. Manuscript Portolano. (67) 

[Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 5415. A.] 

1558. Tramezini, Michael. Septcntrionalium Rcgio- 
num Suctias Gothix Norvcgia:, Danix et Terra- 
rum adjaccntium rccens cxaiUquc descriptio. 
MicHAELis Tramezini formis. Ex pont. Max. ac 
Vcneti Scnatus privilcgio. mdlviii. Jacob Bussius 
in xs incidcbat. Map from Lafrcri's Atlas. (68) 
[Brit. Mus. S, 10. 1. 41.] See Plate VIII., infra. 

1558. Zeno, Nicolo. De I Commentarii del Viaggio 
in Persia &c. . . ct dello Scoprimcnto dell' 
I'olc Frislanda, Eslanda, Engrovclanda, Estoti- 
landa Sc Icaria, fatto sotto il Polo Artico, da due 
fratclli Zcni, M. NicoI6 il K. e M. Antonio. 
Venice, mdlviii. (69) 

For facsimile of Title, etc., see Appendii I,, and of the Carta da 
Navegar, Plate XI. 



C c 




Appendix VI. 

|k ' 

(B) Authorities later than 1558. 

1559. Ramusio, Giovanni Battista. Navigation! 

cc Viaggi. Venice, i;;9. (70) 

The fint edition of the fine volume of thia cotleOion, publithcd 
after Ramuiio*i death, which happened in 1557. 

1560. Patrizio, F. Delia Historia dicci Dialoghi di 

M. Francesco Patrizio. Venetia, 1560. 410. (71) 
Zcni, p. 30, verto, 

1561,0. [Anon.] Map of Frisland; from Lafreri's 
Atlas. (72) 

There are two copies of thia map in the Britiah Museum, botli un- 
dated. The earlier ia unsigned [S. 10. a. 70a] j the other ia inscribed 
I'clro de Nobilibus formla. [S. 10, I. 156.] See Plate I'<., infra, 
and p, 114, iuf ra> 

1561. c. [Anon.] Map of Estland; from Lafreri's I 

Atlas. (73) j 

(The Shetland Illea.) See Plate X,, infra, and p. 11^, tupra, 

1561, c. [Anon.] Map of Iceland; from Lafreri's 
Atlas. (74) 

1561. Ruscelli, Girolamo. Ptolemy's Geografia. 

Venice. (75) 

Map "XXXV Mod. Nuova Tavola Settentrione" la the Zeno 
Carta da Nax'igar, with aome alight alterationa. The text prefixed 
to the map givea a short summary of the travela of the brothers Zenl, 
and aome particuhra aa to the younger Nicolft Zeno'a editing of the 
map. See Plate XII., infra. 

1562. Moletius, Josephus. Ptolemy's Gcographia. 

Venice. (76) 

"Tabi'la XVil Additarum tt XXVI aecundum serirm numeronim" 
is apparently from the aame plate aa No. XXXV. in the Ruscelli, 
1561, PtoUmy, 

1562. Camocius, J. F. Septentrionalium Rcgionum, 
Suetiae, Gothisc, Norvcgiae, Prussix, Pomeranix, 
Ducatus Mcgapolcnsis, Frisix, Getdriae, Alta; 
Marchix, Lu;:etix adjaccntiumquc regionum 
descriptio &c. Venctiis. Anno, m.d.lxii. apud 
Joanncm Franciscum Camocium. Map from 
Lafreri's Atlas. (77) 

A later edition of the Tramezini map of 1558. See No. 68 and 
Plate VIII., ;»/'•''. 

1564 (7). Olives de Mallorca, Jaume. Map. (78) 

Extract in Krt\K\\Tntv'% Enldcckung Amtrika^i^^rXm, 1892, Atlas, 
Tab. IV., No. 3, where the date 1514 is assigned. Dcsimoni reads 
the figures i 504, Uzzielli-Amat. 1 564. The last date is no doubt the 
correA one. See tufra, p. 113, Note 2. 

1564. Mercator [Kaufmann], Gerard. Anglix 

Scotix tc Hiberniat nova Descriptio. Duisburg. 

Original in the Stadtbibliothek zu Breslau. 

Map. (79) 

Facsimile publiahed by the Berlin Geographical Society. Berlin, 

1891. See No. 63, infra. 

1567. Magnus, Olaus. Historia Olai Magni Gothi 
Archiepiscopi Upsalcnsis, De Gentium Septen- 
trionalium variis conditionibus Statibusque &c. 
Basilex. md.lxvii. (80) 

This edition contains the map which was long thought to be identical 
with the Olaus Magnus map of 1539, which was lost, till a copy of 
it was rediscovetcd in 1886. The '.wo maps are quite diffcrrnt. 
See No. 50, lupra. The 1567 mjp is reprcduced in Norden^kjuld's 
Voyage of the f^tga, 1881, vol. i., plate 3. 

1569. Mercator [Kaufmann], G. Weltkarte. 
Nova ct auila Orbis Terrse descriptio ad usum 
navigantium emendate accommodata. Duisburg. 

A facsimile from a copy in the Stadtb.'-liothek zu Breslau, published 
by Kuhi, Berlin, 1891, Also reproduced by Jomard. See N us. 288 
;.nd 36] i also Plate XIII., /i>/r<i. I [Brit. 

1570. Orteliun, Abraham. Theatrum Orbis Tcr- 
rarum. Antwerp, 1 570. Folio. (8i) 

There are two editions of thta place and year. The first haa the date 
"xx Mali. M.D.LXX"; the other, which bears the date "m.d.ixx" 
withou the month, ia the aecond, becauae the text containa paasagea 
which .tre not in the other. The Britiah Muaeum copy to which I 
have referred, and from which Plate XIV. ia taken, ia the iditio 
frinctju, [B. M. S. 221 (30).] 

1570. Stephanius, Sigurdus. Map. Sigurdi Stephanii 
terrarum hyperborearfl delineatio Auo I 570. (83) 

Reproduced in Torf^ua'a Gronlandia jintiyua, 1706 and 1715, and in 
Justin Winaor'a Columbui, 1892. Seep. 142, lufra, 

1571. Columbus, Ferdinand (?). Historie del 
Signor D, Fernando Colombo nell quale s'ha par- 
ticolare, Sc vera relatione dclla vita, e de' fatti del' 
Aramiraglio. D. Christoforo Colombo suo Padre 
&c. Nuovamente di lingua Spagnuola tradotta 
neir Italiana dall Signor Alfonso Ulloa. fn 
Venetia. m.d.lxxi. (84) 

The authorship and authenticity of tins book are doubtful. [Biit. 
Mus. 615. d. 7.] 

157^. Ortelius, A. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. 
Antwerp, 1571. Folio. (85) 

Map 60 in this edition is the same as map 4; in the first 1570 

Ramusio, Gio. Battista. Delle Navigation! 

ct Viaggi Raccolto gia da M. Gio, Battista 

Ramusio. Venice, mdlxiiii. (86) 

In this second edition of the second volume first appean the reprint 

of Zeno's Ctmmtniaiii of 1558, with some few int'^rpulations. Though 

the colle£tion still goes under the name of Ramuaio, he died in 1557, 

before the appearance of the firat edition of the fi^at volume in ISS9, 

Eden, Richard. The History of Travayle in 

the East and West Indies and other countries 

lying cither way &c. . . . with a discourse of 

the North West Passage. Gathered in parte and 

done into Englyshe by Richarde Eden. Newly 

set in order, augmented an' finished by Richarde 

• Willcs. Imprinted at Lonaon by Richarde Jugge. 

1577- 8vo. (87) 

Porcacchi, T. L'lsole piu famose del Mondo 

dcscritte da Thomaso Porcacchi da Castiglione 

Arretino c intag'iatc da Girolamo Porro Padovano. 

&c. ... in Vcr.etia. Appresso Siiuc" Galig- 

nani & Girolamo Porro. mdlxxvi. (88) 

On the map of Islandia (fol. 1), Porcacchi shows Zeno's « ven ialandl 

off the east coast, and G'ialanda. There is no other trace of Zenian 

influence in the book. 



i 1577- 





Borough, W. Showing Frobishcr's discoveries 
in the North .Atlantic, made by W. Borough. 
Preserved in the Library of the Marquess of 
Salisbury at Hatfield. Dated 1st June, 1576. 
(Manuscript Map.) (89) 

Best, George. A True discourse of the late 
Voyages of Discoverie for finding of a Passage to 
Cathaya by the North-Weast, under the Conduft 
of Martin Frobisher, General. [By George Best.] 
London. 4to. 1578. (90) 

Lesley, Bishop. De Origine Moribus et 
Rebus gcstis Scotcri^m Libri Decern, &c. . . . 
Authore loannc Lcilxo, Scoto, Episcopo Rossensi 
Romx, in xdibus populi Romani, m.d.lxxviii. 

Mua. O. R. Lib. ig. D. III.] 

Appendix VI. 



1578. Mercator. [Kaufmann, G.] Ptolemy's 
Gcographia. Cologne, 1 578. (92) 

The first edition of Pialtmj in which Mercator'i (Kiufmann) mapi 
were uied. 

1580. Dee, Dr. John. Map. Original in Brit. Mus. 
[Cottonian MS. Aug, I. i. art. i. Roll.] (93) 

1583. Buchanan, George. Rcrum Scoticarum His- 
toriic. [Br:t. Mus. 600. K. 2.] (94) 

1583. Anania, G. L. D'. L'Universalc Fabrica del 

Mondo, ovcro Cosmcgrafia, Dcll' Ecc. Gio. 

Lorenzo d'Anania, divisa in quattro Trattati, &c. 

In Venetia, Prcsso il Muschio. m.d.lxxxii. (9;) 

Thli i» the second ed'tion; the first does not contain the separate 

mips of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, See p. 139, lufra. 

1583. Hakluyt, Richard. Divers Voyages touching 
the discovcrie of America and the islands adjacent 
unto the same, made first by an Englishman and 
afterwards by the Frenc nen, and Britons &c. 
. . . Imprinted at London for Thomas Wood- 
cock, dwelling in Paule's Churchyard, at the 
signc of the Black Beare i;82. (96) 

See Appendix II, and Plate XV., infra. The other map in the 

volume, Robert Thome's, is reprodu-ed in Nordenskjbld's Fec$wiilt 


1583. Rascicotti. Map. Americs ct Provinciarum 
rcgionum orae descriptio. Venice, i 583. (97) 
Reproduced in Mullcr'l RimarkabU Afapi^ etc, Amsterdam, 1894. 
Part I., No. II. 

1588. Miinster, Sebastian. Cosmographey oder 
Beschrcibung allcr Lander herzschafftung uad 
furnemcstcn Stellen dcs gantzen Erbodens sarui< 
&c. (98) 

Earlier editions ^vere published at Basle m 1^41, 1550, in the 
author's lifetim * This is a posthumous edition, and the maps contain 
Zenian materia'.;. Miinster died in 1552, 

1588. SanutO, Livio. Geografiadi M. Livio Sanuto, 
distiiita in XII Libri &c. . . . con XII Tavole 
di essa Africa in disegna di rame. Appresso 
Damiano Zcnaro, i Vinegia. m.d.lxxxviii. 
Folio. (99) 

Only this first part was published. References to the Zeni will be 
^jund on folios 14 and 17, 

I jSg. Hakluyt, Richard. The Principall Navigations 
Voiagcs and Discoveries of the English Natijn 
made by Sea or overland to the most remote and 
farthest distant Quarters of the Earth &c. Dy 
Richard Hakluyt, Master of Artes, and Student 
sometime of Christchurch in Oxford. London, 
1589, (100) 

Relates only Rnglish voyages, and contains no reference to the Zeni. 

It is given in error in Anderson's Bibliography of Zeno in No. '^i: , 


1590. Myritius, loannes. OpusculumGcographicum 
rarum&c. , . . per loannem Myritium Meliten- 
sum, Ordinis Hospitalis !:. .id- loannis Hierosoly- 
mitani, Commcndatorem Alcmanni Monasterii 
■c domus Ratisponensis. Ingoldstadii Anno 


Reference to the Zeni, Part II., chap, xix, 

1593. Ortelius, Abraham, Theatrum Orbis Terra- 
rum. ('°2) 

This is the first edition in which the passage quoted by Hakluyt 
(ed, 1600, vol, iii.. p. 127) as to tiie authenticity of Zcno's narrative 
appears. It is in the text prefixed to 8 new map of **Mar del Zur," 
Map 6. 

1593. MoUneux, Emmerie. Globe. (>03) 

The onb' example of this globe at present lcnoH-i to exist is preserved 
in the t ' ■. uy of the MidJle Temple, in London. Sec p, 84. 

1594. Plancius, Peter. Orbis Tcrrarum typus de 

Integro multis in locis emcndatus, aufiore Pctro 

Plancio. 1594. (lo^) 

Given as the map of the world in the first Latin edition of Lin. 

schoten, 1599. A map of the world by Plancius, dated 15Q3. is fully 

described by Blundeville {Extrcim, 6th ed., 162?, pp, 511.592), but 

no copy of it is now extant, 

1595. Map. Europa Ost Kerstcnrijck, in the Canrt 

Thresar {f. 21). Amsterdam. 1595. ('05) 

1596. Linschoten, J. H. van. Itmerario oi.e Schip- 

vacrt van Jan Huygen van Linschoten nacr Oost 
oste Portugaels Indieii &c. [long title). Am- 
sterdam, 1596. Folio, 3 vols. (lofi) 

1597. Magini, Giov. Ant. Geographia turn veteris, 

turn novae. Cologne, 1597. ('07) 

1597. Wytfliet, Cornelius. Dcscriptionis Ptolemaica: 
Augmentum sive Occidentis notitia Brevi Com- 
mentario illustrata. Louvain, mdxcvii. (108) 
Douai, 1603, p. 188 an'j map 19, "Estotilandi/ et Laborator'.s 


1598. Veer, Gerrit De. Waerachtige Beschryvinghc 
van drie Seylagien (long title). Gcdacn dcur 
Gerrit de Veer van Amstelredam . . . A° I 598 
(obi. 4to). ('09) 

1598. Veer, Gerrit De. Vraye Description de trois 
Voyages de mcr &c. (long title), par Girard Lc 
Ver. Amsterdam, 1 598. Folio. ("o) 

1598. Veer, Gerrit De. Diarivm Navticvm, seu vera 
descriptio Triu.a Navigationum &r. (long title). 
Audorc Gerardo de Vera Amstelrodamensc. 
Amsterdam, 1558. Folio. (■■>) 

1598. Linschoten, John Huighen. J. H. Linscho- 
ten his Discours of Voyages into y' Easte & West 
indies. Deuided into Foure Bookes. Printed 
at London by lohn Wolfe Printer to y' Honor- 
able Cittie of London, I 598. (iiz) 

1598. Barents, Willem. Map. Delineatio carta; 

Trium Navigationum per Batavos, ad Septcn- 
trionalcm plagam, Norvegia:, Moscovise, et Nova; 
Semblse, et perq^ frctum Weygatis Nassovicum 
diflum, ac ju\ta Groenlandiam, sub altitudinc 
80 graduum necnon adiaccntium partium Tar- 
taric, jjiuLicr-tor'' Tabinc frete Anfan attj^ rcgionis 
Bargi ct Partis Americe vcriUsOriciitem. Authorc 
Wilhelmo Bernardo Amstelredamo. Expertissimo 
Pilota. A° 1598. See No. 115, (113) 

1599. Veer, G. de. Tre Navigation! fatti dagli Olan- 

dcsi al Settentrione &c. (long title). Descritto in 
Latino da Gerardo di Vera . . . Tradoue nella 
lin>rda Italiana. Venice. 1599. ('H) 

1599. Linschoten, J. H. Navigatio ac Itinerarium 
Johannis Hugonis Linscotani in Orientalcm sive 
Lvsitanorvm Indiam &c. Hagae-Comuis. Ex 
ofHcini Alberti Henrici. Impensis Authoris et 
Cornelii Nicolai, prostantque apud .^gidiuni 
Elsevirum Anno 1599. (H)) 

Contains Hiitoria Trivm Na'vigatiatnmi Batax -um in Scpieittrioneni, 
and Willem Barents' map Delineatio carta trium Navigationum &c, 

1599. Molineux, Emr.ierie [or Wright, Edward]. 

New Map. Issued with the I 599-1 600 edition of 
Richard Hakluyt's Principall Voyages, Navigationi 
anJ Discoveries, etc. Original copies of both first 
and second states exceedingly rare. Full-sized 






Appendix VI. 

facsimiles of first state to illustrate Markham's 
yayagei and Worki ofjohn Davii, Hakluyt Society, 
1880; and, of second state, in Nordenskjfild's 
Faciimilt Atlas, Stockholm, 1889. (n^) 

1600. Hakluyt, Richard. The Third and Last Volvme 
of the Voyages, Navigations, TrafHqucs, and Dis- 
coucrics of the English Nation, and in some few 
places, where they hauc not been, of Strangers, 
performed within and before the time of these 
hundred yeercs, to all parts of the Newfttind siioM 
oi America, or the lytsl Indies, from 73. degrees 
of Northerly to 57. of Southerly Latitude: As 
namely to Engronland, Mela Incognita, Estotiland, 
Tierra de Labrador, vp The grand bay i£c. i£c. 
. . . Colkaed bj Richard Hakluyt Preacher 
and sometimes Student of Christ Church in Oxford. 
Imprinted at London by George Biihof, Ratfe 
Newberie and Robert Barker, Anno Dpm. 1600. 

Voyages of the Zeni, pp. iii-tit, 

x6oo. Quad, Matthew. Gcographisch Handt-Buch 

&c. . . . Zugcricht durch Matthis Quaden, 

Kupfferschncider. Coin am Rein, Bey Johan 

Buxemacher &c. M.D.c. Folio. (>>t!) 

(Eighty-two maps.) Map. 1, Typus Orbis Terrarum (reproduced in 

Nordenikjbld's Fattimilt Allot, Plate X LIX.}; Map 77, Polus Articus ; 

and Map 78, Novi Orbit pars Borealii, show Zcnian names, but the 

Zeni are not mentioned in the text. 

1600. Quad, Matthew. Compendium Universi 

comple^tens Geographicarum cnarrationes libros 
sex &c. ... Ex optimis ut plurimum tarn 
veterum quam hujus xvi scriptoribus exccrpta 
&c. per Matthiam Quadum sculptorcm. Coloniae 
Agrippinx. Anno ci3 dc. Sm. 8vo. (■>9) 

Zeni, Liber VI., capp. 4-7. 

1601. Bry, Theodore De. Petits Voyages. Part IIL 


In this part Barents' map (see No. 113) is reproduced to illustrate 
Trtt navigationts Hollandorum, tic, S'. page 35, lufra, 

1601. Herrera, Antonio de. Historia General de 
los Hechos de los Castellanos &c. (nO 

Refers to Estotilant in discuuing the origin of the poprlation of 
America, Decade I,, lib. i., cap vi. 

1603. Botero, Giovanni. Relaciones universalcs del 

Mundo. Valladolid, 1603. (122) 

References to the Zeni, fol. 183, rev. 184. 

1604. Rosaccio. Mondo clement^re et celeste si tratta 

de' moti et ordine delle spere, della grandczza 
dclla terra, dell' Europa, Africa, Asia et /Imerica. 
Trevizi, 1604. 8vo. Woodcut maps. ('*3) 

1606. Thorlacius, Gudbrand. Delineatio Gron- 

landix Gudbrandi Thorlacii Episcopi Hollcnsis. 

Anno 1606. (Map.) ('24) 

Shows Frisland and Estotclandia. Reproduced in Torfxus, Gran- 

land'ia Artuaua, 1 71 5, p. zl, and, to illustrate Om ^ucrbygdtn, by 

K, J. V. Sceenstrup in Mtddtltlur cm Gr^nland, part ix., pp. ■•51, 

plate 1. 

1605 (?). [Anon.] The Stockholm Cnart (illustrating 

James Hall's voyages). Original manuscript on 

paper in the Royal Library, Stockholm. (12;) 

Reproduced wi'.h article by K. J. V. Stcenstrup, in itr, 1886, pp. 

83-86, Stockholm [Swedish Anthropological and Geographical 

Society]; Gosch, Tbt Dannb Exftdttkni to Greenland [Hakluyt Society, 

1897, App. .'.] j Miller Christy, An Early Chan cf ibt Mont Atlantic 

I Privately printed, London, 1897]} and (pai() in MedtUlilitr om Grfn- 

land, part ix. [Copenhagen, 1889], p. 10. 

1605. Resen, H. P. IndicatioGronlandisetvicinarum 

Regionum versus Septcntrionem & Occidcntcm 
ct antiqua quadam Mappa rudi modo dclincata, 

ante aliquot centcnoi annos ab Islandis quibus 

tunc crat ista terra notissima cc nauticis nostri 

temporis observationibus. (Map.) (<*^) 

Shows Frysland and Estotiland. Reproduced In Middileliir «i> 

Grfnland, part ix., 1I89, Plate I. 

1607. Blefken, Ditmar. Iilandia sivc populorum 
te mirabilium quae in ca Insula rcpcriuntur accu- 
ratior descriptio: cui de Gronlandia sub finem 
quxdarn adjcfla, Lugduni Batavorum, ex typo- 
grapheio Henrico ab Hxstcns. ci3.i3cvii. [B. M. 
794. d. 5.] (127) 

x6zo. Amgrim Jonas [Jonsson]. Crymogxa sive 
Rerum Islandicarum Libri III. Hamburg, 1610. 


Britannia (Philemon 

Partly reproduced in Meddtltt- 

[B. M. 590. e. 9/1.] 

16x0. Camden, William. 

Holland's translation), 

1613. Gatonbe's Chart. 

Shows " Frisland" and ** Bus ins." 
itr om Gr^nland, part ix., 1889, p. 48. 

X613. Arngrim Jonas [Jonsson]. Anatome Blcf- 
keniana, qua Ditmari Blefkenii viscera, magis 
praecipua in Libello de Islandia, anno 1607 edito, 
convulsa,per manifestam cxenterationem reterun- 
tur. Typis Holensibus in Islandia boreali. Anno 
1612. i2mo. [Brit. Mus. i;3, a. 23.] (131) 

1613. Megisser, Jerome. Scptentrio Novantiquus, 

oder Die ncwe Nort Welt . . . durch Hierony- 

mum Megiserum . . . Leipzig. Anno 1613. 

Twelve maps. ('3*) 

Gives a free translation of the Zeno narrative, with remarks thereon, 

pp. 111-178. 

16x3. Gerritz, Hessel. Descriptio ac delineatio 
Geographica DetefUonis Freti, sivc transitus ad 
Occasum suprk terras Americanas in Chinam 
atq. Japonem du^uri. Recens investigati ab 
M. Henrico Hudsono Anglo, tec. . . . Amstero- 
dami ex officina Hessclii Gerardi. Anno 1613. 
Four maps and three plates. ('33) 

X614. Hulsius, Levinus. Zwolffte SchifTahrt. Op- 
penhcim, 161 4. ('3+) 

1618. Bertius, Petrus. P. Bertii Tabularum Geo- 
graphicarum rontraftarum. Libri septem. Am- 
sterodami, 1618. (■3$) 

Refers to Nicol6 Zeno (Nicolaut Zenetus), lib. 1, p. 65, and in the 
following pages to Greenland, Iceland and Frisland. 

l63X. Goos, Abraham. Globe published by Joh. 
Jansonnius, at Antwerp, 162 1. ('36) 

Reproduced in Miiller'a Rimarkatit Maps, etc., 1894, Part I., 
Plate IX. Shows Drogeo, Frisland, Greenland, with St. Thomas 
Monatt. and Bus Island. 
x6aa. [Davity.] Les Estats, Empires, ct Principavtez 
du Monde, &c. Par le S' D. T. V. Y. Gentil- 
homme ordre de 1« '•' imbre du Roy. Imprime, a 
Paris. M.D.cxxii. ('37) 

Refen to the Zt.ii, p. 264. 
1625. Lok, Michael. The Historic of the West 
Indies, Containing the Aftes and Adventures of 
the Spaniards, which have conquered and peopled 
those Countries, inrichcd with varietie of pleasant 
relation of the Manners, Ceremonies, Laws, 
Governments, and Warres of the Indians. Pub- 
lished in Latin by Mr. Hakluyt and translated 
into English by M. Lok, gent. London [1625]. 

A translation of Hakluyt's edition (1587) of the Eight Decades of 
Peter Martyr. 

Appendix VI, 


1 ; 

1635. Purchas, Rev. Samuel. Haklvytus Posthu- 

mus or Purchas his Pilgrimcs, contayning a 

History of the World, in Sea Voyages and landc 

Trauells by Englishmen U others, &c. ... in 

fower Parts each containing five Bookes, By 

Samuel Purchas, B.D, London, 1625. (139) 

Abitraft of Zeno voyagei, vol. iii., pp. 610-615 i Ditmar Blefken, 

p. 643 ; Arngrim Jonai, p, 6j4 ) Ivat Boty, p. 518 j James Hall's 

Voyagci, pp, 814, 81 1, 831, 

1635. Lok, Michael. Note on De Fuca in Purchas 

Ms Pilgrimts, vol. iii., p. 849. ('4°) 

1636. Purchas, Rev. S. Purchas his Pilgrimage or 

Relations of the World and the Religions Ob- 
served in all Ages and places, from the Creation 
unto this Present, &c. . . . The fourth Edition. 
... By Samuel Purchas, Parson of S' Martinc 
by Ludgate, London. London, 1626. (hO 
Abitra^ of Zeno voyagei, p. 807. 

1637. Speed, John. A Prospedl of the most Famovs 

Parts of the World, viz. Asia, Afirica, Europe, 
America. London, printed by John Dawson for 
George Humble and are to be sold at his shop in 
Popes-head Pallace, 1627. Folio. (H^) 

163I. Pontanus, J. I. Rerum Danicarum Historia. 
Libris X. Unoque Tomo ad Domum Oldenburgi- 
cam deduAa. Authore Joh, Isacio Pontano, Rcgio 
Historiographo, &c. Amstclodami, sumptibus 
Joannis Janssonii, anno 1631. ('43) 

T/irM maft. Contains many references to Henry Sinclair (identified 
by J. R. Forster with Zeno's Zichmni) { quotes Arngrim Jonas, 
Blefken, and Wytfliet ; and givei a I.atin translation of Zeno'i narra- 
tive, pp. 755-763. 

1633. James, Capt. Thomas. The Strange and 

Dangerous Voyage of Captaine Thomas James in 
his intended Discovery of the North West Passage 
into the South Sea, &c. London, printed by 
John Leggatt, for John '. artridgc, 1633. One 
map. (144) 

Frexeland shown on map. No other reference to the Zeni, 

1634. Bergeron, Pierre. Relation des Voyages en 

Tartaric de Fr. Rubruquis, Fr. J.du Plan 
Carpin, Fr. Ascelin et autres Religieux, plus un 
traite des Tartares : avec un abr^g^ de I'Histoire 
des Sarasins et Mahometans. Paris, chez M. 
Solys, 1634. 3 vols. izmo. (i45) 

1635. Foxe, Capt. Luke. North West Foxe, or Fox 

from the North West Passage, beginning with 
King Arthur, Malga, Oflhur, the two Zenis of 
Iseland, Estotiland and Dorgia . . . With the 
Author his own Voyage, being the XVI" . . . 
by Capt. Luke Foxe, of Kingstone upon Hull. 
London. 163;. ('4^) 

One wuf. AbstraA of Zeno Voyages, pp. s-izj James Hall's, 

50-61} Blefkens (Plifkins), 61-64} Arngrim Jonas, pp. 4, 5. 

Refers to Dorgio (Drogeo of the Zeni), p. 181. 

1635. Hondius, Jodocus. Historia Mundi or 

Mercators Atlas, containing his Cosmographicall 

Descriptions of the Fabricke and Figure of the 

World, &c. . . . Englished by W. S. generosus 

et Coll. Regin. Oxon. London, 1635. (147) 

First English edition of Mercator's Atlas. On Mercator's death, 

in 1594, Hondius bought the plates of his maps and used them in 

this and other works. 

1638. Roberts, Lewes. The Marchants Mapp of 

Commerce. London, 1638. ('4^) 

1640, C. Hoieus. (Allardt.) Nova Orbis Tcrrarum 
Gcographica ac Hydrographica Descriptio, ex 

optimis quibusquc, optimorum in hoc operc 
Auftcriim, Tabula desumpta a Franciscus Hoieus. 
" Ghcdruft 't Amsterdam Bij Hugo Allardt." 


Reproduced in Miiller'a Rimarkabit Maft 0/ ihi XVlh, XVhk and 
Xr'IiA CrnniriVj, Amsterdam, 18^4, Part I., Plates VII, and VIII. 
Shows Greenland, with some Zcnian names, and Frisland. 

1640. Gudmundus, J. [Gudmundsen]. Delmeatio 
Gronlandiz Jonae Gudmundi Islandi. ('5°) 

Shows Frisland. Reproduced in Torfsus' Cnnhndla Amijui, 1715, 
Plate III. 

1643. Grotius, Hugo. Dissertatio de Origine Gen- 
tium Americanarum. Amsterdam, 1642. 8vo. 


1643. Morisot, Claude Barth. Orbis Maritimi 

sive rerum in Mari et littoribus Gestarum Genera- 

lis Historia. Authore Claudio Barthol. Morisoto. 

Divione (Dijon), MDcxLiii. Folio. (■S'') 

Refers to the Zeni, p. 593, and to Frislandia, with some other 

Zenian localities, p. 615. 

1643. Laet, ioannes De. Notz ad dissertationem 
Hugonis Grotii De Origine Gentium Americana- 
rum : et obscrvationes aliquot ad meliorcm indagi- 
nem difficillimx illius Quaestionis. Amstclodami 
apud Ludovicum Elzcvirium cio I3 cxliii. (153) 
Pp. 10, 11) etc. 

1643. Jonas rjonsson], Arngrim. Specimen Is- 

landiie .'-{istoricum et magna ex parte Chorogra- 
phicum ; Anno Jesu Christi 874, primum habi- 
tari coeptx : quo simul sententia contraria, D. 
Joh. Isaci Pontani, Regis Danix Historiographi, 
in placidam considerationem vcnit : Per Arngri- 
mum lonam W. Islandum. Amstclodami. Anno 
Christi ciD la cxlhi. [B. M. 590, e. 9/4.] 


1644. Laet, Ioannes De. loannisdeLaetAntwerpi- 

ani Responsio ad Dissertationum Secundam Hu- 
gonis Grotii, De Origine Gentium Americanarum. 
Cum Indice ad utrumque libcllum. Amstclodami, 
apud Ludovicum Elzcvirium. cis I3 cxliv, 


1646. Zabarella, Giacomo. Trasea Peto, owero 

origine dclla sercnissima famiglia Zeno. Padova, 
1646. (156) 

1647, Peyrdre, J. de la. Relation dv Groenland. 

A Paris, chez Avgvstin Covrbe, dans Ic petite 
Salle du Palais, ik la Palme, m.dc.xlvii. One 
map. (157) 

1649. Gotofredus, J. L. Archontologia Cosmica sivc 
Imperiorum Regnorum &c. per tctium Tcrrarum 
Orbem Commentarii luculentissimi ... ad nostra 
usque tempera deducuntur Primo operS et studio 
Jo. Ludovici Gotofrcdi ei Gallico per Nobilis 
D. T. V. y. &c. Francofurti, M,DC.XLix. (158) 
The maps show Frisland, and Greenland with Zenian names upon it, 

1651. Vayer, Franfois de la Mothe le. La geo- 
graphic du Prince. Paris, 1 65 1. (In his (E«f'r»j, 
3rd edition, Paris, 1662, p. 819.) ('59) 

1653. Homius, G. De Originibus Americanis. Hagx 
Comitis, 1652. Pp. 155-156. ('60) 

1653. Boullaye-le-Gouz, De La. Les Voyages et 
Observations dv Sievr de La Boullaye-le-Gouz, 
Gentil-homme Angevin Sec. &c. a Paris. 
M.DCuii. 4to. Plate . See No. 276. (161) 

^ 1 




appendix VI, 




l60O, C. Seller, John. Atlis Terrestris, or A Book of 
Mappi of all Empires, Monarchies, Kingdomcs, 
Regions, Dominions, Principalities and Countrcys 
in the Whole World &c. By John Seller, Hydro- 
graphcr to the Kings roost Excellent Majestic. 
London, n.d. Folio. (l^i) 

Dudley, Sir Robert. Arcano del Mare. 
Firenze, 1661. (l^j) 

Riccioli, Giovanni Battista. Geographix 
at hydrographix Rcformatae Libri Xlf. Quorum 
argumcntum sequcns magicc cxplicabat chronicon 
navigat antiq circa cotium orbcro, Indiani linea 
Alexandri VI. de situ Moluccarum &c. 
Bononix, 1661. Folio. [Ed. Venice, 1671, 
p. 89.] (,64) 

Peyrere, J. de la. Relation dc I'lslandc. 

Paris. M.!x:.Lxiii. Tvit mapi. (l^S) 

Thorlacius, Theodorus. Delineatio Gron- 

landia: Theodori Thorlacii, Anno 1668. {166) 

Showi Frislind. Reproduced in Torfivui* Granlandia Amiauaf 

171J, Plate IV., and in MiiUtlilur am GrtnLnil, pait ii., 1519, 

Hlate VII. 

1671. Montanus, Arnoldus. De Nicuwc en 
Onbekende Weercld of Beschriving van America 
cn't Zuidland . . . Vcrciert met Afbeeldfels na't 
leven in America gemaekt en beschreevung door 
Arnoldus Montanus. 't Amsterdam. 1671. (167) 
The Zeno voylgei are referred to on p. 18 tl ttj, 

1671. Ogilby, John. America being the latest and 

most accurate description of the New World &c. 
. . . Colleficd from the most authcntick authors 
... by John Ogilby Esq : His Majesty's Cosmo- 
graphcr Gcographick Printer and Master of the 
Revels in the Kingdom of Ireland. London. 
Printed for the Author and are to be had at his 
house in Whitefryers m.dc.lxxi. ('68) 

An English edition of Montanus with the same plates and maps. 
'1 he i^enu voyages referred ro on p. 30. 

1671. Hornius, G. Ulyssea, Lugduni, 1671. (169) 

Zcni, p. ns- 

1673, C. Seller, John. The English Pilot, by John 

Seller, Hydrographcr to the King, London, 

1673 (?). Folio. [Brit. Mus. 1804, B./.] (170) 

1673. Beeman, J. C. Historia Orbis terrarum geo- 

graphica ct civilis. Francof. ad Oderam. 1673. 


'1 hird edition, 1685, pp. 151-3. 
1675. Seller, John. Atlas Maritimus, or A Book of 
Charts. Dcscribeing the Sea Coasts Capes 
Headlands Sands Shoals Rocks and Dangers ice. 
in most of the knowne parts of the world 4c. 
By John Seller Hydrographcr to y' Kings Most 
Excellent Majestic, and by William Fisher, John 
Thornton, John Colson and James Atkinson. 
London m.dc.lxxv. (172) 

Cluverius, P. Philippi Cluveri Introdu£lionis in 
Univcrsam Gcographiam, tarn veterem quam 
novam. Libri VL Tabulis aencis illustrati Sc 
gemino indicc aufti. Cui acccssere Petr. Bertii 
Orbis Terrarum Breviarium Sec. Amstelzdami, 
apud Janssonio Waesbcrgio. Anno cio idclxxvi. 
46 »»«/>/. (173) 

Moray, Sir Robert. A Description of the 
Island Hirta ; communicated also by Sr Robert 
Moray. PHImophical TramaHiont for January 
and February, 1677-8, No. 137, p. 927. (174) 



1679. Barbaro, Marco. Genealogie del Noblii (sic) 

Veneti di Marco Barbaro detto il Gobbo (Manu- 
script) die 16 Feb. 1679. [B. M. MS. Egerton 

,"55.] . ("75) 

This is a copy of the Diictnaima Patrmit (see No. 45). 

1680. Pitt, Moses. The English Atlas. Vol. I. 

"Oxford. Printed at the Theater for Moses 
Pitt at the Angel in St. Paul's Churchyard, Lon- 
don. MDCLXXX." (176) 

1681. Baudrand, Michael Antoine. Geographia 

ordine litcrarum disposita. 1681. z vols, folio. 
[Brit. Mus. 567. L. 7.) ('77) 

1685. Robbe, Jacques. M<;thode pour apprendre 

facilement la geographic. Secondc edition revue 
ct augment^e. x torn. Paris, 168;. iimo. 
[Brit. Mus. 569, C. 11.] (178) 

1686. Terra Rossa, Vitale. Riflessioni Gcografiche 

circa Ic terre incognite distese in ossequio 
perpetuo della Nobilta Veneziana . . . Dal 
P(adre) D(ottorc) Vitale Terra Rossa da Parma 
... In Padova. miklxxxvi. [Brit. Mu). 304. 
K. 10.] (179) 

1688. Coronelli, Le Pire Vine- Marie. Globe 
preserved in the Palazzo Bianco (Municipal 
Museum) at Genoa. (1^°) 

i6g6. Coronelli (Le Pire V.-M.). Isolario. 
Vol. ii. of De/ Jtlanti l^tnelo. Venice, 1696. 


1697. Torfsus, Thormodus. Orcades seu rerum 

Orcadcnsium Historia. Libri Tres. Fol. 
Havnix, 1697. [Brit. Mus. 600 .^.] (182) 

1698. Martin, M. A Late Voyage to St. Kilda, the 

remotest of all the Hebrides. London, 1698. 


1703. Martin, M. A Description of the Western 

Islands of Scotland, &c. (long titit) by M. Martin, 

gent. London, 1703. (184) 

Second edition, **very much corrected, " I716. 

1705. Torfseus, Thormodus. Historia Vinlandix 

Antiqux. Havnix, 1705. ('85) 

Zeni referred to in Prefatio ad Ledtorem. 

1706. Torfaeus, Thormodus. Groenlandia Anti- 

qua. Havnix, 1706. [Brit. Mus. 152} 8 CB9.] 


1713. Cellarius, C. Christophori Cellarius, Smalcal- 

diensis, Historia Medii X.\\ a tcmporibus Con- 
staitini Magni ad Constantinopolim a Turcis 
captam dedut^a. Jena, Ci3i3ccxii. ('87) 

The first edition puhlished 1688. 

1714. Stiiven, J. F. De vero Novi Orbis invcntorc 

disscrtatio historico-critica, Francof. a. M., 

1714. (188) 
Zeni referred to, pp. 3S-36. 

1715. Torfaeus, Thormodus. Gronlandia Antiqua 

seu vcteris Gronlandix descriptio, &c. Authare 
Thormodo Torfxo, Rerum Norvegicarum His- 
toriographo Regio. Havnix, apud Hieron: Christ: 
Paulli Reg. Universit: Bibliopolara. Anno 

1715. {Five maps.) (189) 

1715. Torfaeus, Thormodus. Historia Vinlandix 
Antiqux, seu Partis A.mcricx Scptentrionalis. 
Havnix, 1715. 8vo. ('9°) 

Zeni, Prefatio ad Le^torem. 

■S - 



Appendix VI. 


1715-8. Bernard, J. P. Re- .cil de Voiagcs lu Nord. 

Bernard. Amsterdam, md cc xv. (<9l) 

Vol, i. containi mip by Qui. Delilk, " Hcmiiphere Septentrional 

pour voir plui diilinAcment Let Trrrci Ariliigun," mil refertnni to 

the Zeni, Blefken, John and Ulaut Magnui, etc. Vol. ii. containt 

a ihort notice of *' Freeilande ou Friiclande," p. 196. 

1730. De risle, Guil. Hemisphere Occidental 
Dress^e en 1710 pour i'u^age particulier du Roy 
sur Ics observations astronomiques et Gdo- 
graphiques reportdes ta meme annde dans L'his- 
toirc ct dans les Mdmoires de I'Academie R'' dcs 
Sciences. Par Guillaume de I'Isle premier Gdo- 
graphe de sa Majestd de la meme Academic a 
Amsterdam J. Covens et C. Mortier; in the 
Jtlat Nouveau. See No. 196. ('9*) 

Thiifirit edition ihowt "Iili it But tidminl Friilaujt." The later 
edition! drop this iiland out altogether, 

1733-51. Muratori, Ludovico Antonio. Rerum 

Italicartim Scriptores. 27 vols. Folio. 1723-51. 

[B. M. 657. f. I, &c.] (193) 

Contains Gataro'i Chronkon PatavlnuiHt vol. xvii,, ' t'r i Jacopo 

Zeno'l yita Carali Zetii, vol, xix., 197,380 ; Reautii*'* CAroitictm 

*farvitiiiiim^ vol. xix., 73$, etc, } Marino Sanuto's yiitt Dutun yintlo- 

rNffr, vol, xxii., 399-1153 : all refcired to by Zurla ai bearing on the 

Zeno family history. 

1734. Moreri, L. Lc grand Didionairc Historiquc. Par 
M" Louis Moreri, Pr^trc, Dotteur en Theologic. 
On7ieme edition. Ani.<;<:rdam, La Hayc and 
Utrecht, k.dccxxiv. ('94) 

1737. M., F. Ncucndecktes Norden, odcr grOndlichc 
und wahrhafTtc Reise-Bcschreibung aller Mittcr- 
nachtigcn und nordwarts gclegenen Lander, 
Stadtc, Vestungan und Insulen samnt dcr darin- 
nen sich befindlichcn Nationen, NUriiberg, 
1727 ; Francfort & Leipsic, 1727 ; Mit Kartcn, 
Nuremberg, 1728. ('95) 

1733. De risle, Guillaume. Atlas nouveau con- 
tenant toutcs Ics parties du monde. Amster- 
dam, 1733. (196) 

1741. Buchan, Rev. Alex. A Description of St. 

Kilda, the most remote Western Island of 

Scotland. Edinburgh, mdccxli. ('97) 

A later edition printed at Glasgow, 1818, deKribes the author as 

"The Rev. Mr. Alei, Buchan, late minister there [St, Kilda], " 

1744. Charlevoix, P^re De. Histoirc et Description 

Gcneralc de la Nouvelle France avcc le Journal 
Historiquc d'un Vcyage fait par ordre du Roi dans 
I'Amcriquc Scptcntrionale. Par le P, De Charle- 
voix, de la Compagnic de Jesus. Paris, m.dcc.xliv. 
3 vols. 410. ('98) 

I74S- Egede, Hans. A Description of Greenland, by 
Hans Egede, missionary in that country for 
twenty-five years. Translated from the Danish. 


A French translation, by M. D, R, D. P,, appeared in Copenhagen 
and Geneva, 1763, and a German translation by Dr, J, C, Krunig, in 
Berlin, 1763. 

1745. Keulen, Van. Nieuwc Wassendc Zee Caart 

van de Noord-Occacn, med ecn gcdecltc van de 
Atlantische, &c., &c. Amsterdam, 1745. (200) 

1748. Drage, Geoffrey. An Account of a Voyage 
for the Discovery of a North-West Passage Vc. 
performed in the years 1746-7 in the Ship 
California, Capt. Francis Smith, Commander. 
By the Clerk of the California. London, 
1 vols. 8vo. 1748. (*<") 

X750. Anderson, Johan. Beschryving van Island 
Greenland en de Straat Davis Tot nut dcr 
wctcnschappen en den Koophandel. Door dcii 
Hecr Johan Anderson &c. Amsterdam, l7;o. 
Map and fUtis. 4to. (»oi) 

1753. Foscarini, Marco. Delia Lcticratura Vcnc- 
ziana. Padova, 1752. (103) 

Zeni, vol, i., pp, 4o£-4o8, 

1753, Kalm, Pehr, En Resa til Norra America, 
Stockholm, 1 753. 3 vols. 8vo. ('04) 

1759. Fordun, loannes de. Scotichronicon. Written 

■bout the end of the fourteenth century. (Ed. 
by Walter Goodall, Edinburgh, 2 vols. Folio. 
'7590 (»05) 

1760, Suhm, P, F, De Danskes og Norges Handel og 

Sejiads i den Nedenske, 410, Tid. (»o6) 

1764. Macaulay, Rev. Kenneth. The History of 
St. Kilda containing a description of this remark- 
able Island &c. ... by the Rev. Mr. 
Kenneth Macaulay, Minister of Ardnamurchan, 
missionary to the Island for the S, P. C. K. 
London, mdcclxiv. ('O') 

One map, which is reproduced in Plate XVIII,, infra. 

1767. Crantz, David. History of Greenland contain- 
ing a description of the country and its inhabitants 
&c. ... by David Crantz. Translated from the 
High Dutch. London, 1767. 2 vols. 8vo. (208) 

\^th. Martiniere, A. A. B. de la. Le Grand Dic- 
tionnaire Geographique Historique et Critique. 

First edition, 1716. 

1773-95. Tiraboschi, Girolamo. Storiadcllalcttcra- 
tura Italiana. Modena, 1772-1795. 11 vols. 
4to. (2>o) 

Zeni, vol, T., 1775, pp. loi-lov. 

1778. De la Crenne, De Borda and Pingr£. 

Voyage fait par ordre du Roi en 1771 et 1772. 
Paris. 2 vols. 4to. 1778. (^") 

1779. Pickersgill, Lieut. Account of Search for the 

Island of Buss by Soundings. In Phikiophicat 
Transadions, vol. Ixviii., pt. 2 (1779), p. 1057. 


1780. Carli, Comte J. R. Lettcre Amcricanc. Cos- 

mopoli, 1780. (i'3) 

French edition, Ltttrtt Amcricainttf Bokton and London, 1788. 

1780. Troil, Uno von. Letters on Iceland: contain- 
ing Observations on the Civil, Literary, Ec- 
clesiastical, and Natural History ; Antiquities, 
Volcanos, Basaltes; Hot Springs; Customs, 
Dress, Manners of the Inhabitants, etc. etc, made, 
during a Voyage undertaken in the year 1772, 
by Joseph Banks, Esq,, P,R,S,, assisted by Dr, 
Solander, F.R.S., Dr. J. Lind, F.R.S., Dr. Uno 
von Troil, and several other Literary and In- 
genious Gentlemen. V^itten by Uno von Troil, 
D.D. London, 8vo. 1780. (*'+) 

1783. [Pickersgill, Lieut] A Concise Account of 
Voy i^'- for the Discovery of a North-Wcst 
Passage, undertaken for finding a new way to 
the East-Indies &c. By a Sea Officer. London, 
MnCCLXXXII. (2<5) 

178a. Toaldo, Giuseppe. Saggi de Studij Vcncti. 
Venczia, 1782. 8vo. (*'6) 






Appendix VI. 

1783. Formaleone, Vincenzic. Siggiosullaniutica 
■mica dc' Vcncziani &c. . . . di Vinccnzio 
Formalcond in Vencz.ia ci3i3cclxxxiii, Prcsso 
I'Autorr. (217) 

1783. Formaleone, V, Storia curiosa dclle avcnturc 

di Catcrino Zcno tratta da un antico originalc 
manoscritto cd ora per la prima volta publicata. 
Venice, 1783. (218) 

1784. Forster, J. Reinholt. Gcschichte dcr Entdcc- 

kungcn und SchifTahrtcn im Nordcn. Frankfort, 
1784. Sec No. 213. (219) 

1784. Buache, Jean Nicolas. Memoirc sur I'islc dc 

Frislandc, in L'Hisloire de I'Aciidemit dts Sciences, 
Paris, 1787, pp. 430-453. Mapi. [Brit. Mus. 
986. c. 8.] (220) 

1785. Tentori, Cristoforo. Storia dclla Rcpublica 

di Vcnczia. Venice, 1785. (221) 

178C. Vaugondy, Robert de. Map of the World. 


Rtferrcd to by Zurli in // Mapt^-Mndt di Era Maurc, 1806, p. 101, 
where, ipeaking of EitotiUnd and the Zeni, he lays, ** Di freico 
M. Robert de Vaugondy nel suu mappamondo del 1786 lo eaprcti. 
mono." The tatelt map by Vaugondy in the British Museum 
(Mar. I, ■9[i], II Tab.) j> dated 177J, and has no face of the Zeno 
geography or names. 

1786. Forster, John Reinhold. History of the 

Voyages and Discoveries made in the North. 
Translated from the German of J. R. Forster. 
London, 1786. I vol. 410. The Zcno voyages 
arc criticised pp. 179-209. See No. 219. (223) 

179a. Pennant, Thomas. Introduftion to the Arftic 
Zoobgy. 2nd edition. London, m.dcc.xcii. 
3 vols. 4to. (224) 

1793. Eggers, H. P. von. Priisskrift om Gr^nlands 

•Wtcrbygds sande Bcliggenhcd. Med tvcndc 
Kaart. Kjobnhavn (Sxrtryk af Landhushuld- 
nings selsicabet Skrift. Kjobnhavn. 1794. 
Vol. iv., 239-320.) [B. M. 964, k. 8., vol. 4.] 

1734, Eggers, H. P. von. Ucber die wahrc lage 

des alten Ostgronlands. Kiel, 1794. [B. M. 

10460, b. 24.] (»26) 
Zeni, pp. 96-116. 

1794. Belknap, Jeremy. American Biography. 

Boston, 1794. {**?) 

Zeni, Vol. i., pp. 67-85. 

1802. Camus, A. G. Memoire siir la colle^ion des 

grands et petits Voyages et sur la coUeftion des 
Voyages de Mtlchiscdech Thevenot ; Par A. G. 
Ca.iius, membre de I'lnstitut national. Im- 
primif par I'ordrc et aux frais dc I'lnstitut. 
Paris : Baudouin, Frimaire An XI. (1802). 


1803. Haym, N. F. Bibliotcca Italians, ossia notizia 

dc' libri rari Italiani divisa in quattro parti cioc, 
Istoria, Pocsia, Arti c Scienzc gii compilata da 
Niccola Francesco Haym. Edizione corrctta, 
ampliata, &c. Milano, 1803. 4 vols. 8vo. 


1803. Filiasi, L'Anonimo Conte. Rccerclic 
Storio-critiche sull' opportunita della laguna 
Vencta pel commcrcio. 1803. ('3°) 

1803. Morelli, D. J. Disscrtazione intorno ad 
alcuni Viaggiatori cruditi Vcneziani poco not! 
... da Don Jacopo Morelli. In Venczia, 
M.DCCC.III. (*ji) 

1805. Olafsen and Povetsen. Triveli in Iceland 

performed by order of his Danish Majesty, con- 
taining observations on the manners and customs 
of the inhabitants, a description of the Lakes, 
Rivers, Glaciers, Hot-Springs, and Volcanoes, 
&c. By Messrs. Olafsen and Povelsen. Trans- 
lated from the Danish. London. 180;. 8vo. 

1806. Zurla, Cardinal Placido. II Mappa Mondo 

di Fra Mauro Camaldolese discritto ed illustrato, 
da D. Placido Zurla dcllo stcss' ordinc. Vcnezia, 
1806. Maf. (»33) 

1808. Zurla, Cardinal P. Dissertazinnc intorno ai 
viaggi e scoperte settentrionali di NicoliS cd 
Antonio Fratclli Zeni di D. Placido Zurla 
Benedcttino-Camaldolese. Venezia, dalle Stampc 
Zerlctti. mdcccviii. Sec No. 247. (^34) 

1808. Pezzana, Ange. Dc I'Anciennetd de la 
Mappcmondc des Freres Pizigani execut<ic en 
1367 &c. . . . Deux lettrcs de M. Ange Pezzana 
. . . traduit dc I'ltalien par C. Brack. Genes. 
1808. 8vo. (23;) 

1808. Boucher de la Richard^rie, Gilles. Biblio- 
thique Univcrselle des Voyages. Paris, 1808. 

Zeni, vol.1., pp. 53-54. 

i8og. Edmonston, Dr. A. A view of the Ancient 

and Present State of the Zetland Isles &c. ; by 

Arthur Edmonston M.D. Edinburgh, 1809. 

2 vols. 8vo. Map. (^37) 

The Zeni referred to i.i vol. i., po. 65-72. 

18x0. Malte-brun, Conrad.. Tableau Historique de 
Decouvertcs Gdographiques des Scandinaves ou 
Normands, et specialement de celle de I'Amdriquc 
avant Christophe Colomb, in Annales des 
Voyages, vol. x., pp. 50-87. Paris, 1810. Hlm- 
trated by a copy of the Zeno Map. [Brit. Mus., 
P. P. 3905-1 (238) 

1811-34. Kerr, Robert. A General History and 

Colleftion of Voyages & Travels arranged in 

systematic order &c. Edinburgh, 181 1-24. 18 

vols. 8vo. (*39) 

j^alvnk and Skolo Zeno, Vol. i., p. 4j8. 

181X. Mackenzie, Sir George Steuart. Travels 
in the Island of Iceland, during the summer of 
the year mdcccx, by Sir George Steuart Mac- 
kenzie, Bart., &c. Edinburgh. 4to. 181 1. (240) 

1811. Amoretti, Carlo. Viaggio del Mare Atlantico 

al Pacifico per le Via del Nord Quest. Milan, 
1811. (240 

(Maldonado's apocryphal voyage.) 

1812. Amoretti, Carlo. Voyage H la mcr Atlantiquc, 

traduit par Ch. Amoretti. (*4*) 

A translation of No. :t4l, with some additions. 

1814. Pinkerton.J. A general Colleflion of the best 
& most interesting Voyages and Travels in all 
parts of the World. London, 1 8 14. Vol. xvii., 
p. xxiv. (»43) 


Appendix VI. 


1814. WormskjAld, M. Gimmelt og Nyt om Grf n- 
lindi, Vinlind) og nogle flxre af. Forfxdrcne 
kjendle Lindci formcniligc Beliggenhcd. Sxr- 
iryk ifSkind. Lit. Sclskib. Skrilt. 1814. (144) 

x8i8. O'Reilly, Bernard. Grr<?nlind, the adjacent 

Sean, and the North West Voyage to the Pacific 

Ocean, jcc, by Bernard O'Reilly, Eiq. London, 

1818, I vol, 4to. Maps and flatis. (14S) 

"An Impudent fraud i pligiarifcd from Prof, C. L. M. von 

Oicsccke'i leAuie and from Prof, Valiancy. Sec LeitJaH Stuart. Arc., 

ill., pp. 108*114, Duhlin Univ. Mag., ill., 300, and Thomat Moore'i 

Mmoiri, i>53, li,, 165," — Mimi't Dili, 'f Eni. Lii, 

Z8l8. Barrow, [Sirj John. A Chronological History 
of Voyages into the AtAic Regions, By John 
Barrow, F,R.S. London, 1818. i vol. 8vo, 

Map. (146) 

Zcnl, pp, 1 3-16, 
1818. Zurla, Cardinal P. Di Marco Polo e dcgli altri 
Viaggiatori Vcneziani piii illustri Dissertazioni del 
P. Ab. D, Placido Zurla Sec. in Vcnczia 
MDCCCXViii. 1 vols, 410., 4 maps. The second 
volume contains Dei Viaggi c scoperte setten- 
trionale di Nicol6 ed Antonio Zeni Patrizi Veneti 
disscrtazionc, (*47) 

The latter ii pradically the ume work u Zurla's book of 1 808, 
riJ, No, 134. 

1818, Bossi, Luigi. Viti de Cristoforo Colombo, 

Milan, 1818. (248) 

ZenI, pp. 83*89, 

1819. Daru, P. Antoine Noel Bruno. Histoire de 

la Rifpubliquc de Venise. Paris, 1819. (249) 
ZenI, >nd edit Harlt, 1811. Vol, vi., pp, 19S-198, 

1819, Ross, Sir John. Voyage of Discovery . . , 
for the purpose of exploring Baffin's Bay, 
London, 4to. 1819. Pp, 15-26. ('5°) 

l8ao, Crantz, David, History of Greenland Sec. from 
the German of David Crantz, with a continuation 
to the present time, illustrative notes and an 
Appendix, Sec. London, 1820, 2 vols, 8vo. 
Map and Plates. (»5l) 

This li 1 dlRcrcit tranilation from that given in the edition of 
1767, See No. 108. 

l8ao. Scoresby, Dr. W. An Account of the Arctic 
Regions, with a History and Description of the 
Northern Whale-Fishery by W. Scoresby, Jun., 
F.R,S,E, 2 vols, 8vo, Edinburgh, 1820, (252) 

l8ai. Parry, Sir Edward. Journal of a Voyage for 
the Discovery of a North West Passage . . , 
in the years 1819-20, London, 4to, 1821, 

Pp- 4-5- (»53) 

l8aa. HoF ' E. A. von. Geschichte der durch 

T' icrungcr nachgeweisenen naturlichcn 

v.. terungen der Erdoberflache, Gotha, i8zz. 


Zeni, vol, i,, pp. 178-101, 

1833. Scoresby, Dr. Journal of a Voyage to the 

Northern Wi .le-nshery, including Researches 
and Discoveries on the Eastern Coast of West 
Greenland made in the summer of 1822 in the 
ship Baffin of Liverpool, by William Scoresby, 
Junior, F,R,S.E,, M,W.S, &c. &c. Commander. 
Edinburgh, 8v^. 1823. (255) 

1834. Estrup, H. F. J. Nogle Bema:rkningcr an- 

gaaende Gr^nlands <kterbygdc, KJ9bnhavn, 
1824. (Siertryk af, Skandinav. Litteratur Sclskab. 
Skrifter, Kbhvn, 1824. 20,) (256) 

Zeni, >43-3uo. 

i8a8. Biographic Universelle. Art.: Zeno, Nicolas 
et Antoine. Paris, 1828. Vol, lii, 8vo, Pp. 
228-238. [B, M. 10602, I.] (i;7) 

(Nouvelle Edition, 1843. 45 «oU. Imp. 8«o,) 

i8a8, Irving, Washington. A History of the Life 
and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Lon- 
don, 1828, 4 vols, 8vo, (>$8) 
ZenI, vol. Iv., pp. 117-114, 

i8a8, Roquette, Dezos de la. Article on Nicol6 
and Antonio Zeni in the Bicgrapiit Univtrstllf, 
Paris, 1828, vol. lii,, pp. 228-138. (*!9) 

i8a8. Walckenaer, Baron. Letter to Dezos de la 
Roquette in the Bugrapkii Vnivnstlli, vol, lii,, 
p. 137. (260) 

l8ag, Murray, Hugh. Historical Account of Dis- 
coveries and Travels in North America, London, 
1819. (161) 

Zeni, vol, i,, pp. i8-3(, 

1830. Cooley, W. Desborough, History of Mari- 

time and Inland Discovery (in Lardncr's Cabinet 
Cytlopiedia, London, 1830). (262) 

Zeni, vol, 1., pp, sil'115, 

1831, [Biddle, R.] A Memoir of Sebastian Cabot 

with a review of the History of Maritime Dis- 
covery, illustrated by documents from the Rolls, 
now first published, London and Philadelphia, 
1831, I vol. 8vo, (263) 

ZenI, pp. 318-3J1, 

1831. Wheaton, Henry. History of the Northmen, 
or Danes and Normans, from the Earliest times 
to the Conquest of England by William of Nor- 
mandy. 8vo. London, mdcccxxxi. (264) 
Zeni, p, 30, 

1833. Graah, Capt. W. A. Undersagclses Reiser til 
Ostkysten af GrOnland. Copenhagen, 1832, 
(See No. 277,) (165) 

1833-5. M'>lte-Brun, Conrad. Prdcis de la Geogra- 
phic Universelle, Sec. par Maltc-Brun. Nouvelle 
Edition, revue, corrigdc . . ct augment<!e , . 
par M, J. J, N, Huot. , . a Bruxcllcs, 1831 
to 183;, 6 vols, 8vo., and Atlas, (266) 

Zeni, vol. i., pp, 198-101 j vol, ii., p, 595; vol, vi., pp, 313, 316, 
31711,, 33 1, etc. 

1833, Priest, Josiah. American Antiquities and dis- 
coveries in the West. Albany, 1833, (267) 
Zeni, pp. 114-140, 

1833, Leslie, J., Jameson, R., and Murray, 

Hugh. Narrative of discovery and adventure 

in the Polar seas and Regions, New York, 

1833. (168) 

Zeni, pp. 88-89. 

1833, Zarhtmann, Admiral C. C. Bemaerkninger 

om de Venczianerne Zeni tihtrevne reiser i Nor- 
den, in Nordisk Tidsskrift for Oldkyndighcd, 
Kjobenhavn, if»^' -.ol, i., pp. 1-35. (For title 
of English version see No, 272.) (»6o) 

1834, Dupaix, Guitlaume. Antiquitds Mexicaines. 

Paris, 1834, Rcchcrchcs sur Ics antiquites de 
I'Amifriquc du Nord et de I'Amdriquc du Sud, 
par D, Baillie Warden. (*"°) 

Zeni, vol. i., pp, 161-163, 

D D 





Appendix VI. 


1S34. Roti, Sir John. Narriiive of 1 Second VoyiKc 
in learch ol 1 North-Wcit PiHige during the 
yeart i8i9-}3. London. 410. 1834. (P. 7.) 


1835. Ziirhtmann, Admiral C. C. Rcmirki on the 

voyigei, in the Northern Hemiiphcre, iicribcd 
to the Zeni of Venice. By Cipt. C. C. Zirht- 
minn, R.N., Hydrogriphcr to the Royil Dtniih 
Navy, ind communicated by him in ' Riy. 
C/fgraff'ual Stdtly tf Lndtn. 1835. Vol. v., 
p. 101. See No. 169, (>7>) 

183O. Humboldt, Baron A. von. Ex.^men Critique 
dc I'histoirc dc la Geographic du Nouvcau Con- 
tinent ct de> progrii dc I'Aiitronomie Nautique 
aux XV- ct XVI" Siides par Alexandre de 
Humboldt. Paris, Librairc dc Gide, i8]6. 


Zcni, vol, il., pp. 110-114. 

1836. Rafinesque, Constantine SmP.itz. The 

American Nations. Philadelphia, 1836. (174) 
Z<nl, vol. ii., p. iSi. 

1837. Rafn, C. C. Antiquitatea Amcricanarsiv. Scrip- 

tores Scptcntrionnlcj rerum antc-Colurnbianarum 
in America. Edidit Societal Kcgia Antiquariorum 
Scptenirionalium. Ilafnix, 1837. 410. (17;) 

1837. Croker, T. Crofton. The Tour of the French 
Traveller, M. dc la Boullaye le Gouz in Ireland, 
in A.D. 1644. Edited by T. Crofton Croker. 
London, 1837. See No. 161. (176) 

1837. Graah, Capt. W. A. Narrativeof an Expedi- 

tion to the East Coast of Greenland, sent by order 
of the King of Denmark in search of the lost 
Colonics (1828-1830), under the command of 
Capt. W. A. Graah, of the Danish Royal Navy, 
jcc. Translated from the Danish by G. G. Mac- 
Dougall for the Ro) . Gcog. Society of London. 
London, mdcccxxxvii. 8vo. Sec No. 16$. (177) 

/eni, pp. 3, 7, 20 and 175 it. 

1838. Folsom, Hon. G. The Voyages of the Zeni. 

North Amtr'uan Rivltw, Boston, July, 1838. 


Zeni, No. 47, pp. 177-106. 

1842. Halliwell, J. O. The Private Diary of Dr. 

John Dec and the Catalogue of his Library of 

Manuscripts, from the original Manuscripts in 

the Ashmolcan Museum at Oxford, and Trinity 

College Library, Cambridge. Edited by James 

Orchard Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S., &c. London, 

Camden Society. 1842. ('79) 

The diary eatendt from ijth Au|uit, ■5S4, to 6th April, 1601. 

fKc under date! November 18th, 1577, and June 30th, 1578, for 

tntriej relating to "Greenland," " Eitetiland," and "Friaeland," 

1842-53. Santarem, Vicomte de. Atlas Composd 
do Mappemondcs dc Portulano, et de Cartes 
Hydrographiqucs et Historiqucs, depuis le VI'. 
jusqu'au XVII'. siiclc, pour la plupart in^dit^, 
dcvant servir de preuvcs ^ I'histoirc de la cosmo- 
graphie ct dc la Cartographic pendant le moycn 
age, ct a cellc des progriis de la geographic ; re- 
cucillies et gravdcs sous la dir-flion du Vicomte 
dc Santarem. Paris, 1842-53. Folio. (280) 

1844. Wright, Thomas. St. Brandan a Medieval 
Legend of the Sea, in English Verse and Prose. 
Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 
ic. London, Percy Society, 1844. (281) 

184). BredsdorfT, J. H. Brfdrcne /enoi Reiser 
mod Indclcdning ud Anmzrkninger (Itr^nUndi 
Hiittriiii MiHiitimttrktr, Copenhagen, 1838- 
184;, vol. iii., pp. ;i9-6i;). a mtfi, [Brit. 
Mui. 9414, d,] (282) 

Conlalni a Daniih iranilatlun of the Zeno narralivt. 

1848. Robinson, Conway. An Account of dis- 
coveries in the West until I $19, and of Voyages 
to and along the Atlantic coast of North America, 
from i;ioto IS73. Richmond, 1848. (183) 
Zcnl, pp. 11-10. 

1850. Zaccaria, Oaetano. Caialogo ragionato di 
opere stampate per Francesco Marcolini da Forli 
compilato da Don Gaetano Zaccaria Ravennate 
con memorie biografiche del medesimo tipografo 
raccolte dall' Aw. Raffatle Je Minicis. Fermo, 
Tipografia de' Fratelli Cifcrri. mdcccl. £vo. 


185a. Lelewel, Joachim. Geographic du Moyen 
Age etudiec par Joachim Lelewel, accompagn)' 
d'Atlas, et des cartes dans chaque volume. 
Bruxelles, 1850-52. 4 vols, in 2, 8vo., and 
Atlas, obi. 4to. (285) 

Zeni, vol. Iv., pp. 79-108. 

1853. Ghillany, Dr. F. W. Geschichte des Seefahrers 
Ritter Martin Behaim. NUrnberg, 1853. (286) 
Contains a reproduAion of Martin Behaim'i Globe of 1491. 

1855. Erizzo, Miniscalchi. Le Scopertc Artiche 
narrate dal Conte Francesco Miniscalchi Erizzo. 
Venezia, 1855, Mapi. (287) 

1855-62. Jomard, Edme-Fran9ois. Les Monu- 
ments de la Geographic, ou recueil d'ancienncs 
Cartes Europiiennes et Orientates, accompagndes 
des Sphires Terrcstres ct Cdleatcs, de Mappe- 
mondcs et Tables Cosmographiques d'Astrolabcs 
. . . depuis les temps plus rcculds jusqu'i I'^poque 
d'Ortclius ct dc Girard Mercator. Paris, 185;- 
62. Imp. fol. 82 platfi. (288) 

1857. Bourbourg, L'Abb6 C. Etienne Brasseur 

de. Histoirc des nations civilizecs du Mexique 
et de I'Amerique-Centrale. Paris, 1857. (289) 
Zeni, pp. i-ai. 

1858. Peschel, Oscar Ferdinand. Geschichte des 

Zcitalters der Entdeckungen. Stuttgart, 1858. 

Zeni, p. 107. 

1859. Kunstmann. Die Entdeckung Amerika's. Ber- 

lin, 1859. [Brit. Mus. Tab. 1 850. A.] (291) 
i860. Asher, G. M. Henry Hudson the Navigator. 
Hakluyt Soc, i860. (292) 

Zeni, pp. dxiv-clavii. 

1861. Richardson, Sir John. The Polar Regions. 
Edinburgh, 186 1. 8vo. (293) 

Zeni, pp. 30-3]. "Evidently to b< placed in the category of 

1861. Casali, Scipione. Annale della Tipografia 
Veneziana di Francisco Marcolini da Forli. 
Forll, 1861. (294) 

1864. Brown, Rawdon. Calendar of State Papers 
and Manuscripts relating to English affairs existing 
in the Archives and CoUeftions of Venice and in 
other Libraries of Northern Italy. Vol. i., 1 202- 
1 509. Edited by Rawdon Brown. Published 
by authority of the Lords Comm". of H. M. 
Treasury, under the direftion of the Master of 
the Rolls. London, 1864. (295) 

I! ■ 

nes ts aai iiii u - 

Appendix VI. 


iMs< Brown, Rawdj.i. di Vcnczii con 

ri|uirilu ipcciale ill* no <n|leie. Vcnczit, 
■ 86;. (196) 

1U5. Langle, Vicomte de. Rippom lur Ici Hiun 
fondi ct Ici Vigici de I'Oc^in Atlintique cntre 
I'Europe et rAmc'riaue du Nord. Pur le Conirc- 
Amirat Vicomte de Lingle. F.iiriit du Bulletin 
dc li Socidt^G^ogriphique, Juillet, 186;. Paris, 
1865. (197) 

18M. Pope, Rev. Alex. Ancient Hiitory of Orkney, 
Ciithneii and the North, by Thormodui Torfzui. 
Tranilated with copiout notei by the late Rev, 
Aleiander Pope, Miniiler of Bray. Wick, 
Thuno, and Kirkwall, moccclxvi. (>98) 

x866. Harrilie, H. Notes on Columbui. Privately 
printed. 1866, New York. (*99) 

18M. Collinion, Rear-Admiral. Three Voyages 
of Martin Frobisher. Hakluyt Society, 1867. 


18O9. GlfTarel, Paul. Etudes sur les rapports dc 
I Am^rique et de I'Ancien Continent avani 
Ch/i:tophe Colomb. Paris, 1869. (3°') 

Z<nl, pp. s6i-t79. 

18O9. Kohl, Dr. J. 0. History of the Discovery of the 

East Coast of North America, in Transailions of 

the Maine Historical Society. and Series, 

Portland, 1869. [Brit. Mus. A. c. 8390.] (}oa) 

2Uni, vol. i., 93-io6, 

1870. Major, R. H. ScleA Letters of Christopher 
Columbus with other original documents relating 
"" to his four Voyages to the New World. Trans- 

lated and edited by R. H. Major, &c. Hakluyt 
Society, and ed., 1870. (3°}) 

Zenl, pp. iiii-ixv. 

1870. Costa, Rev. B. Franklin De. The North- 
men in Maine. Albany, 1870. (304) 
Zeni, pp. }o-4i. 

187X. Harrisse, Henry. D. Fernando Colon, His- 
toriador de su Padre. Ensayo Critico. Seville, 
1871. (305) 

187a. Harrisse, H. Femand Colomb, sa vie, ses 
oeuvres. Paris, 1872. (3°*^) 

1873. Costa, Rev. B. Franklin De. Columbus 
and the Geographers of the North. Hartford, 
1871. (307) 

Zen), pp. i9-ta. 

1873. Major, R. H. The Voyages of the Venetian 
Brothers Antonio and Nicol6 Zcno, to the 
Northern Seas in the XIV" Century, comprising 
the latest accounts of the lost Colony of Green- 
land and of the Northmen in America before 
Columbus. London. Printed for the Hakluyt 
Society, 1873. (308) 

1873. Major, R. H. The site of the lost Colony of 
Gree. land determined and pre-Columbian Dis- 
covciijs of America confirmed from XI V"* cen- 
tury 'Jocuments, by R. H. Major, F.S.A., Sec'. 
R.G.S., in "Journal of Roy. Gtog. Sot, of London, 
1873, vol. xliii., p. 156. (309) 

1873. Stanley of Alderley, Lord. Travels in Tana 
and Persia by Josafa Barbaro & Ambrogio 
Contarini, Translated from the Italian by 
William Thomas and by S. A. Roy. Edited, 
with an introdu6lion, by Lord Stanley of Alderley. 
London, Hakluyt Society, 1873. (3'°) 

1873, Orey, Charles. A Narrative of Italian Travels 
in Persia in the XVth and XVIth Centuries, 
[Caterino '/eno, Angiolello, &c,j Translated 
and edited by Charles Grey. London, Hakluyt 
Society, 1K73. (jri) 

1874-5. Major, R. H. The introduftion, only, 10 The 
Voyages of the Venetian Brothers N. h A. 
Zcno J(c. Hakluyt Society, I M73. Translated 
into Italian, by Ch. Carraro, in Arthivio t'tnilo, 
vol. vii., 1874, 301-16, and vol, viii., 1N7;, 
163-304. (311) 

1873-4. Maurer, Professor Dr. Konrad. Gr«n- 
land in Mittelalter, in Dii Zu/titt Dtnliiht 
Nordfitarfahrt in Jtn Jahin 1 869 nnJ 1 870 nnitr 
fuhrung dti Kafilan Karl Koldttnij. 4 vols. 8vo. 

Lcipsig, 1873-1874 
Z«nl, vul. I., pp. ia]-i4>. 


1874. Anderson, R. B. America not discovered by 
Columbus. Chicago, 1874. (314) 

(Later cdltioni, il^j, lit], 1I91.) Contilni • ihort bibllo|riph]r 
of the Zcno lubjca, td, 1191, pp. 1 jo-i5l. 

1874. Kennedy, Miss Anne, and Thomas, Capt. 
Letter from St. Kilda. By Miss Anne Kennedy, 
communicated with notes by Capt. F. W. L. 
Thomas, R.N., F.S.A. (Scot.), in Proceedings 
ofSocicty of Scottish Antiquaries, vol. x., p. 70Z. 
1S74. [Brit. Mus. A, C. 5770./i.] (315) 

1874, Or jvier, OabrieL D^couvertc de I'Amdrique 

par les Normands aux X. siiclc. Paris, 1874. 

Zcni, pp, 113-111. 

1875. Major, R. H. The Voyages of the Venetian 

brothers Zeno to the Northern Seas in the four- 
teenth century, by Richard Henry Major, F.S.A. 
Boston, Massachusetts Historical Society, 1875. 

1875, Beauvois, M. E. La Decouverte du Nouveau 
Monde par les Irlandais et les premieres traces 
du Christianisme en Amdrique avant I'an 1000 : 
in Compte-rendu du Congris dcs Amcricanistcs. 
Nancy, 1875. Tom. i., pp. 41-93. (B.M.Ac. 
6110.) (318) 

1875. Bartlett, J. Russell. Bibliothcca Americana: 
a Catalogue of Books relating to North and South 
America, in the Library of the late J. Carter 
Brown. Providence, 1875. Vol. i., pp. 111-21 3. 

(3 "9) 

1875. Raemdonck, Dr. Les Spheres Terrcstrc ct 

Celeste, ■;4l, i;5l, dc Gerard Mcrcator. By 

Dr. Raemdonck. St. Nicholas, 187;. (310) 

1875. Casas, Bartolom6 de Las. Historia de las 

Indias. Madrid, 187 ;-6. ; vols. 8vo. (311) 
Written by Lii Caui between 1517-61, but not printed till 1875. 
See No. 37. 

1876. Bryant, W. Cullen, and Gay, Sidney H. 

Popular History of the United States. New 
York, 1876. (322) 

Zcni, voL !., pp. 76-gj. , 

1877. Beauvois, M. E. Les Colonies Europdcnes du 

Markland et dc I'Escociland (Domination Cana- 
dienne) au XVI. siicle et les vestiges qui en 
subsisteicnt jusqu'aux XVI. et XVII. siicles, in 
Compte rendu du Congris dcs Amcricanistcs. 
Luxembourg, 1877. Vol. i., pp. 174-232, (323) 






ylppendix FI. 

1877. Rink, Dr. Henry. Diniih Urrenland, in People 

•ml ill prodiidt. London, 1H77. (]'4) 

1878. Desimoni, Cornell j. I vUgii e li carta del 

I'ratclli /cno, 1)90-140;, in ArtHvit Sitritt 
llaliant. Quaria icrie. Tomo ii., pp. 389-417. 
Fircnic, 1878. (B. M,, P. P. 3$$7a.) Sec No. 
353. (.1>5) 

1878. Deiimoni, Cornelio. Pr^cii nf Mcmoirc 
siir le Voyage de« frirci /eni aii Nord dc 
I'F.uropc, in ditrnaU Lijfmlitt M jlrthtUgia, 
Sloria e btll' iirli. Janvicr-Pcvrier, 1878. Genoa, 
MDccci.xxviii. [Brii. Mui. P. P. 4189 I'.] 0*^) 

1878. Harrisse, Henry. L'Misioirc dc Chrimnphe 
Colomh, attribute i aon lils Fcrnand. Eiamcn 
crilii[iic. Parii, 1878. (3'7) 

1878. Krarup, Pr. Oni /cnicrnci Rcisc til Norden, 
in Kongcligc Dannk Gcographisk Sclikab. Tidi- 
ilirirt. Vol. for 1878. Copenhagen. 410. [Brit. 
Mus. Ac. 6109.] (318) 

1878. Krarup, Fr. Zcnicrnei Rci«e til Norden, et 

Toknungi Fors^g, *( Fr. Krarup. t mafi. 

Kjobcnhavn, 187H. (3>9) 

Thr Britiih Museum contiina no copy, but there it one in th< 

Library o(' the Kuyiil Otographical Society, London. 

1878. Seton, George. St. Kilda, Pait and Present. 

Blackwood, Kdinburgh and London, 1 87M. (330) I 

1878. Foster, J. Wells. Prc-historic racci ol" the 
United States of North America. Chicago, 1878. 

Zeni, pp. 199, 400. 

1878. Jones, Rev. F. Life of Sir Martin Frobiiher, 

Kt. London, 1878. Cr. 8vo. (332) 

Zcni, p. 154. 

1879. Irminger, Admiral. Zeno's Frisland is Iceland, 

and not the Fwrocs, in Journal of Roy. Ctog. 
Soc, vol. ilix., p. 398. 1879. Sec following 
number. (333) 

1879. Major, R. H. Zcno's Frislanda is not Iceland 

but the Firocs, An answer to Admiral Irminger 
in Journal of Roy. Geog. Sot., vol. xlix., p. 412. 
See last number. (334) 

1879-96. Various Authors. Mcddclelserom Grtin- 
land, udgivne af Commissioncn for Lcdclscn af 
dc gcologiskc og Gcographiske Unders6gelscr i 
Grfinland. Copenhagen. Rciczcl. 8vo., parts 
1-13 and 16-19 (all published). 1879-1896. 
Many plain and mafi. (335) 

1880. Costa, Rev. B. F. De. Verrazano the Ex- 

plorer, being a vindication of his letter and 
voyage. By B. F. dc Costa. New York, 1880. 
I vol. 4to. Portrait anJ mapi. (33^) 

1880. Markham, Capt. [Admiral] A. H. The 
Voyages and Works of John Davis the Navigator. 
London, Hakluyt Society, 1880. (337) 

1880. [Molineux, E., or Wright, E.] TheMapof 

the World, A.D. 1600, to illustrate the Voyages 
of John Davis. London, Hakluyt Society, 1880 
(with facsimile map). Sec No. 116. (33*) 

1881. NordenskjOld, Baron. The Voyage of the 

Vega round Asia and Europe, with a Historical 
Review of previous journeys along the North 
Coast of the Old World, by A. E. Nordenskjald, 

translated by Alexander Leslie. With portraits, 
maps, and i'luatralioni. London, 1 88 1. I voU. 
8vo. (339) 

l88a. Uzielli and Amat. Studii BiograAci k Biblio- 
graphic i lulla itoria dclla gcngrafia in Italia. 
1st edition, l8;9. and edition, Rome, iM8t. 
[B. M. B.B. T.a. I.] (340) 

1883. Amat di S. Filippo. Bin^ralia dci Viaggia- 
tori Italiani colla Bibliographia delli loro opere 
per Amat di S. Filippo. Rome, lH8a. (341) 

l88a. Loehner, Ch. V. /cnicrnci Rcjic etc. Viaggio 
dci /cno del Seitcntrione, tentativo di inter- 
prcta/.ionc di Frcdcricu Krarup, 1878, in Arthivit 
I'tntti, T. xxiii., pp. 110-134. S"^* Noi. 118, 
3»9- (34») 

1883. Delisle, L. Choiide Documents G^ographiquei 
conservdi i la Bibliochique Naiionalc. Parii, 

'8«3. (343) 

Cnniaini racilmik of Atlai CauUn di Charlri V., Roi de Fiincc, 
IJ75. S« No. J. 

1883. Steenst'Ut<, K. J. V. /enierncs Reiser i 

Norder, in Arboget for Nord Old Kindightd 

(Year books of Northern Archxology), 1883. 

Sec No. 349. (344) 

1883. Harrisse, H. Les Corte-Rcal et Icurs Voy- 
ages au Nouvcau Monde. Paris, 1883. (34;) 
lllultrated by a faclimlle of a large portion of the Cinlino Map, 
1502. See No, 20. 

1883. Nordenskjdld, Baron. Discovery of an 
Ancient Map in Iceland by Baron Nordenskjnid, 
with a Note by R. H. Major, in Pro<. Roy. 
Ofograpi. Soc, 1883, vol. v. (N.S.), p. 473. 


1883. Dickson, Oscar. The supposed Ancient 
Map discovered hy Baron Nordenskjflld. Letter 
from Oscar Dickson (stating his opinion that the 
map is later ihan i;s8), in Free, Roy. Giog. Soc, 

1883, vol. V. N.S.), p. 556. (347) 

1883. Nordenskjold, Baron. Studicr ich Forsk- 

ningar foranlcdda af minor resor i huga Norden 
(Studies and Researches occasioned by my voy- 
ages in the far North). Stockholm, 1883, 1884. 


1884. Steenstrup, K. J. V. Les Voyages des 

Frercs Zcni dans Ic Nord, in Comptc Rendu 
du Congr^s des Amcricanistcs, Copenhagen, 

1884, pp. i;o.i89. [B. M. A. c. 6120.] See 
No. 344. (349) 

1884. Hatrisse, Henry. Christophc Colomb, son 
origii.e, sa vie, scs voyages, sa famille te ses 
descendtnts d'apris des documents inifdits tir^i 
des archives des Gfnes, dc Savonc, dc Sifvillc et 
de Madrid. Etudes d'Histoire, Critique. Par 
Henry Harrisse. 2 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1884. (350) 

1884. Weise, A. J. The Discoveries of America to 
By Arthur James Weise, M.A. 
8vo. (351) 

the year 1525. 
London, 1884. 
Zeni, pp. 44-50. 

1885. Erslcf, Prof. Ed. Nye Oplysninger om 
Brodrcne Zenis Rejser. Copenhagen, 188;. 
(Also in Geog. Tidikrifi, vii., 153.) (35') 


ftf*iendix VI, 





iMj. Deilmoni, C. I Viigii e It Cirti del tViielli 
/eno Venexitni, 1)90-140;. Studio Sccondn 
(F.ilriico dall' Archiviii Storico Itiliino. iHM;. 
Quariaicric. Tomo ivi., pp. iH4-ai4), Pirciiic, 
1HH5. (U. M. P. P. 3557. i.) Sec No. 315. 

1885. Orieve, Symington. The Great Auk. 

London, ittH 5. 4to. Pp. 14-to. (3S4) 

1886. Brenner, Dr. Oicar. Die iichtc Kinc dcs 

OlauaMigiiusvomJiihre 1 ;39 nichdcm exemplar 
der MUnchen Staalibibliotek, vdn Dr. Uicar 
Brenner, in Christianii yidtnik*bi ulikabi For- 
imiiMiiigfr, 1HH6, tio. n. Chriitiania. Facsimile 
map, reduced. (3f S) 

1886. Magnus, Olaut. Pull-sized Faciimilc of Olaus 

Magnus' Carta Marina ct Descriptio Sepien- 
trionalium Ice, Venice, 1539. Sec No. ;o. 

1887. Hamy, Dr. E. T. Notice lur unc Mappe- 

mondc Portugaiic Anonymc de I ;oi. [The 
"King" Map.] In the BuIUiih ilt CiitgrnfHt 
hhtorii/ut tl ilcitripiivt. No. 4, Paris, 1887. (357) 
Also reprinted in Hamy's Eludti Hiiliri^Kti el 
Giogriiphiqufs. Paris, 1896. Sec No. 21, 

1887. Connell, Robert. St. Kilda and the St. 
Kildians. Glasgow. (jl'!8) 

1889. Winsor, Justin. Narrative and Critical Hii- 
tory of America. London, 1889, 8 vijIs. 8vn. 
Vols. i-iv. (359) 

1889. Nordenskjold, Baron. Facsimile Atlas to the 
Early History of Cartography with reproduiUons 
of the most important maps printed in the XVth 
and XVIth centuries. Translated from the 
Swedish original by J. A. Ekelof, Roy. Swed. 
Navy, and Clements Markham, C.R., F.R.S. 
Stockholm, m ik'cclxxxix. Folio, ^l p/ales anJ 
many mapi in tht text. (3^0) 

l8gi. Storm, Dr. Gustav. Om Zcniernes Reiser. 
"Foredrag den 17'" December 1890. Separal 
Aflryk af del Nonke GeograpHske Se/ikai, jrieg 
II, 1890. 1891." Kristiania, 1891. 8vo. 
4 mapi. (An excerpt from the Wocecdings of 
the Norwegian Geographical Society.) (361) 

l8gi. Storm, Dr. Gustav. Den Danskc Geograph 
Claudius ClavusellcrNicolaus Niger; af Professor 
Dr. Gustav Storm. Aftryk af ymer tidskrift up- 
given af Svenska Sallskiipet for Antropologi och 
Gengrafi, 1889-91. Stockholm, 1891. Faeiimile 
map and tables. (362) 

1891. Berlin Geographical Society. Drei Karten 

von Gerhard Mcrcator. F.uropa — Britischc Inscin 
— Weltkartc. Facsimile-Lichtdruck nach den 
Originalen den Stadtbibliothek zu Brcslau her- 
gcstelt von der Reichsdruckcrei. Hcrausgebcn 
von der Gcscllschaft fUr Erdkunde zu Berlin. 41 
Tafcln. Berlin (KUhl), London (Sampson Low & 
Co.), Paris (H. Ic Soudier). Fol. See Nos. 
61, 79, and 81. (363) 

1892. Nordenskjald, Baron. Bidrag till Norden 

Aldsta Kartograii vid Fyrahundraarsfestcn till 
minna af nya vestdcns uptackt. Utgifna af 
Svenska Sallskiipet fOr Antropologi och Geograii. 
Stockholm, 1892. Portfolio containing 9 map> in 
faeiimile. Sec Nos. 11, 12, 13, and 14. (364) 

1893. Vallejo and Travnor. Full-sited facsimile 
of Juan de la Cora's Map of the World, I soo, 
with explanatory text. Madrid, 1H91. See Nn, 
19- (}«5) 

1893. GafTarel, Paul. Hittoire dc la 0/couvcrte de 
rAm>!riqu« depuis les originea juitiu'i) la inorte dt 
Christuphc Colomb. Par PaulGanarcl,Profciicur 
it la Faculty de Lcttrcs dc Dijon, Paris, i8at. 
2 vols. 8vo. (306) 

189a. Mark'nam, [Sir] Clements. Columbus. 
London, 1892. (3A7) 

189a, The Athenteum. C. H. Coote in Review of 
Justin Winsor's CMittfkr Coliimbui, No. 
33;4, February 6th, 1891, p. 183, and in Review 
of Markham's CtlumbMi, Prit. Roj, Geograph. 
Soi, for Sept., 1892, and Elton's Ctlumbui, No. 
3393. Nov. 5th, 1892, p. 624. (368) 

189a. Piske, John. The Discovery of America, with 
some account of Ancient America and the Spanish 
Conquest, by John Fiskc. London, 1892. 2 
vols. 8vo. (369) 

189a. Elton, Charles I. The Career of Columbus, 
by C. I. Elton. London, Paris, and Melbourne, 
1892. I vol. 8vo. (37°) 

189a. Winsor, Justin. Christopher Columbus. 
London. (37') 

189a. Harrisse, H. ThcDiscoveryof North America, 
a critical documentary and Historic Investigation, 
with an Essay on the Early Cartography of the 
New World, including descriptions of 250 map» 
or globes before I $36. London and Paris, 1892. 


189a. Kretschmer, Dr. Konrad. Die Entdeckung 
Amerika's, in ihrcr hcdeutung filrdie Geschichte 
dcs Wcltbildes von Konrad Kretschmer. Berlin, 
1892. Vol. of text in 4to. and atlas, imp. folio, 
with 40 plates. (373) 

189a. Lucas, Joseph. Kalm's account of his Visit 
to England on his way to America in 1748. 
London, 1892, 8vo. See No. 204. (374) 

1893. Vespucci, Amerigo. The first four Voyages of 
Amerigo Vespucci reproduced in facsimile, with 
translation, introdudlion, a map, and a facsimile of 
a drawing by Stradanus. London, Bernard 
Quaritch, 1893. (The facsimile is from a copy 
in the library of the late Charles Kalbfleisch of 
New York.) There is a copy in the Brit. Mus. 
See No. 23. (375) 

1893. Brown, Horatio F. Venice, an Historical 
Sketch of the Republic, by Horatio F Buwn. 
London, 189J. (37<5) 

1893. Schumacher, Hermann A. von. Olaus 

Magnus k die altcstcn Karten den Nordlande, in 
Zeitichrifi fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin, Band xxviii. 
(1893), pp. 167.250. [B. M. Ac. 6075/2.] 


1894. Sinclair, Thomas. Caithness Events, etc., by 

Thomas Sinclair, M.A. Wick, 1894. (378) 

1894. Muller. Remarkable Maps of the XV'\ XVI'I", 
and XVII"" Centuries reproduced in their 
original size. Amsterdam, 1894. Part I. Port- 
folio, with 14 maps in fat simile, and an introdudion 
by Mr. C. II. Coote. (379) 




Appendix FI. 

Prowse, Judge D. W. A History of New- 
foundlanafrom the English, Colonial ind Foreign 
Records, by D. W. Prowse. London, 1895. 
410. (Second edition, revised, corrcAcd and 
■bridged, 8vo, 1896.) (380) 

Barron, Capt. William. Old Whaling 
Days (Hull, 1895, crown 8vo), pp. 121-123. 


1896. Harrisse, Henry. John Cabot, the Tiscoverer 

of North America, and Sebastian his son. By 
Henry Harrisse. London, 1896. 8vo. (382) 

1897. Nansen, Fridtjof. Farthest North. West- 

minster, 1897. 1 vols, 8vo. (383) 

1897. Clowes, Wm. Laird. The Royal Navy. 
A History from the Earliest Times to the Present. 
By Wm. Laird Clowes, etc., assisted by Sir 
Clements Markham, Capt. A. T. Mahan, Mr. 
H. W. Wils:;ii, Mr. Theodore Roosevelt, Mr. 
E. Frascr, etc. In five volumes. Vol. i. London, 
189:- (384) 

1897. Gosch, C. C. A. Danish Araic Expeditions 
160; to 1620. Hakluyt Soc, Icndon, 1897. 


1897. Christy, Miller. On Bussc Island. App. A. in 
Gosch's Danish Ardic ExptJitiom, 1 897. (386) 

1897. Christy, Miller. On an early chirt of the 
North Atlantic preserved in the Ro; j1 Library 
at Stockholm. Privately printed. London, 1897. 
Sec No. 125. (387) 

1897. Nordenskjold, Baron A. E. Pcriplus, An 

Essay on the Early History of Charts and Sailing 
Dircdions. Translated from the Swedish by 
Francis A. Bather. Stockholm, 1897. Imp. 
Fol. (388) 

Zcni, p. 86, n. 1, etc. 

1898. Beazley, C. Raymond. John and Sebastian 

Cabot. The Discovery of North America. 

(Builders of Greater Britain Seres.) London, 

1898. 8vo. (389) 
Zcni, pp. 15, J4. 

i;- (^ 'V 












(The figurii refer to tht number at the end tf each item in Appendix yi.) 

Agncsc. 63 
Allardt. 149 
Amat. 340, 341 
Amoretti. 241, 141 
Anania. 9; 
Anconc. 18 
Anderson, Johan, 202 
Anderson, R. B. 314 

Map. Atlantic, c. 1505. 22 

do. Atlas Catalan, 137;. ; 

do. British Isles, 1546 (Lafreri 
Atlas). 57 

do. Catalan Map, 14 — ? II 

do. Estland (LutVeri Atlas). 73 
Europe (Caart Thrcsor). 



Frisland (Lafreri). 72 
Iceland (Lafreri). 74 
Italian Portolano, 1508. 27 
Map. N. Europe and Greenland. 


do. Scandinavia and do. i 3 
do. do. oj, 14 

A'her. 292 

Barbaro. 4;, 175 

Barents. 1 1 3 

Barron. 381 

Barrow. 246 

Bartlett. 319 

Baudrand. 177 

Beauvois. 318, 323 

Bceman. 171 

Behaim. t6 

Belknap. 227 

Bergeron. 14; 

Berlin Geogrtiph. Sec, 

Bernard. 191 

Bertius. 13; 

Best. 90 

Bianco. 7, 8 

Biddle. 263 

Biographic VnivcrscUc. 257 

Blefkcn. 127 

Bocthius. 38 

?orda, dc, 211 

Boi lone. 39 

BoroU)jh. 89 

Bossi. 248 

Botero. 1 2 2 

Boullayc-le-Gou7.. 161, 276 

Boucher de la Richardcric. 236 

Bourbourg, Brasscur de. 289 

BrcdsdorfF. 282 

Brenner. 35; 

Brown, Horatio F. 376 

Brown, Rawdon. 29;, 296 

Bry, de. 120 

Bryant (and Gay). 322 

Buache. 220 

Buchan. 197 

Buchanan. 94 

Ci4!r'?"n. 129 

C-inocius. 77 

Camus. 228 

Canttni) Map. 20 

Carli. 213 

Carraro, C. 312 

Casali. 294 

Casas, Las. 37, 321 

Ccllarius. 187 

Charlevoix. 198 

Christy, Miller. 386, 387 

Clavus. 6 

Clowes. 384 

Cluverius. 173 

CoUinson. 300 

Columbus, F. (?) 84 

Connell. 358 

Cooley, W. D. 262 

Cootc, C. H 368, 379 

Coronelii. 180, 181 

Cosa, de la, 19, 36; 

Costa, Rev. B. F. dc. 304, 307, 336 

Crantz. 208, 251 

Crenne, de la. 211 

Croker, T. C. 276 

Daru. 249 

[Davity.] 137 
Dec, Dr. 93, 279 
Pe risle, G. 192, 1 96 
Uelisle, L. 343 
Dcsceliers, P. 55, 56, 59 
Dcsimoni. 325, 326, 353 
Dickson, O. 347 
Donis. I ; 
Drage. 201 

Dudley. 163 
Dupaix. 270 

Eden, R. 66, 87 

Edmondston. 237 

Edrisi. I, 2 

Egcde. 1 99 

Eggers, von. 22;, 226 

Elton. 370 

Erizzo, Miniscalchi. 287 

Erslef. 352 

Eszlcr. 3 1 

Estrup. 256 

Filiasi. 230 
Fiske. 369 
Folsom. 278 
Fordun, de. 20; 
Formaleone. 217, 2 1 8 
Forster, J. R. 219, 223 
Foscarini. 203 
Foster, J. W. 331 
Foxe, Luke. 146 

Gatt'arel. 301, 366 
Gastaldi. 58 
Gataro. 193 
Gatonbe (Chart). 130 
Gay, S. H. 322 
Gcrritz, Hcsscl. 133 
Ghillany. 286 
Giustiniano, A. 33, 4S 
Gomara. 64 
Goos, A. 136 
Gosch. 3*5 
Gotofredus. 158 
Graah. 265, 277 
Gravier. 316 
Grey. 3 1 1 
Grieve, S. 354 
Grotius. i;i 
Gryn.-cus. 47 
Gudmundus. i ;o 

Hakluyt. 96, 100, 117 

Halliwell. 279 

Hamy. 357 

Harrisse, H. 299, 305, 306, ^27, 

3+5. 350. 37^, 3«i 
Haym. 229 

I: , 




Alphabetical Index to Appendix VI. 


Hcrrcra. 1 2 1 
HofF, von. »54 
Hoieus, 149 
Homcm, D. 67 
Hondius. 147 
Hornius, G. c6o, 169 
Hulsius. 134 
Humboldt, von, 273 
Hume, P. 165 
Hyggedcn, de. 3 

Irmingcr. 333 
Irving, W. 258 

James. 144. 

Jameson. 268 

Jansonnius. 1 36 

Jomard. 288 

Jonas, Arngrim. 128, 131, I $4 

Jones. 332 

Kalm. 204, 374 

Kaufmann. 49, ;2, 61, 79, 81, 92, 

'47. 3»o. 363 
Kennedy. 315 
Kc.-r. 239 
Keulen, van. 200 
" King " Map. 2 1 
Kohl. 302 
Krarup. 328, 329 
Krctschmer. 373 
Kunstmann. 291 

Lact, de. 153. "5 5- 

Langl ■, Admiral de, 297 
Lclcwel. 285 
Lesley, John. 91 
Leslie, J. 268 
Linschoten. 106, 112, 11; 
Lochner. 342 
Lok, M. 138, I40 
Lucas, J. 374 

M., F. 19; 

Macaulay. 207 

Mackenzie. 240 

Madrignano. 28 

Magini. 107 

Magnus, Olaus. 50, ;i, 6;, 80, 356 

Major, R. H. 303, 308, 309, 312, 

3'7. 33+ 
Maltc-brun. 238, 266 
Markhani, Admiral A. H. 337 
Markham, Sir Clements, 360, 367 
Martin, M. 183, 184 
Martiniere. 209 

Martyr, Peter. 30, 3;, 40. 41, 42 
Mattiolo. ;8 
Maurer. 313 
Mauro, Fra. 9 
MeddeUlser em Gripn/a«J. 335 
Megisscr. 1 32 
Mcrcator. 49, 52, 61, 79, 81, 92, 

■47. 320, 363 

Molecius, 76 
Molincux. 103, 116, 338 
Montalboddo. 24, 34 
Montanus. 167 
Moray, Sir R. 1 74 
Morelli. 231 
Morcri. 194 
Morisot. i;2 
Mailer. 379 
MUnster, S. C3, qti 
Muratori, L. 193 
Murray, H. 261, 268 
Myritius. 101 

Nansen, F. 383 

Nordenskjold. 339, 346, 348, 360, 

Ogilby. 168 

Olaiacn and Povclscn. 232 
Oliva, Perez de. 36 
Olives, Jaume. 78 
O'Reilly. 245 
Ortelius. 82, 8;, 102 
Oviedo, 43 

Parry, Sir E. 253 

Patrizio, F. 71 

Pennant. 224 

Peschcl. 290 

Peyrirc, de la. 157, 16; 

Pczzana. 23; 

P^ckersgill. 212, 215 

Pingr<*. 211 

PinUerton, J. 243 

Pitt. I y(^ 

Pizigani. 4 

Planciu?. 104 

Pontanus. 143 

Pope, Rev. A. 298 

Porcacchi. 88 

Priest, J. 267 

Prowse, Judge D. W. 380 

Prunes, Matteus. 60 

Ptolemy. 15, 26, 29, 31, 44, 53, i9, 

75. 76 
Purchas. 139, 141 

Quad, M. 118, 119 
Quirino. 54 

Raemdonck, 320 
Rafinesque. 274 
Rafn, C. C. 275 
Ramusio. 70, 86 
Rascicotti. 97 
Kedusio. 193 
Resen, H. P. 126 
Riccioli. 164 
Richardson, Sir J. 293 
Rink, Dr. 324 
Robbe. 178 
Roberts, L. 1 48 
Robinson. 283 
Roquctte, Dezos d: la. 2i9 

Rosace io. 123 
Ross, Sir John. 
Ruscelli. 7; 
Ruysch. 20 

250, 271 

Sabellico. 2 5 

Santarem. 280 

Sanuto, Livio. 99 

Sanuto, Marin. 193 

Schedel. 17 

Sch6ner, J. 32 

Schumacher, H. A. von. 377 

Scoresby, Dr. W. 2; 2, 25; 

Seller, John. 162, 170, 172 

Serveti s. 44 

Seton. 330 

Sinclair, T. 378 

Speed, John. 142 

Stanley of Alderley, Lord. 310 

Steenstrup, K. J. V. 344, 349 

Stcphanius, S. 83 

Stoikkolm Chart. 1 25 

Storm, Dr. G. 361, 362 

Stuvcn, J. F. 188 

Suhm, P. F. 206 

Sylvanus. 29 

Tentori. 221 

Terra Rossa. 179 

Thomas, Capt. 3 1 $ 

Thorlacius, G. 124 

Thorlacius, T. 1 66 

Tiraboschi. 210 

Toaldo. 216 

Torfaeus. 182, 185, 186, 189, 190, 

Tramezini. 62, 68 
Troil, Uno von. 214 

Uziclli. 340 

Vallejo and Traynor. 365 
Vaugondy, de. 222 
Vayer, La Mothc Lc. 1 59 
Veer, Gcrrit de. 109, no, III, 114 
Vespucci. 23, 375 
Villanovanus. 44 

Walckenaer, Baron, 260 
Weise, A. J. 351 
Wheaton, H. 264 
Winsor, Justin. 359, 371 
Wormskjold, M. 244 
Wright, Ed. 116, 338 
Wright, T. 281 
Wytfliet. 108 

Zabarella. 1 'fi 

Zaccaria. 284 

Ztimoiski Miip. IO 

Zarhtmann, Admir?!. 269, 272 

Zeno, Jacopo. 54, 193 

Zcno, Nicolf). 69 

Ziegler. 46 

Zurla. 233, 234, 247 


. ^- • 





♦i / 

1 ■'( 


Note. — Tht names of persons av frinled in thick type. 

Aa, Peter van der, Map by, identifying Labrador, New 
Britain, North Canada, with Estotilandia, and attributing 
its discovery to Antonio Zcno in 1 390, /^3. 

Abdc, Hopdi, Iceland, 117. 

Af (promontory), Mercator identifies Cape Desolation with, 

Aff<'.ilar, Jeronimo, resemblance of his story to that of the 

Frisland fisherman, 78-80, 95, 

Alday, James, fails to find Frisland, 40. 

Allardt, Hugo, 38. See App. VI. 

America, pre-Columbian discovery of attributed to Antonio 
Zeno, 6, 31, 50, 78 ; by O.telius, 32 j by Mercator 
(1569) and Ortelius (1570), z8; by Mothe le Vayer, 
38; by Cellarius, 43; by Marco Barbaro, 61; not 
direfUy claimed by Zeno the younger in the Annals, 1 56. 

Anania, Lorenzo d', 31, 84, 123, 139. See App. VI. 

Ancone, Frederici d', 107, 108. See App. VI. 

Andcfort, Zurla identifies Nodifordi of Fra Mauro with, 
to6; is Anarfiord, Iceland, 1 1 7. 

Anderson, Johan, 127, 131. See App. VI. 

Anglia Oc'identalis, 29, 32. See West England. 

Aniesis, Arnxs Syssel, Iceland, 117. 

Anticosti, Estoti'and identified by Lelewel with, 1 22. See 
Cape Breton. 

Apianus, Peter, his map of i;20, 121. 

Arthur, Kyng, according to Dr. Dec >.on<]uered Frisland, 

Barbaro, Daniel, Patriarch of Aquilegia, Zeno's book 

dedicated to, 3, 25. 
Barbaro, Marco, author of the MS. Discendenze Patrizie, 

6'. 70. 93. 97. '54. 'S^- S" App. VL 

Barentz, William, 35. S«App. VI. 

Barrow, Sir John, 33, 47, 130, 147. See App. VI. 

Baudrand, Michel Antoinc, 41, 4',, 50, 85, 86. See 
App. VI. 

Beauvois, M. E., 97, 122, i;6. See App. VI. 

Behaim, Martin, 131. See App. VI. 

Belga, Nicolaus, 43. 

Bertius, P., 28. See App. VI. 

Best, George, gives first published notice of Buss Island, 
126, 127. See App. VI. 

Bianco, Andrea, his map of 1448, 69; his map of 1436, 
105, 106, 107. 

Biddle, R., 48. See App. VI. 

Blefken, Ditmar, 36, 37, 44. See App. VI. 

Boats, leather, the elder Nicolo Zeno's account of Green- 
landers', 14 ; mentioned by Zicgler, Olaus Magnus and 
SchOner, 76 ; 76, n. 6 ; Zeno's account of based on 
misunderstanding, 77. 


Boethius, Heftor, 88. See App. VI. 

Bondcndea Porti. See Bondendon. 

Bondendon, 9, 64, 70 ; name probably derived from 

Portuguese source, 113; name considered by Major as 

Venetian transmutation from Norderdahl, i;i. 
Bordone, Benedetto, his Isolario one of the sources of 

Zeno's narrative and map, 2, 23, 39, Ji, 74, 75, 78, 

80, 81, 82, 83, 87, 89, 90, 99, 101, 102, III, 121, I ;6. 

See App. VI. 
Borough,W., MS. mapby,showing Frobisher's discoveries, 

30, ». I. 
Bossi, Luigi, thought Frisland to be a maritime region 

rather than a single island, 1 1 5. 
Botero, Giov., 37. See App. VI. 
Doty (Bardsen), Ivar, 37. 
Boullaye le Gouz, De la, 133. See App. VI. 
Bres, Island of (Bressav, Shetland Isles), II, 36, 71, 7^, 

77. 102. ■ 

Bredsdorff, J. H., 50, 69, 97, 105. See App. V. & VI. 
Brenner, Dr. Oscar, his discovery of a copy of Olaus 

Magnus' map of 1539, long lost, 53, 103. 
Broas (Brons on map), Island of, I'., 71, 102. 
Brons (Broas), 102. 
Brown, Horatio F., on Venetian Government annual 

voyages, 62, 63. 
Brown, Rawdon, gives list of commanders of Venetian 

Government annual voyages, 62, 63. 
Bry, Theodore de, 35. S« App. VI. 
Buache, Jean Nicolas, the first to suggest that Frisland is 

the Faroes, 46, 115, 116. See App. V. & VI. 
Buchanan, George, 88, 94 See App. VI. 
Buss (Bus, Busse, or De Bry), Island of, 33, 34, 3;, 36, 

37. 43.48. 50. "4. '»o. "5. 'i6. »»8, 129, 130, 131, 

«33. '38, 139- 

Camocius, J. F., his map of I 562 referred to by Zurla, 
104; a later edition of Tramczini's mapof i;^8, 104. 
5«App. VI. 

Camus, A. G., 35. See App. VI. 

Cantino, Alberto, his map of i 502 the first to sho'v an 
island named "Frislanda," 64, 109. 

Cape Breton identified by Lelewel with Estotiland, i 22. 

Capellari, Girolamo, author of the Campidoglit yenetu, 
>c*erred to by Zurla, 59, 63. 

Carraro, C, 50. See App. VI. 

" Carta da Navegar," Zeno's, 6 ; adopted by Mercator ami 
Ortelius, 6 ; the younger Zeno's account of origin of, S, 
26 ; revised by Zeno for Ruscelli's edition of Ptclcms, 
27 ; copied in Molctius' Ptolemy, 27 ; its materials em- 
bodied in maps by Mercator and Ortelius, 28, 29 ; used 




General Index. 



by Frobisher, 19 ; generally regarded as authentic for 
nearly a hunared years, 39 ; dcteflion of unreliability 
of, and doubts and controversy about, 40- ;z ; destru£iive 
criticism of, by Professor Storm, 53; mischievous cffcfl 
of, ;6; fully considered, 98-124. 

Casali, Scipione, his work on Marcolini's press, 24, 4;. 
See App. VI. 

Casas, Bartolome dc las, his Historia de las InJiai, 66 ; 
reference to Frislanda in, 67, 68 ; reference not by 
Columbus, but by Las Casas, 109. See App. VI. 

Cellarius, Christonhorus, refers to A. Zeno's alleged 
visit to America, 4V See App. VI. 

Charlevoix, P. F. X. de, discredits the Zeno story, 44. 
See App. VI. 

Chiopgia, the date 1380, given as that of the departure of 
N. Zeno the elder from Venice, probably calculated 
from date of capture of, 61. 

Christopherson, Claude (Lyscandcr), his versified 
Danish Chronicle, 39. 

Christy, Miller, 30, 124, 139. See App. VI. 

Clavus, Claudiiu, saw pigmies captured in a leather boat, 
76, 77 ; his map of the North Atlantic, 100. See App. 
VI. under " Clavus " and " Storm." 

Clowes, William Laird, 55. See App. VI. 

Cluverius, Philip, refers to Frisland, 43 ; says Frisland 
belongs to England, 68. See App. VI. 

Columbus, Christopher, 32, 38, 45, 48, 53, 54, 64, 6;, 
66, 67, 68, 78, 81, 83, 84, 108, 109, 115, 131, 132, 
151, 152, 153, 156. 

Columbus, Ferdinand, The biography of Christopher 
Columbus (1571) attributed to, considered and con- 
demned as a work of doubtful authenticity, and unreli- 
able, 64, 65, 66; the passage referring to Frislanda, 
not by Christopher Columbus, but by Las Casas, 67, 
68, 109. S^f App. VI. 

Connell, on S;. Kilda, 89. 5c? App. VL 

Coronelli, Padre, globe dated 1688 by, 42 ; his Isolario, 
,4.3 ; doubts the Zeno story. 45. See App. VI. 

Cosa, Juan dc la. The name on La Cosa's map of I 500, 
read by Humboldt and others as "Frislanda," is really 
" Stillanda," 64, 106-109, ' 5^- 

Costa, Rev. B. F. de, his claim that Bordone knew the 
Zeno map as early as 1521 refuted, 102, 103. 

Crantz, David, doubts the authenticity of the Zeno story, 

Crolandia, that part of Engroncland (Greenland) said to 
have been visited by Nicol6 Zeno the elder, 22 ; called 
Grolanda on the map, ibid. 

Cuba, the younger Zeno's description of Estotiianda drawn 
partly from accounts of, 80, 81. 

Cunala, Cape, the Gamola, Grimola, ard Gamaloia of maps 
earlier than 1558, 117. 

Daedalus, king of Scotland, 19, 69, 83, 87. 120 ; father 
of Icarus, king of Icaria, 19, 69; name and story 
borrowed from Bordone's Isolario, 83 ; Major's opinion 
upon, 87 J kings of Icaria at end of fourteenth century 
his descendants, according to Zeno, 120. 

Damberc, Island of (Danbert on map), 11,71; is Hamna, 
Shetland Isles, 102. 

Danbert. See Damberc. 

Davis, John, mentions Estotiland, 38, 40 ; deceived by 
Zeno's work, 56. 

Davis's Straits, Estotiland on, according to Mothe le Vayer, 

Davity, Sieur Pierre, accepts the Zeno story as true, 36. 

De Bry. Sec Bry, de. 

De Costa. See Costa, de. 

Dee, Doflor John, his Private Diary, 30 ; his Map, dated 
1580, 31, 68. 

De Laet. See Laet, dc. 

De I'Isle. See Isle, de 1*. 

Denmark, alleged trade with Zeno's Frislanda, 10, 40, 70 ; 
Zeno's "Dania" follows Tramezini's map of 1558, 104, 
105; Zeno's latitude of, erroneous, 116; bears the 
name I sola Islandia on Fra Mauro's map, 1459, 118. 

Desccllier or Desccliers, Pierre, 1 1 7, 1 23. See App. VI. 

Desimoni, Comelio, 51, 113. See App. VI. 

Donis, Nicolaus, loi, 102. See App. VI. 

Dorgio, Drogeo so called by Luke Fox, 38. 

Drogeo. See Drogio. 

Drogio (Drogeo on map), Zeno's description of, 16-18; 
Antonio Zeno's lost history of, 22, 25, 91 ; not known 
before Zeno mentioned it, 26 ; identified by Mcrcator 
and Ortelius with the island Dus Cirnes 29 ; shown on 
MoUineux's globe as part of Labrador, 32; Antonio 
Zeno failed to find, 61 ; Zeno's description of, taken 
from earlier accounts of South America, and of His- 
paniola, 80, 81 ; narrative of, does not tally with map, 
84 ; Zichmni did not reach, 97 ; identified by J. R. 
Forster with Florid?, by Zurla with Canada, New 
England, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Florida ; by 
Walckenaer with Southern Ireland or with a distri^ 
near Drogheda; by Lciewel and Maltebrun with Nova 
Scotia and New England, 123 ; possible origin of name, 
1 2 J.. 

Dudley, Robert, 43, 124. See App. VI. 

Dus Cirnes, identified with Zeno's Drogeo by Mercator 
(1569) and Ortelius, 29; with Orteland by Dr. Dee 
(i;8o), 31 ; note on, 123, 124. 

Edmonston, Dr. A., 47. See App. VI. 

Edrisi, an island called Reilatid shown on his maps of 
1154, 105. See App. VI. 

Egede, Hans, does not accept the Zeno story, 44. 

Eggers, H. P. von, identifies Frisland with the Faroes, 
46, 115, 116; identifies Zeno's seven islands east of 
Iceland with parts of Iceland itself, 73, 102. See 
App. V. & VI. 

Elton, Charles I., 54. See App. VI. 

England, Nicol6 Zeno's intention to visit England, 7 ; 
alleged trade of Frisland with, 10, 40, 70; annual 
Venetian Government voyages to, 62 »., 63 ; Ortelius, 
Cluverius, and Dr. Dee assign Frisland to, 68. 

Engroneland. See Greenland. 

Engroveland. See Greenland. 

Eslanda. See Estlanda. 

Estlanda (Shetland Isles), written Eslanda on title and sub- 
title, 3, 5, 6 ; attacked by Zichmni, 10, 71 ; confused by 
Zeno the younger with Islanda (Iceland), 11 »., 72; 
names of the seven islands placed by Zeno off east of Ice- 
land borrowed from, 73, 102, 118; Lafreri's map of, 
119; Zeno's, identified by Walckenaer with Estotiianda, 
which he thought to be the north of Scotland, 122. 

Estotiianda, Frisland fisherman's story of, 15; Zichmni's 
unsuccessful voyage in search of, 18 ; Antonio Zeno's lost 
book upon, 22, z; ; name first introduced by Zeno the 
younger, 26; Mercator first to show the name, on 
America, 28 ; Dr. Dee declares Queen Elizabeth's title 
to, and suggests that King Arthur possessed, 30, 3 1 ; 
identified by Van der Aa with Labrador, New England, 
and Canada, 43 ; its existence doubted by Charlevoix, 
44 ; and by Martinidre, 45 ; Antonio Zeno failed to find, 
according to the narrative, 61 ; the younger Zeno's 
description of, drawn from accounts of Mexico and the 
greater Antilles, 80, 84; origins of Zeno's map of, 121 ; 

General Index. 


identified by various writers with Tyle (Thule); the north 
ot'Scotland; Newfoundland or Winland; Labrador; and 
Cape Breton or Anticosti, 122; Maltebrun derives the 
name, from East-out-land i Bcauvois from clerical error 
for EiticilanJ, uz. 

Fair Isle, Zcno's Neome piobably represents, 69. 

Fara, Fcra, or Fcrasland, a small island in the Orkneys 
with which Forster identifies Frisland, 114. 

Faroes, The, Buache and Eggers identify F- islanda with, 46 ; 
Maltebrun, Zarhtmann, Major, and others do the like, 
n 5 ; seven names only on Zeno's Frisland taken from, 
116; Frisland does not resemble, 117; Zeno's Frislanda 
compounded from earlier riiaps of Iceland and, 1 18, I $6. 

Filiasi, Conte L'Anorirjo, 46. See App. VI. 

Fiske, John, 54, 95. See App. VI. 

Fixlanda (Iceland), III, 113, 11;, 116, 117, 1 1 8. 

Flanders, Nicol6 Zeno the elder's intention to visit, 7; 
alleged trade with Frisland, 10, 40, 70; annual Venetian 
Government voyages to, 6z. 

Florida, Forster and Zurla identify Estotilanda partly 
with, 123. 

Fordun, I. de, 88, 94. See App. VI. 

Formaleone, Vinccnzo, 45. See App. VI. 

I'Orster, John Rcinho)d, his identification of Zichmni 
with Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, 46 ; founded on 
date proved to be wrong by Zurla, 61 ; identifies Icaria 
with Kerry, 86, 94 ; identifies Estotiland w'th Newfound- 
land or Winland, 122; and Drogco with Florida, 123. 
Sec App. V. & VI. 

Foscarini, Marco, 45. See App. VI. 

Foula, Island of, Erizzo identifies Neome witn, 50; Porlanda 
probably represents, 69. 

Fox, Luke, 37. See App. VI. 

Frislanda (Fris'.and on map), Nicol6 Zeno wrecked on, 7 ; 
belonged to the King of Norway, 8 ; conquered by 
Zichmni, 9; Amnio Zeno joins Nicol6 in, 10 ; Nicol6 
dies in, i;; Antonio's lost book on, 22, 2;, 91 ; Green- 
land mistaken by Frobisher for, 40 ; Buache and 
Eggers idenrify, with the Faroes, 46; O'Reilly idenrifies, 
with Buss Island, 48 ; Krarup, with North Friesland, ; I ; 
Steenstrup, with Iceland, 52; Kretschmer thinks, copied 
fron. earlier maps, ;; ; mentioned in Las Casas' Historia 
de las Indias, and in Life of Christopher Columbus, (l 571), 
66, 67 ; stated to have been larger than Ireland, 70 ; 
story of the fisherman of, 78-84; conquest by Zichmni, 
93; the name Stilandaon the Andrea Bianco map, 1436, 
misread by Zurla, and on the La Cosa map, 1 500, by 
Humboldt and others, as, 106, 107 ; not on the La Cosa 
map, 109 ; Christopher Columbus not acquainted with the 
name of, 1 09; name of, first appears on Cantino map, 
(l $02), 109; supposed by some to have been submerged, 
114; identified by Forster partly with Fera, Orkneys, 
partly with the Faroes, and partly with the Hebrides, 1 14 ; 
compared with Iceland, 117-I19; compounded by Zeno 
from earlier maps of Iceland and the Faroes, 118; sup- 
posed by some to have been identical with the Island of 
Buss, 126; no record of, in the annals of Iceland and 
Norway, 154; no such island ever existed, 156. 

Frislanda, King of. See Zichmni. 

Frisland. See Frislanda. 

Frixlanda (Iceland), 113, 11;, ll£. 
Frobisher, Martin, mistakes Greenland for Frisland, 29; 
30, 32; used Zeno's map, 29; misled by Zeno's map, 
56; Buss Island supposed to have been discovered during 
third voyage of, Iz6, 128. 

Gaffarel, Paul, 51-54, 133, 152. S« App. VI. 
Gastaldi, J., 27, loi. See App. VI. 

Gataro, Andrea, 63. Se^ App. VI. 

Gerritsz, Hessel, his map, 35. See App. VI. 

Giustiniano, Agosrino, short life of Christopher Colum- 
bus by, 65, 66; his Annals of Genoa, 65, 66. 

Gomara, Francisco Lopez de, 79. See App. VI. 

G008, Abraham, 36. See App. VI. 

Gosch, C. C. A., 139. See App. VL 

Graah, Lieut. W. A., 48, 49, 131. See App. VI. 

Greenland (Engroneland), Zeno's description of East, ic- 
15; Estotiland's trade with, 16; Antonio Zeno's visit to 
South, 18; his book on Zichmni's discoveries in, 22, 
25, 91 ; insular character of only recently determined 
by Peary, z6 ; Dr. Dee alleges Queen Elizabeth's ritlc 
to, 30; and King Arthur's conquest of, 31 ; named 
West England by Frobisher, 32 ; Zeno's account of 
gardens in, derided by Arngrim Jonas, 41 ; voyage of 
Nicol6 Zeno to, considered, 71-77; dwarfs of, 83; 
Antonio Zeno's visit to, considered, 89, 90 ; private 
property of the Danish Crown, 96 ; latitude of south 
point of, 116 ; mistaken by Frobisher for Frisland, 138; 
Zeno's account of untrue, 1 56. 

Grey, Charles, 5. See App. VL 

Grislanda, 10, li, 34, 71, 114, 115. 

Grolanda, the portion of Engronelanda (Greenland) said 
to have been vi>.;ed by Nicol6 Zeno the elder, 22. 

Grotius, Hugo, 38, 146. See App. VI. 

Gryneeus, Simon, 78, 1 1 1. See App. VI. 

Guardiis InsuKt, this name added in revised edition 
(Ruscelli's) of Zeno's map, 27. 

Hakluyt (Richard), II, 12, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 37, 41, 

60, 61, 126, 127. See Af^. VI. 
Hall, James, 35, 56, I27, 131, 133. 
Halliwell, J. O., 30. See App. VI. 
Hain^, Dr. E. T., 121. See App. VI. 
Harnsse, Henry, 48, 54, 65, 66, 67, 109, in, 123. Sec 

App. VI. 
Hayiti, N. F., 28, 63. See App. VI. 
Hebrides, The, Forster identifies Frisland partly with, 

Hclleland, H. P. Rescn identifies Estotiland with, 122. 
Hirt (Hirta, Hirth, Hirtha, Hyrtha, and Irte), Island of. 

See St. Kilda. 
Hispaniola, Zeno's descriptions of Estorilanda and Drogio 

partly taken from earlier accounts of, 80, 8! ; Gaffarel 's 

oversight as to this fa^ 1 1 5. 
Hoieus, Franciscus, 38. See App. VI. 
Holen, Gastaldi places, with Skalholt, on both Iceland and 

Greenland, loi. 
Homem, Diego, 117. See App. VI. 
Hondius, Jodocus, 28. 
Hopdi, on Thoriaksen's Iceland, the "Abde" of Zcno'- 

Frisland, 117. 
Hot Springs, the elder Nicol6 Zeno's account of, 11, 12 ; 

their use for cooking and heating purposes, ib.i none hot 

enough for cooking now known in Greenland, 73 ; such 

did exist in Iceland before Zeno's time and now, 74; 

sources of Zeno's accounts of, 74, 75. 
Hulsius, Levinus, 35. See App. VI. 
Humboldt, Baron von, his remarks on the Zeno story, 49, 

92, 98 ; misread the name Stillanda on the La Cosa map, 

1500, as Frislanda, 106 ; rot convinced as to the truth 

of the Zeno story, i 54. 
Hyggeden, Ranulfus de, 105. See App. VI. 

Icaria, discovery of, by Zichmni and A. Zeno, 19; it? 
kings called Icarus after the first king, a son of Daedalus, 
king of Scotland, 19 ; peculiar laws and customs of, 19; 


1. i'' 




General Index. 

i ! 


hostility of its inhabitants, zo ; Erizzo identifies, with 
the Sunken Land of Buss, ;o j Major with Kerry, 70 ».; 
Terra Rossa on, 85 ; Forster identifies, with Kerry, 86 j 
Major's explanation of Zeno's introduction of this "one 
piece of fable," 87 ; the Icaria of Zeno's map probably 
Hirta (St. Kilda), 88 ; rcsemblanr'- between customs of 
the Icarians of the narrative and the St. Kildians, 89 ; 
mendacity and impudence of the younger Zeno in 
importing, from the i£geap Sea and introducing the 
classic legend, 119, 120 ; idcntifu-d by Walckenacr wi'h 
the V\c of Skye, 120; Beauvois thought Zeno's '''stoti- 
land identical with, 122. 

Icarus, kings of Icaria called, after the first king, son of 
Dsedalus, king of Scotland, 19. 

Iceland (Islanda), Zichmni withdraws from attack on, 
because it was fortified and prepared for defence, 1 1 ; 
Estotiland smaller than, 16; Antonio Zeno's lost book 
upon, 22, 2;, 91 ; Blefkcn's libel upon, 36; Arngrim 
Jonas a native of and writer upon, 41 ; Steenstrup 
identifies Frisland with, $2; Arngrim Jonas's contra- 
di^ions of Zeno's statements as to, 72 ; description of 
Nicol6 Zeno's Engronelanda inapplicable to Greenland, 
applies fairly well to, 73; volcanoes and hot springs in, 
7+1 75i 77; private property of Danish sovereigns, 96 ; 
Zeno's importation of the Shetlands on to east coast of, 
102 ; called Fislanda on map of I ;o8, ill; called Fix- 
landa in early Catalan and other maps, III, 112; Steen- 
strup believed the names Wrislanda, Grislanda, Frislanda, 
and Resliinda, all to be variants of the name Islanda, 11$; 
Irminger identifies Frisland with, 119; Olaus Magnus 
identifies, with Ultim/i Thule, izl ; Frisland compounded 
by Zeno from earlier maps of, and of the Faroes, 156. 

Ilofe, Island of, 9, 18, zl, 34, 64, 69, 70. 

Inestol. Set Sanestol. 

Ireland, Frislanda much larger than, 9, 40, 119; Major 
identifies Icaria with Kerry in, 70 ; Walckenaer identifies 
Fi island with North and West, 11;; called Scocia^\xx\n% 
the middle ages, 122 ; Walckenaer identifies Drogeowith 
South, or with a district near Droghcda in, 123. 

Irminger, Admiral, 51, 69, 75 ; identifies Frisland with 
Iceland, 11 5-1 17, 119. 5« App. VI. 

Irving, Washington, 48, 131, 132. Set App. VI. 

Iscant, Island of, 11, 71 ; is Unst, Shetlands, 102. 

Islanda. See Iceland. 

Isle, Guillaume de 1', 43, 107, 114, 127, 130, 131. See 
App. VI. 

Isols Solan, on Fra Mauro's map, 1459, 69. 

James, Capt. Thomas, 38. See App. VI. 

Jansonnius, Job., 36. See App. VI. 

Jomard, Edmd Fran9ois, 106, 108. See App. VI. 

Jonas, Arngrim, 36, 37, 41, 72 ; refutes Blefken, 36; a 
native and historian of Iceland, 41 ; refutes Zeno's 
statements about Iceland, 72. See App. VI. 

Kalm, Peter, 44. 

Kaufmann, Gerard (Mercator), 6, 28, 29, 35, 36, 40, 

41, 42, 69, 70, 88, 89, 102, 104, III, 116, 117, 118, 

119, 120, 123, 124, 145, 152. 5ff App. VI. 
Kerr, Robert, 47. See App. VI. 
Kerry, Forster and Major identify Icaria with, 70, 86, 87, 

88, 120. 
Keulen, Van, 43, 114, 131. See App. VI. 
Krarup, Fr., 51, 97. See App. VI. 
Kretschmer, Dr. Konrad, 54, io6, 108, 113, 117, 123. 

See App. VI. 
Kunstmann, F., iii, 121. 5«App. VI. 

Labrador, 39, 42, 43, 48, loz, ill, 121, izz, 124, 138; 
Drogco part of, on Mollinjux's globe, I $92, 3a ; 
Estotiland is according to Wytfliet, 34 ; Bordone's Green- 
land marked, 39 (map) ; Estotiland, on Coronelli's globe 
and Van der Aa's map identified with, 43 ; De Costa 
on Bordone's map of, 102; Zeno's Estotiland and Drogeo 
on his map taken from early maps of, izi ; Zuria 
identified Estotiland with, 122; Dragoa on, on map in 
Dudley's Areana del Mare, 124. 

Laet, De, Joannes, doubts the Zeno story, 38. 

Lafreri Atlas, maps in, 88, 89, 1 14, 1 19. Set Plates V., 
IX. and X. 

Langle, Admiral de, 136. See App. VI. 

Lardner, Dr. 47. 

Las Casas. See Casas. 

Ledovo, Island of, 9, 18, 21, 34, 64; pt.'.iaps LiJerovo of 
A. Bianco map, i;'8, 69; Major identifioj with Lille 
Dimon, Faroes, 69. 

Lelewel, Joachim, 50, 73, 102, 10;, 106, 108, izz, IZ3; 
his chapter on the Zeno map, 50 ; treats Zeno's seven 
Icelandic islands as parts of Iceland, 73, loz; misread 
Stillanda on La Cosa map, i;oo, as Frislanda, 106, 108; 
identifies Estotiland with Cape Breton or Anticotti, 
122 ; and Dro;;; with Nova Scotia and New England, 123. 

Lesley, Bishop, 88. Set App. VI. 

Lidcrovo. See Ledovo. 

Lille Dimon, Faroes, Major identifier, with Zeno's Ledovo, 

Linschoten, Jan Huygen van, 34^ 35. Set App. VI. 

Lok, Michael, his map of 1380, 31 »., 32, 83, 123, 147. 
See Plate XV. 

Lucas, Joseph, 44. See App. VI. 

Lyscander. See Christopherson, Claude. 

Mac.:nlay, Rev. Kenneth, his History of St. Kilda, 88. 
See App. VI. and Plate XVIU. 

Mackenzie, Sir George Stuart, 72, 90. Set App. VI. 

Magini, Giovanni Antonio, 37. See App. VI. 

Magnus, Olaus, 12 ». ; makes no mention of the Zeni or 
their voyages in his works on the Northern Regions, 30 ; 
his map of 1 539, lost when Zarhtmann and Major wrote, 
51 ; a copy discovered in 1886, 53 ; his books and map 
used by Zeno, 72-77, 81, 87, 90, 92, 102, 103, 104, 
11;, 118, 119, i;3, 156; his maps of 1555 and 1567 
quite different from that of 1539, 103 ; Tile on his map 
of 1539, 120, 121; reprodutUon of his map of 155;, 
140. See App. IV. ic VI. and Plate IV. 

Mainland, Shetland. See Mimant. 

Major, R. H., his book on the voyages of the Zeni, 50 ; 
the standard work upon the subje^ ;i ; his attempted 
explanation of the error in date given by the younger 
Zeno, 60, 61; his phonetic theory, 69, 70 ; his attempted 
explanation of Zeno's monastery in Engroneland, 77 ; 
the " one piece of fable in the whole story " admitted 
by, and attempted explanation by, 87; his curious notion 
of "twofold testimony," 90; his method of accounting 
for the younger Zeno's inaccuracies, 144; his phonetic 
theory beyond the bounds of probability, 151. See also 
App. V. and VI. 

Maldonado, Lorenzo Ferrer, Frisland mentioned in 
account of apocryphal voyage of, 33, 147. Set App. VI., 
under Amoretti. 

Maltebrun, Conrad, 48, 94, 97, loi, 114, 115, 122, 
123. SwApp. V. &VI. 

Marcolilli, Francesco, publisher of the Zeno Annals, 3, 
24 ; dedication by, 3 ; not the author of the Annals, 44 ; 
his character, 2;; assisted Zeno in concodUng his map, 
104, 121, 151; his appropriate motto, 157. 

. V 

General Index. 


Marjaret, Queen of Norway, 94, 

Markham, [Sir] Clements R., 33, 54, 5;, 68. 

Martin, M., 88, 89. See App. VI. 

Martinidre, A. A. Bruzen de la, 4;. Set App. VI. 

Martyr, Peter, 78, 81, 83. Set App. Vi. 

Maurer, Professor Konrad, ;o. See App. VI. 

Mauro, Fra,69, 106, 111, 118, 154. ^m App. IV. & VI. 
and Plate I. 

Megisser, Hieronymus, 12, j6. See App, VI. 

Mercator. See Kaufmann, Gerard. 

Mexico, Zeno's description of Estotilanda taken from 
earlier accounts of, 80, 81, 84, 

Milton, John. See App. VI., No. 16;. 

Mimant, Island of, 1 1, 36, 71 ; is Mainland, Shetland Isles, 

Moletius, Jos,, the first definitely to attribute the author- 
ship of th(. Annals to Nicol6 Zeno, 24 n. ; reproduces 
Zeno's revised map, 27. 

Mollineux (Molineux or Molyncux), Emmerie, his <>lobe 
of I ;9X, 32 ; his (or Wright's) map of 1 599, 33 ; sl.ows 
Neva Framia Droget on continent of America on his globe, 
124 ; shows Buss Island and Frisland on his globe, 127. 

Monachus or Monaco, ;2, 116, 119. 

Montalboddo, Fra da, 83. See App. VI. 

Moutanus, Arnoldus, 4.1. Set App. VI. 

Morelli, D. J., 46. See App. VI. 

Moicri, Louis, 43. See App, VI. 

Morisot, Claude Barthdicmi, 44, See App. VI, 

Mothe le Vayer. See Vaycr, La Mothe le. 

Miiller, Frederick, 31, 36, 38, 124. See App. VL 

Milnster, Sebastian, 33, 34, loi. 5^; App. VI. 

Muratori, L. A,, 63, See App. VL 

Myritius, Joannis, 34, See App, VI. 

Kansen, Fridtjof, 136, 137. 5/^ App. VL 

Neome, Island of, 22, 31, 34 ; Erizzo identifies Foula with, 
50 ; probably represents Fair Is!e, 69, 90, ■ 1 3, 

Newfoundland, Zuria identifies Icaria with, 86, 87, 120 ; 
Forster, Maltcbrun, and Beauvois identify Estotiland 
with, 122. 

Nielson, Christen, fails to find Frisland, 40. 

Niger, Nicolaus. See Clavus, Claudius. 

Nodiford, on Ixilanda of Fra Mauro's map, 1459, Zurla 
thought to be Zeno's Andefort, 106. 

Nordenskjold, Baron A. E,, maps in his Facsimile Atlas 
referred to, 31 n., 33 n., 34 »., 35 ». ; the Zamoiski 
map discovered by, 49, 99 ; rhrec maps in Florence 
libraries reproduced by, 51, 100 j his opinion on the 
Zeno map, ;2 ; mistaken in thinking Olaus Magnus 
maps of 1539 and 1567 identical, 103; fifteenth century 
Catalan map reproduced by, in. See App. VI. 

Norderdahl, Major thinks this name transmuted by Vene- 
tians into Bondendon, 70, 151. 

Nordero, 116, 119. 

No'fh r'riesland, Krarup identifies Zeno's Frisland with 
Schleswig or, 51; Stcensrup thinks the Zcni brothers 
went no further than South Jutland or, 52. 

North Frisland. See North Friesland. 

Norway, 10, 13, 14, 22, 25, 40, 70, 74, 91, 94, 96, loi, 
103, 104, 105, 116, 138, 149, 154. 

Norway, King of, 8, 10, 1 1, 68, 71, 9^, 

Nova Francia Drogeo, marked on Molliiieux's globe, 1592, 
on North America, 1 24, 

Nova Scotia, Maltebrun identifies Drogeo with New 
England and, 123. 

Ocibar, is Orebakkc, Iceland, or the Orbaca of Diego 
Homem's map of 1558, 117. 

Oj'ilby, John, 41. Set App. VI. 

Olufsen and Povelscn, 90. Stt App. VL 

Oliva, Ferdinand Perez de, hit manuscript Life of 

Columbus, 66, 67. 
Olives, Bartolomco, map by, dated IS59, referred to by 

Zurla, 1 1 3 /r. 
Olives, Jaume, dates of maps by, 113 n. 
Orbaca. Stt Ocibar. 
Orebakke. Stt Ocibar. 

O'Reilly, Ber.iard, 48, 114, 130, 131, 148. Stt App. ^'I. 
Ortelius, Abraham, 6, 28, iq, 32, 34, 37,42, 46, 60, 61, 

68, 88, 120, 123, 14;, 152, Stt App, VI, 
Oviedo, Gonzalo Hernandez de, 66. Stt App. VL 

Parry, Sir Edward, ;ti. Set App. VI. 

Pennant, Thomas, 46, yo. See App. VI, 

Pennsylvania, Zurla identifies Drogeo partly with, 123, 

Peyrere, J. de la, 38, See App, VI. 

Pickersgill, Lieut. Richard, 1 30. See App. VI. 

Pigiu, or Piglu, is Siglu of Thorlaksen's map of Iceland, 

'595. H7- 
Pingri, Alex. Gui., 1 14, 131. Set App, VI, 
Pitt, Moses, 41. Stt App, VI. 
Pizigani, Francesco and Marco, 108, Stt App, VL 
Plancius, Peter, 34, 1 27, See App. VI. 
Podanda, or Podalida, 31, 34, 113. 
Pontanus, Joh. Isaac, 12, 13, 37, 72, 94, 95, 96. See 

App, VI, 
Porcacchi da Castiglione, Thomaso, 30, Set App.V I. 
Porlanda, Islands of, 8, 64, 69, 93, 113, 114. 
Porlanda, town on Frisl!>~id, is Portland in Iceland, 1 1 7, 
Prowse, Judge D. W. See App, VI, 
Prowse, G, R, F,, in no:e on Dus Cirnes, 123 n. 
Prunes, Matthew, 69, 112 (Fig, 8), 1 1 3, 1 1 5, 1 1 7, See 

App, v.. 
Ptolemy, Claudius, 67, 68, 86, 99, 100, lol, in, 114, 

120, 121, 157, See App, VI, 
Purchas, Samuel, 35, 36, 37, 127, 128, 133, 147. See 

App. VI. 

Quad, Matthias, 3;. See App. VL 
Quirino, Francesco, 63. See App. VI. 

Raceueit, 104. 

Raemdonck, Dr., 88, 120, Set App, VL 

Ramusio, Gio. Batt'sta, 5, 28, 31-45, J9, 154. See 
App. VI. 

Rascicotti, 31, 124. 

Redusio, Andrea, 63. See App. VI. 

Resen, H. P., 35, 122. See App. VI. 

Rink, Dr., 1 3. See App. VL 

Roberts, Lewes, 68, See App, VI. 

Rodea or Rovea, is Roverhavn, Iceland, 1 17. 

Ross, Sir John, 131. See App, VI. 

Ruscelli, Girolamo, Zeno's map, revised by him, given in 
Ruscelli's edition of Ptolemy, 1 561, 5 »., 27, 104, 114, 
117, 152, 1 56. Se' App, V, & VI, and Plate XII. 

Ruysch's Map, 26 n. 

Sabellico, Marcantonio, 63. See App. VI. 

St. Brandan, Island of, 12;, 131, 132. 

St. Kilda, Island of, 88, 89, 120, izi, 12;. 

St. Ronans. See Trans. 

Saint Thomas, Monastery of, 4, 11, 14, 29, 34, 36, 38, 39,,77.99. "". «55- 
Sancstol, 9, 64, 69, 117. 

Santarem, Vicomte de, 137, 108. See App. VI. 
Sanuto, Livio, 34. See A^p. VI. 



•' M 



General Index. 


Sanuto, Marin (the younger), 63. S(e App. VI, 

Schedel, Hartmann, 101. S'r App. VF. 

Schlcswig, Krariip identities FriiUnda with North FrietUnd 

or Schleswig, 51. 
Schtiner, Johann, 76, 77, ill. See App. VI. 
Schonladia Nuova, 17, 101. See Plate VI, 
Scocia, old name for Ireland, 112, 
Scoreaby, Dr. William, 135, 136. lee App, VI. 
Seller, John, 42, 127, 128, 129, 130. .9« App. VI. 
Senckler. See Sinclair, Henry. 
Shetland Isles. See Estlanda, Eslanda, Islande. 
Sialanda, 108, 109. 
Siggens, Henri de, Krarup identifies Zichiani with, ||2, 

Simon or Sigmund, son of Bui, BredsdoriF identifies 

Zichmni with, 97. 
Sinclair, Henry, ist Earl of Orkney, Forstcr identifies 

2ichmni with, 46, 94 j Maltehrun, Major, !ind fhers 

follow Forster's identificati t urj 94; Zurla differs, 94 ; 

objei^ions to 'jrstet's identification, 94-97; Zichmni 

not identical with, 156. 
Sinclair, Thomas, 54, 97. See App. VI. 
Sinclsr. See Sinc'.air, Henry. 
SKalholt, Gastaldi places on both Iceland and Greenland, 

191. See Plate VI. 
Skye, Isle of, Walckenaer iden 'es Icaria with, I to. 
Soianda, the Soraitd of the Zen lUap, 69. 
Sorand and Sorano. See Sori'it. 
Sorant (Sorand on map, S'lrpiio in text). Duchy of, 8, 34, 

64, 69, 93 ; is Strand, Icclai/^, 1 17. 
South America, Zcnn took his descrtp ions of Estotiland 

and Drogco partly from earlier accounts of, 80, 81. 
South Jutland, Steenstrup thought that the Zcni went no 

further than North frisland or, 52. 
Spagia, a distortion of Portuguese word Eipraya, 1 13. 
Speed, John, 42. See App. VI 
Stanley, Lord, of Aldcrlcy, 5. 
Steenstrup, K. J. V., 35, 51, 

App. VI. 
Stephanius, Sigurdus, 29, 142. 
Stillanda ind Siilanda, misread as 

StoVm. Professor Gustav, 40, 4 

lo^.. See App. VI. 
Stremc, 1 16, 1 19. 
Sturlasson, Snorre, 75, 76. 
Sudero, 64, 70, 116, 119. 
Sylvanus, Bcmardus, 121. See App. VI. 

Talas, Island of, 11, 71 ; is Yell, Shetlands, 102. 

Terra Rossa, Padre Dottorc Vitale, 38, 42, 50, 85, 86, 

114, 144, 152, 156. See App. VI. 
Thomas, Captain, 88, 89. See App. VI. 
Thorlacius, Gudbrand, 36, 41, 117. See App. VI. 
Tiraboschi, Gir-;larao, 45, 47. See App. VI. 
Torfseus, Thormodus, 29, 3'), 43, 94, 142. See A .1, 

Tramezini, Michael, his maps. 104, 105. See App. ^'I. 

and PI. VIII. 
Trans, Island of, I '. 71 ; is St. Konans, Shetland, 102. 
Treadon, 1 3, 74. 
Trin, Capo di, 21, 34, 90. 
Troil, Uno von, 75 a. See App. VI. 

Uzielli, Gu:tav, 113. See App. VI. 

Vallejo and Traynor, io5. See App. VI. 
Vayer, La Mothe le, credits Antonio Zeno with 
discovery of America in 1390, 38. 

See App. VI. 

52, 115, 116, 117. 


See App. VI. 
Frislanda, 64, 106, 107, 

'. 52. 53. 73- 87, 100, 

Veer, Gerrit dc, 3 5. See App. VI. 

Venetian Government, Annual Voyages under. A " NicolA 
Zeno" commander of the galleys on the Flanders voyage 
in 138;, 62 ; stringent regulations of conduit of, 62, 63, 

Vespiicci, Amerign, 38, 45, 78, 82, 83, 84, 153. See 
App. VI. 

Vcstrabord, 102. 

Vidil, Cape, is l^aJil ot f^eiJi/eisa, Iceland, 1 1 7. 

Virginia, Zuria partly identifies Drogeo with, 123. 

Visscher, N., 42, 43. 

Volcanoes in Greenland, the elder Nicol6 Zeno's account 
of, II; Antonio Zeno's account of, 21 ; no existing, 
90 ; no record of former existence of any, 90. 

Walckenaer, Baron, identifies Frisland with North and 
West Ireland, 115 ; Icaria with the Isle "f Skye, 1 20; 
Estotiland with the Estland of the Zeai, tvhich he held 
to be North Scotland, 12a ; and Drogeo with the South 
of Ireland or, alternatively, with a di3trii^> near Drogheda, 
I2J. See App. VI. 

West England, 26, 29 ; the name given by Frobisher to the 
part c*" Greenland which he mistook for Zeno's Frisland, 

yj. 3»- 

West Frislanda, or West Frisland. Sr vVest England. 
West India Islands, Zeno borrows trom early accounts of, 

White Sea, Krarup tak.;s the brothers Zeni to, 51. 
Wiars, Thomas, his account of Buss Island, 1 26. 
Wichmsinus, 96, 97. 
Wieser, I'rofcssor F. R. von, 100. 
Wilson, H. W., suspends judgment as to truth of the 

Zeno voyages, 55. 
Winland, Forstcr identifies Estotiland with, 122. 
Winsor, Justin, 33, ^4. See App. VI, 
Wright, Edward, 33. See App. VI. 
Wright, Thomas, 132. 5f^ App. VI. 
Wrislad, Island of, 105. 
Wrislanda, 1 15. 
Wytflict, Cornelius, 34, 37. See App. VI. 

Zabarella, Giacomo, 63. See App. VI. 

Zaccaria, Gaotano, 25. See App. VI. 

Ztmoiski Map, the, 49, 51, 52, 53, 55, 99, 100, loi, 
104. See App. VI. 

Zarhtmann, Admiral C. C, z8, 49, ;o, 51, ;4, 97, 99, 
102, 103, 115. See App. VI. 

Zeno, Antonio, joins his brother Nicol6 in Fris/aitJa, 10 ; 
stays there fourteen years, 10 j on Nicol6's death suc- 
ceeds to his riches and honours, 1 5 ; tells the Frisland 
r..herman's story in a letter to his brother. Carlo Zeno, 
i;-i8; accompanies Zichmni on a voyage in search of 
Estoti/anJ, v/hkh they fail to find, 18-22; his account 
of IcarU, its king Icaru.,, • descendant of Dsdalus, 
king of Scotland, 19; his book describing various coun- 
tries, his Life of his brtlcr Nicol6 and his Life of 
Zichmni, 22; tht -■ bools and many other writings of, 
destroyed H^ l4icol6 Zen . the younger, in his youth 
and ignorance, 25, 27; Mothe ic Vaycr credits, with a 
pre-Columbian discoveiy of America, 38; Coronclli 
doubts the reality of Zeno's Fri:'and, 43; Cellarius 
refers to visit of, to America, 43 ; Marco Barbaro's state- 
ment that "by order of Zicno, King of Frislanda, went 
to America in 1390," at variance with the Zeno 
narrat'.e, 6i ; his report of thv. story of the Frisland 
fishcrma • considered and found to be a compilation by 
the younger Zeno from sources indicated, 7S-84; 
Zurla makes Icarin Newfoundland, and thus credits a 



i " NicoIA 

:rs voyage 


53. Set 

Kcr to the 
> Frisland, 

General Index. 


pre-Columbiin discovery of Americt to, H7 ; hi» 
account of Greenland considered, 90; his alii.£''d 
writing! not forthcoming, 149; his accounts of Green- 
land untrue, i ;6. 

Zeno, Carlo, Antonio Zcno's letters said to have been 
addressed to, 15, 18, 1.. 23, 63; life of, by Jacopo 
Zeno, 63, 7«, 91, 96, 14^, 150. 

Zeno, Catcrino, Ambassador of Persia, 4, ». I . 

Zeno, Caterino, son of Nicol6 the younger, 28. 

Zeno, Jacopo, Bishop nf Feltrc and Belluno, his Life of 
Carlo Zeno, 63. Ste App. VI. 

Zeno, Nicol6 (the elder), the voyage of, 7 ; wrecked on 
Frislanda, 7 ; rescued by Zichmni and taken into his 
service, 8, 9; made a knight, 10; joined by his brother 
Antonio, 10 j made captain of Zichrani's fleet, 10 j left 
at Bres, II; his expedition to Greenland, 1 1 ; his 
account of the monastery there and of the volcano and 
hot springs, ll-lji dies in Frisland, 1; ; Zurla on the 
identity of, 59; Zurla shows date 1380, assigned by 
Zeno the younger for commencement of voyage of, to 
be incorreil, 60; died before 1398, 61 1 a Nicol6 Zeno 
commanded the Ven' .lan Government voyage to Flanders 
in 1385, 62 ; the y> unger Zeno's account of voyage of, 
considered, 64-77; (ccount of Greenland untrue, 156. 

Zeno, Nicol6 (t'-e yomgcr), description of his book, 3-6; 
translation of his text, 6-23; Molctius states that the 
story was printed by, ,^4; personal notice of, 24; his 
(7wn account of the s6urccs of his narrative and map, 2;, 
26 ; his reputation as historian and geographer, 27 ; date 
1380 assigned by him as that of the voyage of NicoI6 
Zeno the elder proved to be false by Zurla, 61 ; 
probably calculated from date of fall of Chioggia, in 
1380, by, 61 ; some of his statements about Iceland 
refuted by Arngrim Jonas, 72, 73 ; probable origin of his 
seven Icelandic islands, 73 ; his blunder about the posi- 
tion of Bres, 73 ; his descriptions of Iceland and Green- 
land taken from the works of Olaus Magnus and 
Bordone, 74-77 ; his story of the Frisland fisherman 
pure fiftion, built up by, from sources indicated, 78-84; 
his importation of Icaria, with its well-known classic 
legend, from the i£gean into the Deucalidonian Sea, 
84 ; this part of his story stolen from Bordone, 87 ; 
the Icaria of his map, Hirta (St. Kilda), 88 ; his thefts 
from Olaus Magnus, 90, 92 j the sources of his " Carta 
da Navegar," 98-124; Gastaldi alsc confused Greenland 
with Iceland, lol ; guilty of a contemptible literary fraud, 
143; the eight principal arguments or excuses used by 

his upholders, 14^, 145; considered and answered, 14;- 
■ ;;; ten conclusions, \'i. 

Zeno, Family, pedigree of the, 5, 6, 59, App. III. 

/Sichmni, a prince, 8 ; spoke in Latin, 8 ; rescues NicolA 
Zeno, 8 ; a great lord, who possessed some islands called 
Porlanda, "the richest and most populous in all those 
parts," 8 i Duke of Sorano, 8 ; most famous in maritime 
affairs, 8; his viftory over the King of Norway, 8 ; his 
conquest of Frislanda and other islands, 9 ; makes Nicol6 
Zeno a knight, 10 j hi8atta;k on the Shetland Isles, 10 ; 
total loss of the King nf Norway's llect, 11; his expedi- 
tion against Iceland abandoned because he found the 
island so well fortified and furnished for i' fence, 11 ; 
resolved to make himself master of the sea, x 5 ; hears of 
Estotiland and Drogeo, and resolves to send Antonio Zeno 
there in command of a fleet, 1 8 ; decides to go in person, 
18; reaches /carM, whose king, Icarus, was descended 
from Daedalus, king of Scotland, 19; repulsed by the 
Icarians, 20; reaches the southern point ol Greenland, 
■nd founds a city there, 21, 22; his life by Antonio 
Zeno, 22 ; Mothe le Vayer calls him Zichinno, King of 
Frisland, 38; Moses Pitt calls him Zickmay, but considers 
the story of, a romance, 41 ; Fors'cr identifies him with 
Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, 46 ; Major, Elton, and 
Fiskc follow Forstcr's identification of, 54 ; Marco 
Barbaro calls him Zicno, King of Frisland, 61 ; Ortelius 
and Mercator • 'U him " King of Frisland," 69 ; un- 
known to histo. ns until introduced by Marco Barbaro, 
T3 ; objeflions to Forstcr's identification, and reasons for 
:'» rejeiAion, 94-97 ; Bredsdorfl^ identifies Simon or Sig- 
•■ ind, son of Bui, and nep^-.v of Sigmund Brcsterson, 
tne hero of the Kcercylriga Saga, with, 97 ; Krarup iden- 
tifies Henry dc Siggens, Marshal of the Duke of Holstein, 
with, 97 ; Bcauvois thinks the name Zicno given by 
Barbaro to be a misreading of the Scandinavian title 
7'^^^» = lord, 97 ; the only personal name mentioned in 
the story, except those of members of the Zeno family, 
ii;4 ; not identical with Henry Sinclair, i;6. 

""liegler, Jacob, 26, 76, iii. See App. VI. 

Zurla, D. Placido, his work on the Zeni, 24 ». ; proves 
the date, 1380, given in the Annals, to be wrong, 46; 
upholds the veracity of the narrative, 47 ; his inve liga- 
tions of the Zeno family history, 59, 63 ; rejefts Forstcr's 
identification of Zichmni with Sinclair, 94; thinks Fra 
Mauro's Ixilandia is Zeno's Friiland, 106; misreads 
Stilanda on Andrea Bianco's map of 1436 as Frislanda, 
105, 106. See also App. V. and VI. 





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